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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(17): 177201, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412280

RESUMO

Graphene can develop large magnetic moments in custom-crafted open-shell nanostructures such as triangulene, a triangular piece of graphene with zigzag edges. Current methods of engineering graphene nanosystems on surfaces succeeded in producing atomically precise open-shell structures, but demonstration of their net spin remains elusive to date. Here, we fabricate triangulenelike graphene systems and demonstrate that they possess a spin S=1 ground state. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy identifies the fingerprint of an underscreened S=1 Kondo state on these flakes at low temperatures, signaling the dominant ferromagnetic interactions between two spins. Combined with simulations based on the meanfield Hubbard model, we show that this S=1 π paramagnetism is robust and can be turned into an S=1/2 state by additional H atoms attached to the radical sites. Our results demonstrate that π paramagnetism of high-spin graphene flakes can survive on surfaces, opening the door to study the quantum behavior of interacting π spins in graphene systems.

2.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999431

RESUMO

The electronic properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) can be precisely tuned by chemical doping. Here we demonstrate that amino (NH2) functional groups attached at the edges of chiral GNRs (chGNRs) can efficiently gate the chGNRs and lead to the valence band (VB) depopulation on a metallic surface. The NH2-doped chGNRs are grown by on-surface synthesis on Au(111) using functionalized bianthracene precursors. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy resolves that the NH2 groups significantly upshift the bands of chGNRs, causing the Fermi level crossing of the VB onset of chGNRs. Through density functional theory simulations we confirm that the hole-doping behavior is due to an upward shift of the bands induced by the edge NH2 groups.

3.
Chemphyschem ; 20(18): 2305-2310, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328365

RESUMO

Within the collection of surface-supported reactions currently accessible for the production of extended molecular nanostructures under ultra-high vacuum, Ullmann coupling has been the most successful in the controlled formation of covalent single C-C bonds. Particularly advanced control of this synthetic tool has been obtained by means of hierarchical reactivity, commonly achieved by the use of different halogen atoms that consequently display distinct activation temperatures. Here we report on the site-selective reactivity of certain carbon-halogen bonds. We use precursor molecules halogenated with bromine atoms at two non-equivalent carbon atoms and found that the Ullmann coupling occurs on Au(111) with a remarkable predilection for one of the positions. Experimental evidence is provided by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and core level photoemission spectroscopy, and a rationalized understanding of the observed preference is obtained from density functional theory calculations.

4.
Chemistry ; 24(67): 17697-17700, 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324668

RESUMO

The synthesis of a threefold symmetric nanographene with 19 cata-fused benzene rings distributed within six branches is reported. This flat dendritic starphene, which is the largest unsubstituted cata-condensed PAH that has been obtained to date, was prepared in solution by means of a palladium-catalyzed aryne cyclotrimerization reaction and it was characterized on surface by scanning probe microscopy with atomic resolution.

5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(68): 9402-9405, 2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087965

RESUMO

We report the on-surface synthesis of graphene nanoribbon superlattice arrays directed by the herringbone reconstruction of the Au(111) surface. The uniaxial anisotropy of the zigzag pattern of the reconstruction defines a one dimensional grid for directing the Ullmann polymerization and inducing periodic arrays of parallel ultra-long nanoribbons (>100 nm), where the periodicity is varied with coverage at discrete values following a hierarchical templating behavior.

6.
Science ; 360(6385): 199-203, 2018 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29650671

RESUMO

Nanosize pores can turn semimetallic graphene into a semiconductor and, from being impermeable, into the most efficient molecular-sieve membrane. However, scaling the pores down to the nanometer, while fulfilling the tight structural constraints imposed by applications, represents an enormous challenge for present top-down strategies. Here we report a bottom-up method to synthesize nanoporous graphene comprising an ordered array of pores separated by ribbons, which can be tuned down to the 1-nanometer range. The size, density, morphology, and chemical composition of the pores are defined with atomic precision by the design of the molecular precursors. Our electronic characterization further reveals a highly anisotropic electronic structure, where orthogonal one-dimensional electronic bands with an energy gap of ∼1 electron volt coexist with confined pore states, making the nanoporous graphene a highly versatile semiconductor for simultaneous sieving and electrical sensing of molecular species.

7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1198, 2018 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568080

RESUMO

Antiaromatic and open-shell molecules are attractive because of their distinct electronic and magnetic behaviour. However, their increased reactivity creates a challenge for probing their properties. Here, we describe the on-surface and in-solution generation and characterisation of a highly reactive antiaromatic molecule: indeno[1,2-b]fluorene (IF). In solution, we generated IF by KI-induced dehalogenation of a dibromo-substituted precursor molecule and found that IF survives for minutes at ambient conditions. Using atom manipulation at low temperatures we generated IF on Cu(111) and on bilayer NaCl. On these surfaces, we characterised IF by bond-order analysis using non-contact atomic force microscopy with CO-functionalised tips and by orbital imaging using scanning tunnelling microscopy. We found that the closed-shell configuration and antiaromatic character predicted for gas-phase IF are preserved on the NaCl film. On Cu(111), we observed significant bond-order reorganisation within the s-indacene moiety because of chemisorption, highlighting the importance of molecule surface interactions on the π-electron distribution.

8.
Sci Adv ; 4(2): eaaq0582, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29464209

RESUMO

We report on the construction and magnetic characterization of a fully functional hybrid molecular system composed of a single magnetic porphyrin molecule bonded to graphene nanoribbons with atomically precise contacts. We use on-surface synthesis to direct the hybrid creation by combining two molecular precursors on a gold surface. High-resolution imaging with a scanning tunneling microscope finds that the porphyrin core fuses into the graphene nanoribbons through the formation of new carbon rings at chemically predefined positions. These ensure the stability of the hybrid and the extension of the conjugated character of the ribbon into the molecule. By means of inelastic tunneling spectroscopy, we prove the survival of the magnetic functionality of the contacted porphyrin. The molecular spin appears unaffected by the graphenoid electrodes, and we simply observe that the magnetic anisotropy appears modified depending on the precise structure of the contacts.

9.
Nano Lett ; 18(1): 418-423, 2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232951

RESUMO

Large aromatic carbon nanostructures are cornerstone materials due to their increasingly active role in functional devices, but their synthesis in solution encounters size and shape limitations. New on-surface strategies facilitate the synthesis of large and insoluble planar systems with atomic-scale precision. While dehydrogenation is usually the chemical zipping reaction building up large aromatic carbon structures, mostly benzenoid structures are being produced. Here, we report on a new cyclodehydrogenation reaction transforming a sterically stressed precursor with conjoined cove regions into a planar carbon platform by incorporating azulene moieties in their interior. Submolecular resolution STM is used to characterize this exotic large polycyclic aromatic compound on Au(111) yielding unprecedented insight into a dehydrogenative intramolecular aryl-aryl coupling reaction. The resulting polycyclic aromatic carbon structure shows a [18]annulene core hosting peculiar pore states confined at the carbon cavity.

10.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(1): 25-30, 2018 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29220194

RESUMO

Recent advances in graphene-nanoribbon-based research have demonstrated the controlled synthesis of chiral graphene nanoribbons (chGNRs) with atomic precision using strategies of on-surface chemistry. However, their electronic characterization, including typical figures of merit like band gap or frontier band's effective mass, has not yet been reported. We provide a detailed characterization of (3,1)-chGNRs on Au(111). The structure and epitaxy, as well as the electronic band structure of the ribbons, are analyzed by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoemission, and density functional theory.

11.
ACS Nano ; 11(7): 7355-7361, 2017 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28636331

RESUMO

We report the on-surface synthesis of 7-armchair graphene nanoribbons (7-AGNRs) substituted with nitrile (CN) functional groups. The CN groups are attached to the GNR backbone by modifying the 7-AGNR precursor. Whereas many of these groups survive the on-surface synthesis, the reaction process causes the cleavage of some CN from the ribbon backbone and the on-surface cycloisomerization of few nitriles onto pyridine rings. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy and density functional theory reveal that CN groups behave as very efficient n-dopants, significantly downshifting the bands of the ribbon and introducing deep impurity levels associated with the nitrogen electron lone pairs.

12.
ACS Nano ; 10(9): 9000-8, 2016 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27548516

RESUMO

Contributing to the need for new graphene nanoribbon (GNR) structures that can be synthesized with atomic precision, we have designed a reactant that renders chiral (3,1)-GNRs after a multistep reaction including Ullmann coupling and cyclodehydrogenation. The nanoribbon synthesis has been successfully proven on different coinage metals, and the formation process, together with the fingerprints associated with each reaction step, has been studied by combining scanning tunneling microscopy, core-level spectroscopy, and density functional calculations. In addition to the GNR's chiral edge structure, the substantial GNR lengths achieved and the low processing temperature required to complete the reaction grant this reactant extremely interesting properties for potential applications.

13.
ACS Nano ; 10(2): 2644-51, 2016 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26841052

RESUMO

The tunable properties of molecular materials place them among the favorites for a variety of future generation devices. In addition, to maintain the current trend of miniaturization of those devices, a departure from the present top-down production methods may soon be required and self-assembly appears among the most promising alternatives. On-surface synthesis unites the promises of molecular materials and of self-assembly, with the sturdiness of covalently bonded structures: an ideal scenario for future applications. Following this idea, we report the synthesis of functional extended nanowires by self-assembly. In particular, the products correspond to one-dimensional organic semiconductors. The uniaxial alignment provided by our substrate templates allows us to access with exquisite detail their electronic properties, including the full valence band dispersion, by combining local probes with spatial averaging techniques. We show how, by selectively doping the molecular precursors, the product's energy level alignment can be tuned without compromising the charge carrier's mobility.

14.
J Org Chem ; 78(24): 12637-49, 2013 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24228899

RESUMO

Oligofurans linked by a rigid tether undergo tandem cycloaddition reactions with high stereoselectivity. The reaction of bisfurans with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) involves tandem [4 + 2]/[4 + 2] cycloadditions in a pincer mode. The reaction of oligofurans with arynes involves stereoselective tandem [4 + 2]/[4 + 2] cycloaddition reactions in a domino mode. The corresponding aryne adducts have been transformed into extended perylene derivatives by deoxygenation and aromatization with HCl/EtOH.

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