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S Afr Med J ; 109(8): 592-596, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456555


BACKGROUND: Little is known about the current clinical profile and outcomes of patients with infective endocarditis (IE) in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To provide a contemporary and descriptive overview of IE in a representative SA tertiary centre. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the records of patients admitted to Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, between 2009 and 2016 fulfilling universal criteria for definite or possible IE, in search of demographic, clinical, microbiological, echocardiographic, treatment and outcome information. RESULTS: A total of 105 patients fulfilled the modified Duke criteria for IE. The median age of the cohort was 39 years (interquartile range (IQR) 29 - 51), with a male preponderance (61.9%). The majority of the patients (72.4%) had left-sided native valve endocarditis, 14.3% had right-sided disease, and 13.3% had prosthetic valve endocarditis. A third of the cohort had rheumatic heart disease. Although 41.1% of patients with left-sided disease had negative blood cultures, the three most common organisms cultured in this subgroup were Staphylococcus aureus (18.9%), Streptococcus spp. (16.7%) and Enterococcus spp. (6.7%). Participants with right-sided endocarditis were younger (29 years, IQR 27 - 37) and were mainly intravenous drug users (73.3%), and the majority cultured positive for S. aureus (73.3%) with frequent septic pulmonary complications (40.0%). The overall in-hospital mortality was 16.2%, with no deaths in the group with right-sided endocarditis. Predictors of death in our patients were heart failure (odds ratio (OR) 8.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.77 - 37.70; p=0.007) and age >45 years (OR 4.73, 95% CI 1.11 - 20.14; p=0.036). Valve surgery was associated with a reduction in mortality (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02 - 0.43; p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: IE remains an important clinical problem in a typical teaching tertiary care centre in SA. In this setting, it continues to affect mainly young people with post-inflammatory valve disease and congenital heart disease. The in-hospital mortality associated with IE remains high. Intravenous drug-associated endocarditis caused by S. aureus is an important IE subset, comprising ~10% of all cases, which was not reported 15 years ago, and culture-negative endocarditis remains highly prevalent. Heart failure in IE carries a significant risk of death and needs a more intensive level of care in hospital. Finally, cardiac surgery was associated with reduced mortality, with the largest impact in patients with heart failure.

Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Usuários de Drogas , Endocardite Bacteriana/terapia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cardiopatia Reumática/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia
Int J Cardiol ; 276: 177-184, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497895


BACKGROUND: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is an important cause of pregnancy-associated heart failure, which appears in previously healthy women towards the end of pregnancy or within five months following delivery. Although the ECG is widely used in clinical practice, its prognostic value has not been established in PPCM. METHODS: We analysed 12-lead ECGs of patients with PPCM, taken at index presentation and follow-up visits at 6 and 12 months. Poor outcome was determined by the composite endpoint of death, readmission, NYHA functional class III/IV or left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of ≤35% at follow-up. RESULTS: This cohort of 66 patients had a median age of 28.59 (IQR 25.43-32.19). The median LVEF at presentation (33%, IQR 25-40) improved significantly at follow-up (LVEF 49%, IQR 38-55, P < 0.001 at 6 months; 52% IQR 38-57, P = 0.001 at 12 months). Poor outcome occurred in 27.91% at 6 months and 41.18% at 1 year. Whereas sinus tachycardia at baseline was an independent predictor of poor outcome at 12 months (OR 6.56, 95% CI 1.17-20.41, P = 0.030), sinus arrhythmia was associated with event free survival (log rank P = 0.013). T wave inversion was associated with an LVEF ≤35% at presentation (P = 0.038), but did not predict poor outcome. A prolonged QTc interval at presentation (found in almost half of the cohort) was an independent predictor of poor outcome at 6 months (OR 6.34, 95% CI 1.06-37.80, P = 0.043). CONCLUSION(S): A prolonged QTc and sinus tachycardia at baseline were independent predictors of poor outcome in PPCM at 6 months and 1 year respectively.

Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Período Periparto/fisiologia , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Método Simples-Cego , África do Sul/epidemiologia