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1.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 42(4): 696-703, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29188819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The gut microbiota is determined early in life, possibly including pregnancy. Pioneering data suggest vitamin D, a nutrient important for bone health, affects this microbiota. We found that high maternal vitamin D lowered circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS), improved intestinal barrier and bone health in male but not female offspring in an obesogenic environment. This study determined if high maternal dietary vitamin D programs Bacteroides and Prevotella and whether this associates with bone mineral content, density and structure of male and female adult offspring fed an obesogenic diet. METHODS: C57BL/6J females received an AIN93G diet with high or low vitamin D from before mating until weaning. Post-weaning, male and female offspring remained on their respective vitamin D level or were switched and fed a high fat and sucrose diet until killing (age 7 months). Bacteroides and Prevotella were quantified in dams' feces and offspring colonic contents. LPS concentrations, bone mineral density and content, strength and structure data were integrated from our previous studies in the same mice. Spearman correlations were completed between Bacteroides and LPS, and bone outcomes. RESULTS: There was a maternal vitamin D effect on colonic Bacteroides but not Prevotella (dam diet: <0.001 and 0.735) in adult male offspring, independent of dams fecal Bacteroides before birth (P=0.998). In males, but not females, Bacteroides correlated with LPS (r=-0.488, P=0.018), trabecular femur peak load (r=0.362, P=0.033), vertebral trabecular separation (r=-0.605, P=0.006), trabecular number (r=0.614, P=0.005) and bone volume fraction (r=0.549, P=0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary vitamin D programs Bacteroides in male adult offspring only, which correlated negatively with systemic inflammation and positively with bone strength and structure. This may have implications on maternal diet and nutritional guidelines targeting sexes in a different manner.


Assuntos
Bacteroides/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Sacarose na Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/farmacologia
2.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 40(12): 1875-1883, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27698344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D is an anti-inflammatory nutrient and a determinant of bone health. Some prospective studies suggest that maternal vitamin D status is positively associated with offspring bone mass. We found that serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an inflammatory molecule related to adiposity, insulin resistance and bone resorption, is lower in healthy mouse offspring exposed to high dietary vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation. LPS reaches the circulation via the gut. This study investigated whether maternal vitamin D programs metabolic, gut and bone health of male offspring in an obesogenic environment. METHODS: C57BL/6J dams received an AIN-93G diet with high (H) or low (L) vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, offspring remained on their dam's vitamin D level (LL or HH) or were switched (LH or HL) and fed a high fat (44.2%) and sucrose (19.8%) diet. Glucose response, adiposity, systemic inflammation (LPS, cytokines), intestinal permeability and mass, strength and microarchitecture of trabecular and cortical bone were assessed in 7-month-old male offsprings. RESULTS: Higher maternal dietary vitamin D resulted in lower intestinal permeability (fecal albumin, P=0.010) and benefited trabecular but not cortical bone structure at the distal femur (higher trabecular number, P=0.022; less trabecular separation, P=0.015) and lumbar vertebra 2 (bone volume/total volume%, P=0.049). Higher maternal and offspring vitamin D resulted in lower fasting glucose (HH versus LL, P=0.039) and serum LPS concentrations (dam diet, P=0.011; pup diet, P=0.002). Higher offspring vitamin D resulted in lower epididymal fat pad relative weight (P=0.006). The serum concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α did not differ among groups. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal dietary vitamin D beneficially programs intestinal permeability and systemic LPS concentration, which is accompanied by stronger trabecular bone in an obesogenic environment. Thus, the gut may mediate vitamin D effects. Moreover, optimizing vitamin D in early life may be critical for later health.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Metabolismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Lactação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/patologia , Gravidez , Oligoelementos/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue , Desmame
3.
Am J Transplant ; 16(8): 2352-9, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26841727

RESUMO

Pediatric centers are implanting durable adult continuous-flow ventricular assist devices (CFVADs) in children who are smaller than the industry-recommended size. Waitlist and posttransplant outcomes data in pediatric patients supported with CFVADs as a bridge to transplant are limited. We analyzed the United Network of Organ Sharing and Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network registry to identify patients aged ≤18 years with a CFVAD at the time of listing or transplantation. Patients were stratified by body surface area (BSA; >1.5 vs. ≤1.5 m(2) ) at time of listing. We identified 138 patients with a durable CFVAD during the listing period (100 with BSA >1.5 m(2) , 38 with BSA ≤1.5 m(2) ). Patients with BSA ≤1.5 m(2) were more likely to have a noncardiomyopathy diagnosis (18% vs. 4%, p = 0.007) and to be implanted with a centrifugal-flow rather than an axial-flow device (74% vs. 30%, p = 0.001). There was no difference in failure-free waitlist survival between BSA groups (p = 0.99) among patients with a CFVAD at listing. Posttransplantation survival was 100% and 88% at 1 and 5 years, respectively, for the entire cohort and did not differ by BSA group (p = 0.99). Consequently, waitlist and posttransplant outcomes are favorable for pediatric CFVAD recipients. Small patients (≤1.5 m(2) ) had pre- and posttransplant outcomes similar to those of larger patients that met the industry-recommended size for implantation.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração , Coração Auxiliar , Listas de Espera , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 43(6): 646-51, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24151229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between commonly reported fetal cardiomyopathy scoring systems in early-stage twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively 100 cases of Quintero Stages I and II TTTS referred to our center for evaluation from 2008 to 2010. The cases were divided into groups of 25, representing each of four grades of TTTS cardiomyopathy as assessed by Cincinnati stage: no cardiomyopathy, Stage IIIa, Stage IIIb and Stage IIIc. Spearman correlation (rs ) was calculated between the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) score, cardiovascular profile score (CVPS), Cincinnati stage and myocardial performance index (MPI). RESULTS: There was a weak correlation between the Cincinnati stage and the CHOP score (rs = 0.36) and CVPS (rs = -0.39), while correlation was strong between the CHOP score and CVPS (rs = -0.72). MPI elevation was concordant with Cincinnati stage more frequently (82% of cases) than were ventricular hypertrophy (43%) or atrioventricular valve regurgitation (28%). 51% of fetuses with minimally elevated CHOP score (0-1) and 48% of fetuses with minimally depressed CVPS (9-10) had significant elevation (Z-score ≥ +3) in right ventricular or left ventricular MPI. CONCLUSIONS: MPI has a strong influence on grading the severity of fetal cardiomyopathy using the Cincinnati stage among fetuses with mild TTTS. Furthermore, significant elevation of the MPI is common among fetuses with mild disease as assessed by the CHOP score and CVPS. These differences should be understood when assessing and grading cardiomyopathy in TTTS, particularly in early (Quintero Stages I and II) disease.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Doenças Fetais/fisiopatologia , Coração Fetal/fisiologia , Transfusão Feto-Fetal/complicações , Cardiomegalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomegalia/embriologia , Cardiomegalia/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/embriologia , Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/diagnóstico por imagem , Transfusão Feto-Fetal/fisiopatologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/embriologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
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