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2.
Fam Syst Health ; 39(1): 7-18, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014726

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: For implementation of an evidence-based program to be effective, efficient, and equitable across diverse populations, we propose that researchers adopt a systems approach that is often absent in efficacy studies. To this end, we describe how a computer-based monitoring system can support the delivery of the New Beginnings Program (NBP), a parent-focused evidence-based prevention program for divorcing parents. METHOD: We present NBP from a novel systems approach that incorporates social system informatics and engineering, both necessary when utilizing feedback loops, ubiquitous in implementation research and practice. Examples of two methodological challenges are presented: how to monitor implementation, and how to provide feedback by evaluating system-level changes due to implementation. RESULTS: We introduce and relate systems concepts to these two methodologic issues that are at the center of implementation methods. We explore how these system-level feedback loops address effectiveness, efficiency, and equity principles. These key principles are provided for designing an automated, low-burden, low-intrusive measurement system to aid fidelity monitoring and feedback that can be used in practice. DISCUSSION: As the COVID-19 pandemic now demands fewer face-to-face delivery systems, their replacement with more virtual systems for parent training interventions requires constructing new implementation measurement systems based on social system informatics approaches. These approaches include the automatic monitoring of quality and fidelity in parent training interventions. Finally, we present parallels of producing generalizable and local knowledge bridging systems science and engineering method. This comparison improves our understanding of system-level changes, facilitates a program's implementation, and produces knowledge for the field. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Informática Aplicada à Saúde dos Consumidores , Divórcio , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/métodos , Poder Familiar , Pais/educação , Adulto , COVID-19 , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Educação Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Psychol Rep ; 124(3): 1237-1267, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484053

RESUMO

With a growing population of Latinx youth immigrating to the United States, it is important to understand how Latinx youth adapt to mainstream U.S. culture. Given that the majority of research examining social development among recent immigrant adolescents has focused on negative adjustment outcomes, research examining positive social behaviors is needed to avoid deficit approaches to their development, gain a holistic understanding of youth development, and improve interventions with this population.This study examined the associations among trajectories in cultural integration and multiple prosocial behaviors among recent immigrant U.S. Latinx adolescents in Miami, Florida and Los Angeles, California. Adolescents (N = 302; 53.3% males; M age = 14.51 years) completed measures of integration and prosocial behaviors across six time points. Latent growth curve models indicated that integration significantly increased, though this growth tapered off over time. The growth in prosocial behaviors depended on the specific form of helping assessed. While the growth in altruistic and compliant prosocial behaviors was stagnant, there was an increase in anonymous prosocial behaviors and a decrease in public and dire prosocial behaviors. Emotional behaviors did not linearly change, though slightly tapered off by the final time points. Parallel process latent growth curve model results indicated positive correlations between the slopes of cultural integration and most forms of prosocial behaviors. These findings highlight the positive role of cultural integration as an acculturative process for U.S. Latinx youth and the multidimensionality of prosocial behaviors.

4.
Implement Sci Commun ; 1(1): 57, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835224

RESUMO

Background: Though clinical practice guidelines are available, the diagnosis of pediatric hypertension (HTN) is often missed. Management may not follow guidelines due to the measurement challenges in children, complexity of interpreting youth blood pressure standards that are dependent on height, age, and sex, familiarity with diagnostic criteria, and variable comfort with management of pediatric HTN among providers. Evidence suggests that wide adoption and adherence to pediatric HTN guidelines would result in lower cardiovascular disease and kidney damage in adulthood. The proposed project will develop an implementation strategy package to increase adherence to clinical practice guidelines for pediatric HTN within safety-net community health centers (CHCs). The centerpiece of which is a provider-facing population panel management (PPM) tool and point-of-care clinical decision support (CDS). Prior research indicates that multiple discrete implementation strategies (e.g., stakeholder involvement, readiness planning, training, ongoing audit and feedback) are needed to institute practice- and provider-level adoption of such tools. Methods: Using participatory research methods involving stakeholders from a practice-based research network of CHCs, with input from scientific advisors, the project aims to (1) employ user-centered design methods to tailor an existing CDS tool for use at the point of care and optimize cohort management with a PPM tool to support adherence to the latest pediatric HTN guidelines, and (2) use a stakeholder-driven method for selecting implementation strategies that support tool adoption and increase guideline-adherent physician behaviors. Multilevel process evaluation using surveys and key informant interview data will assess the acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, cost, and feasibility of the PPM tool and its multicomponent implementation strategy package. Usability testing will be conducted with the PPM tool to iteratively refine features and ensure proper functionality. Discussion: The proposed research has the potential to improve identification, diagnosis, and management of HTN in primary care settings for high-risk youth by assisting healthcare providers in implementing the American Academy of Pediatrics' 2017 guidelines using an EHR-integrated PPM tool with CDS. Should the strategy package for PPM tool adoption be successful for pediatric HTN, findings will be translatable to other settings and PPM of other chronic cardiovascular conditions affecting overall population health.

5.
J Community Psychol ; 48(4): 1178-1193, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951291

RESUMO

AIMS: To translate evidence-based programs (EBP) for a new setting, attention must be given to the characteristics of the intervention and the local setting, as well as evidence that is compelling to decision-makers. This paper describes the history of a partnership and stakeholder recommendations to inform the adaptation of an EBP for primary care. METHODS: We established a community advisory board (CAB) consisting of stakeholders with expertize in primary care delivery. A thematic analysis was conducted with fieldnotes and transcriptions from CAB meetings and regular meetings with participating clinics. RESULTS: We found that (a) parenting programs with a focus on behavioral and physical health are appropriate for this setting, (b) variability in the structure of primary care means implementation must be tailorable, and (c) financial and organizational outcomes are compelling for decision-makers. CONCLUSION: Factors related to the content and structure of evidence-based programs are uniquely related to distinct implementation outcomes of interest to key stakeholders.

6.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(2): 149-159, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Acculturative Process and Context Framework (Ward & Geeraert, 2016) proposes that acculturative stressors influence psychological well-being over time. In fact, extant literature has linked bicultural stress with psychological functioning; yet, no studies have explored the causal dominance of bicultural stress. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the directionality of prospective relations among bicultural stress and psychosocial functioning (i.e., depressive symptoms, hopefulness, and self-esteem) in Latinx immigrant adolescents across 5 waves. METHOD: There were 303 Latinx adolescents who were recruited for this study from Los Angeles and Miami and were assessed across 5 waves at 6-month intervals. Adolescents were 14.50 years old on average (SD = .88) and 53.16% were male. Adolescents reported living in the United States for 2.07 years on average (SD = 1.87). A Random-Intercept Cross-Lagged Panel Model (RI-CLPM) was used to examine the between- and within-person relations among bicultural stress, depressive symptoms, hopefulness, and self-esteem in a comprehensive model. RESULTS: The comprehensive RI-CLPM including bicultural stress, depressive symptoms, hopefulness, and self-esteem exhibited excellent model fit. Between-person, trait-like relations among constructs ranged from small to large, as expected. Within-person, cross-lagged estimates among constructs were overall inconsistent, with some evidence that, within individuals, self-esteem influences later hopefulness. CONCLUSION: Findings from this study indicate that the RI-CLPM is an effective strategy to examine bicultural stress and well-being processes among adolescents. There is a need for further research examining bicultural stress among Latinx immigrant youth, particularly within prevention and intervention studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Aculturação , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Autoimagem , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Esperança , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
7.
Child Dev ; 91(1): 78-95, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239986

RESUMO

Acculturation consists of multiple domains (i.e., cultural practices, identifications, and values). However, less is known about how acculturation processes influence each other across multiple domains of acculturation. This study was designed to investigate transition patterns of acculturative processes within and across domains in a sample of 302 recent-immigrant Hispanic adolescents, Mage (SD) = 14.51 years (0.88) at baseline; male = 53%). Adolescents were assessed six times over a 3-year period. Latent profile analyses identified two profiles (high [or increasing] vs. low) for each domain at each timepoint. We found largely stable transition patterns in each domain over six timepoints. Importantly, sequential associations among profiles in acculturation domains were also detected. Implication for acculturation theory and research are discussed.


Assuntos
Aculturação , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Hispano-Americanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
8.
AIDS Behav ; 24(6): 1903-1911, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845078

RESUMO

In 2019, the requisite biomedical and behavioral interventions to eliminate new HIV infections exist. "Ending the HIV Epidemic" now becomes primarily a challenge of will and implementation. This review maps the extent to which implementation research (IR) has been integrated into HIV research by reviewing the recent funding portfolio of the NIH. We searched NIH RePORTER for HIV and IR-related research projects funded from January 2013 to March 2018. The 4629 unique studies identified were screened using machine learning and manual methods. 216 abstracts met the eligibility criteria of HIV and IR. Key study characteristics were then abstracted. NIH currently funds HIV studies that are either formally IR (n = 109) or preparatory for IR (n = 107). Few (13%) projects mentioned a guiding implementation model, theory, or framework, and only 56% of all studies explicitly mentioned measuring an implementation outcome. Considering the study aims along an IR continuum, 18 (8%) studies examined barriers and facilitators, 43 (20%) developed implementation strategies, 46 (21%) piloted strategies, 73 (34%) tested a single strategy, and 35 (16%) compared strategies. A higher proportion of formal IR projects involved established interventions (e.g., integrated services) compared to newer interventions (e.g., pre-exposure prophylaxis). Prioritizing HIV-related IR in NIH and other federal funding opportunity announcements and expanded training in implementation science could have a substantial impact on ending the HIV pandemic. This review serves as a baseline by which to compare funding patterns and the sophistication of IR in HIV research over time.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Ciência da Implementação , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 89(5): 569-578, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702329

RESUMO

There is a growing recognition for the need for research to explore the unique and interactive effects of acculturation and sociocultural stress on alcohol initiation. Building on this research agenda, the current study sought to explore the independent and interactive effects of acculturation (i.e., heritage and U.S. cultural practices and identification) and sociocultural stress (i.e., perceived discrimination, perceived context of reception, and bicultural stress) on alcohol initiation among recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents. Data were taken from a 6-wave longitudinal study with 302 recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents (53% boys; Mage = 14.51 years at baseline; range = 14-17 years) and their families. Discrete-time survival models indicated that none of the acculturation indicators directly predicted alcohol initiation. Sociocultural stress-and specifically, bicultural stress-predicted alcohol initiation. There were significant interactions between acculturation and sociocultural stress in predicting alcohol initiation. Further research considering multiple components of acculturation and sociocultural stressors is needed to broaden our understanding of the potential role of sociocultural processes in alcohol initiation among Hispanic youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Aculturação , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/etnologia
10.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 25(3): 371-378, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study explored whether cultural identity predicts health lifestyle behaviors. METHOD: Participants included 302 recently immigrated (<5 years in the U.S.) Latinx adolescents (53% boys; mean age 14.51 years at baseline) from Miami and Los Angeles. Participants completed cultural identity measures at baseline and 1-year post baseline. A path analysis was used to estimate associations between cultural identities (ethnic, national, and bicultural) and health lifestyle behaviors (physical activity, diet, and sleep hygiene). RESULTS: Ethnic identity positively predicted diet. Results also indicated a significant interaction between ethnic and national identity on sleep hygiene. Specifically, when national identity was high (+1 SD), ethnic identity positively predicted sleep hygiene. CONCLUSION: This study focuses on health lifestyle behaviors such as physical activity, diet, and sleep hygiene in this population. Results highlight the need to explore the protective nature of cultural identity retention in relation to health lifestyle behaviors in Latinx adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Identificação Social , Aculturação , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Cultura , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Florida , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Los Angeles
11.
Child Dev ; 90(2): 506-523, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832973

RESUMO

This study examined longitudinal effects of adolescent and parent cultural stress on adolescent and parent emotional well-being and health behaviors via trajectories of adolescent and parent family functioning. Recent immigrant Latino adolescents (Mage  = 14.51) and parents (Mage  = 41.09; N = 302) completed measures of these constructs. Latent growth modeling indicated that adolescent and parent family functioning remained stable over time. Early levels of family functioning predicted adolescent and parent outcomes. Baseline adolescent cultural stress predicted lower positive adolescent and parent family functioning. Latent class growth analyses produced a two-class solution for family functioning. Adolescents and parents in the low family functioning class reported low family functioning over time. Adolescents and parents in the high family functioning class experienced increases in family functioning.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Autoimagem , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Esperança , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
12.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 23(3): 348-361, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28206778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined directionality between personal (i.e., coherence and confusion) and cultural identity (i.e., ethnic and U.S.) as well as their additive effects on psychosocial functioning in a sample of recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents. METHOD: The sample consisted of 302 recent (<5 years) immigrant Hispanic adolescents (53% boys; Mage = 14.51 years at baseline; SD = .88 years) from Miami and Los Angeles who participated in a longitudinal study. RESULTS: Results indicated a bidirectional relationship between personal identity coherence and both ethnic and U.S. identity. Ethnic and U.S. affirmation/commitment (A/C) positively and indirectly predicted optimism and negatively predicted rule breaking and aggression through coherence. However, confusion predicted lower self-esteem and optimism and higher depressive symptoms, rule breaking, unprotected sex, and cigarette use. Results further indicated significant site differences. In Los Angeles (but not Miami), ethnic A/C also negatively predicted confusion. CONCLUSION: Given the direct effects of coherence and confusion on nearly every outcome, it may be beneficial for interventions to target personal identity. However, in contexts such as Los Angeles, which has at least some ambivalence toward recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents, it may be more beneficial for interventions to also target cultural identity to reduce confusion and thus promote positive development. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Aculturação , Cultura , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Identificação Psicológica , Identificação Social , Adolescente , América Central/etnologia , Colômbia/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Florida , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Los Angeles , Masculino , México/etnologia , Índias Ocidentais/etnologia
13.
J Youth Adolesc ; 46(4): 898-913, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27882458

RESUMO

The present study was designed to examine trajectories of personal identity coherence and confusion among Hispanic recent-immigrant adolescents, as well as the effects of these trajectories on psychosocial and risk-taking outcomes. Personal identity is extremely important in anchoring young immigrants during a time of acute cultural change. A sample of 302 recently immigrated (5 years or less in the United States at baseline) Hispanic adolescents (Mage = 14.51 years at baseline; SD = 0.88 years, range 14-17) from Miami and Los Angeles (47 % girls) completed measures of personal identity coherence and confusion at the first five waves of a six-wave longitudinal study; and reported on positive psychosocial functioning, depressive symptoms, and externalizing problems at baseline and at Time 6. Results indicated that identity coherence increased linearly across time, but that there were no significant changes in confusion over time and no individual differences in confusion trajectories. Higher baseline levels of, and improvements in, coherence predicted higher levels of self-esteem, optimism, and prosocial behavior at the final study timepoint. Higher baseline levels of confusion predicted lower self-esteem, greater depressive symptoms, more aggressive behavior, and more rule breaking at the final study timepoint. These results are discussed in terms of the importance of personal identity for Hispanic immigrant adolescents, and in terms of implications for intervention.


Assuntos
Aculturação , Depressão/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Individualidade , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Los Angeles , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Fam Process ; 56(4): 981-996, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27774629

RESUMO

U.S. Latino parents can face cultural stressors in the form of acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and a negative context of reception. It stands to reason that these cultural stressors may negatively impact Latino youth's emotional well-being and health risk behaviors by increasing parents' depressive symptoms and compromising the overall functioning of the family. To test this possibility, we analyzed data from a six-wave longitudinal study with 302 recently immigrated (<5 years in the United States) Latino parents (74% mothers, Mage  = 41.09 years) and their adolescent children (47% female, Mage  = 14.51 years). Results of a cross-lagged analysis indicated that parent cultural stress predicted greater parent depressive symptoms (and not vice versa). Both parent cultural stress and depressive symptoms, in turn, predicted lower parent-reported family functioning, which mediated the links from parent cultural stress and depressive symptoms to youth alcohol and cigarette use. Parent cultural stress also predicted lower youth-reported family functioning, which mediated the link from parent cultural stress to youth self-esteem. Finally, mediation analyses indicated that parent cultural stress predicted youth alcohol use by a way of parent depressive symptoms and parent-reported family functioning. Our findings point to parent depressive symptoms and family functioning as key mediators in the links from parent cultural stress to youth emotional well-being and health risk behaviors. We discuss implications for research and preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Aculturação , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Adulto , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/psicologia , Emoções , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Autoimagem , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estados Unidos
16.
J Fam Psychol ; 30(8): 966-976, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27819441

RESUMO

Latino parents can experience acculturation stressors, and according to the Family Stress Model (FSM), parent stress can influence youth mental health and substance use by negatively affecting family functioning. To understand how acculturation stressors come together and unfold over time to influence youth mental health and substance use outcomes, the current study investigated the trajectory of a latent parent acculturation stress factor and its influence on youth mental health and substance use via parent-and youth-reported family functioning. Data came from a 6-wave, school-based survey with 302 recent (<5 years) immigrant Latino parents (74% mothers, Mage = 41.09 years) and their adolescents (47% female, Mage = 14.51 years). Parents' reports of discrimination, negative context of reception, and acculturative stress loaded onto a latent factor of acculturation stress at each of the first 4 time points. Earlier levels of and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted worse youth-reported family functioning. Additionally, earlier levels of parent acculturation stress predicted worse parent-reported family functioning and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted better parent-reported family functioning. While youth-reported positive family functioning predicted higher self-esteem, lower symptoms of depression, and lower aggressive and rule-breaking behavior in youth, parent-reported family positive functioning predicted lower youth alcohol and cigarette use. Findings highlight the need for Latino youth preventive interventions to target parent acculturation stress and family functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Aculturação , Transtorno Depressivo/etnologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Relações Familiares/etnologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/etnologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Autoimagem , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/psicologia
17.
J Res Adolesc ; 26(3): 567-586, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27616871

RESUMO

This 2½-year, 5-wave longitudinal study tests the hypothesis that acculturation discrepancies between Hispanic immigrant parents and adolescents would lead to compromised family functioning, which would then lead to problematic adolescent outcomes. Recent-immigrant Hispanic parent-adolescent dyads (N = 302) completed measures of acculturation and family functioning. Adolescents completed measures of positive youth development, depressive symptoms, problem behavior, and substance use. Results indicated that Time 1 discrepancies in Hispanic-culture retention, and linear trajectories in some of these discrepancies, negatively predicted adolescent positive youth development, and positively predicted adolescent depressive symptoms and binge drinking, indirectly through adolescent-reported family functioning. The vast majority of effects were mediated rather than direct, supporting the acculturation discrepancy hypothesis. Implications for further research and intervention are discussed.

18.
Implement Sci ; 11(1): 119, 2016 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27600612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To improve the quality, quantity, and speed of implementation, careful monitoring of the implementation process is required. However, some health organizations have such limited capacity to collect, organize, and synthesize information relevant to its decision to implement an evidence-based program, the preparation steps necessary for successful program adoption, the fidelity of program delivery, and the sustainment of this program over time. When a large health system implements an evidence-based program across multiple sites, a trained intermediary or broker may provide such monitoring and feedback, but this task is labor intensive and not easily scaled up for large numbers of sites. We present a novel approach to producing an automated system of monitoring implementation stage entrances and exits based on a computational analysis of communication log notes generated by implementation brokers. Potentially discriminating keywords are identified using the definitions of the stages and experts' coding of a portion of the log notes. A machine learning algorithm produces a decision rule to classify remaining, unclassified log notes. RESULTS: We applied this procedure to log notes in the implementation trial of multidimensional treatment foster care in the California 40-county implementation trial (CAL-40) project, using the stages of implementation completion (SIC) measure. We found that a semi-supervised non-negative matrix factorization method accurately identified most stage transitions. Another computational model was built for determining the start and the end of each stage. CONCLUSIONS: This automated system demonstrated feasibility in this proof of concept challenge. We provide suggestions on how such a system can be used to improve the speed, quality, quantity, and sustainment of implementation. The innovative methods presented here are not intended to replace the expertise and judgement of an expert rater already in place. Rather, these can be used when human monitoring and feedback is too expensive to use or maintain. These methods rely on digitized text that already exists or can be collected with minimal to no intrusiveness and can signal when additional attention or remediation is required during implementation. Thus, resources can be allocated according to need rather than universally applied, or worse, not applied at all due to their cost.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Mineração de Dados , Informática Médica/métodos , California , Simulação por Computador , Difusão de Inovações , Estudos de Viabilidade , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Aprendizado de Máquina , Matemática , Registros , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
19.
Int J Psychol ; 51(6): 453-463, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27374874

RESUMO

Variations in acquiescence and extremity pose substantial threats to the validity of cross-cultural research that relies on survey methods. Individual and cultural correlates of response styles when using 2 contrasting types of response mode were investigated, drawing on data from 55 cultural groups across 33 nations. Using 7 dimensions of self-other relatedness that have often been confounded within the broader distinction between independence and interdependence, our analysis yields more specific understandings of both individual- and culture-level variations in response style. When using a Likert-scale response format, acquiescence is strongest among individuals seeing themselves as similar to others, and where cultural models of selfhood favour harmony, similarity with others and receptiveness to influence. However, when using Schwartz's (2007) portrait-comparison response procedure, acquiescence is strongest among individuals seeing themselves as self-reliant but also connected to others, and where cultural models of selfhood favour self-reliance and self-consistency. Extreme responding varies less between the two types of response modes, and is most prevalent among individuals seeing themselves as self-reliant, and in cultures favouring self-reliance. As both types of response mode elicit distinctive styles of response, it remains important to estimate and control for style effects to ensure valid comparisons.


Assuntos
Cultura , Inquéritos e Questionários , Humanos , Autoavaliação (Psicologia)
20.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 145(8): 966-1000, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27359126

RESUMO

Markus and Kitayama's (1991) theory of independent and interdependent self-construals had a major influence on social, personality, and developmental psychology by highlighting the role of culture in psychological processes. However, research has relied excessively on contrasts between North American and East Asian samples, and commonly used self-report measures of independence and interdependence frequently fail to show predicted cultural differences. We revisited the conceptualization and measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals in 2 large-scale multinational surveys, using improved methods for cross-cultural research. We developed (Study 1: N = 2924 students in 16 nations) and validated across cultures (Study 2: N = 7279 adults from 55 cultural groups in 33 nations) a new 7-dimensional model of self-reported ways of being independent or interdependent. Patterns of global variation support some of Markus and Kitayama's predictions, but a simple contrast between independence and interdependence does not adequately capture the diverse models of selfhood that prevail in different world regions. Cultural groups emphasize different ways of being both independent and interdependent, depending on individualism-collectivism, national socioeconomic development, and religious heritage. Our 7-dimensional model will allow future researchers to test more accurately the implications of cultural models of selfhood for psychological processes in diverse ecocultural contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Cultura , Individualidade , Personalidade , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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