Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 12 de 12
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Foods ; 9(11)2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114667

RESUMO

In order to evaluate dominance/implantation of starter cultures for wine fermentation, both commercial starters and wild strains were monitored during the fermentation of Greco di Tufo (GR) and Aglianico of Taurasi (AGL) musts. Preliminary characterization of commercial strains was carried out by several molecular markers. Five fermentations-four starter-inoculated and one spontaneous-were carried out in duplicates by using grapes from GR and AGL. Trials were monitored, and yeast cultures were isolated within the dominant microflora. Comparison of Interdelta patterns allowed to assess the real occurrence of both starters and indigenous strains. A high genetic diversity within S. cerevisiae strains was detected. In starter-led fermentations (except for few cases), in addition to the starter strains, indigenous S. cerevisiae biotypes were found, as well. Native strains isolated from replicates of the same fermentation showed different genetic profiles. Spontaneous fermentations were conducted, during the first 5 days, by non-Saccharomyces yeasts and, afterwards, by a high number (16 in the AGL and 20 in the GR) of S. cerevisiae biotypes. Indigenous biotypes isolated by GR revealed a high variability in oenological features and, in several cases, showed better performances than those recorded for commercial strains. The study further highlighted the low dominance of some commercial starter cultures. Moreover, autochthonous yeast strains proved to be sometimes more aggressive in terms of fermentation vigor in GR must, likely because better adapted to ecological and technological conditions occurring during winemaking. Finally, the use of such strains for production of autochthonous "pied de cuve" may be a useful strategy for lowering production cost of winemaking.

2.
Plant Sci ; 298: 110597, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771154

RESUMO

Anthocyanins are antioxidant pigments widely used in drugs and food preparations. Flesh-coloured tubers of the cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum are important sources of different anthocyanins. Due to the high degree of decoration achieved by acylation, anthocyanins from potato are very stable and suitable for the food processing industry. The use of cell culture allows to extract anthocyanins on-demand, avoiding seasonality and consequences associated with land-based-tuber production. However, a well-known limit of cell culture is the metabolic instability and loss of anthocyanin production during successive subcultures. To get a general picture of mechanisms responsible for this instability, we explored both genetic and epigenetic regulation that may affect anthocyanin production in cell culture. We selected two clonally related populations of anthocyanin-producing (purple) and non-producing (white) potato cells. Through targeted molecular investigations, we identified and functionally characterized an R3-MYB, here named StMYBATV. This transcription factor can interact with bHLHs belonging to the MBW (R2R3-MYB, bHLH and WD40) anthocyanin activator complex and, potentially, may interfere with its formation. Genome methylation analysis revealed that, for several genomic loci, anthocyanin-producing cells were more methylated than clonally related white cells. In particular, we localized some methylation events in ribosomal protein-coding genes. Overall, our study explores novel molecular aspects associated with loss of anthocyanins in cell culture systems.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Epigênese Genética , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Antocianinas/genética , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Tubérculos/citologia , Solanum tuberosum/citologia , Solanum tuberosum/genética
3.
Life (Basel) ; 10(4)2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290207

RESUMO

Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are a class of nitrogen-containing glycosides occurring in several plant families and biosynthesized through a specific pathway. HMG-CoA reductase is the first enzyme of this pathway, and its transcription can be regulated by biotic and abiotic stressors and even in a tissue-specific manner. This study aimed to characterize the HMG genes family in a tuber-bearing potato species, Solanum commersonii, using transcriptional and functional approaches. Our results provided evidence that four ScHMGs with different tissue-specificities represent the HMG gene family in S. commersonii and that they originated from ScHMG1 through segmental duplications. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that ScHMG1 is the direct ortholog of AtHMG1, which is associated with SGAs accumulation in plants. Its overexpression in S. commersonii revealed that this gene plays a key role in the accumulation of glycoalkaloids regulating the production of dehydrocommersonine.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7196, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346026

RESUMO

Wild potatoes, as dynamic resource adapted to various environmental conditions, represent a powerful and informative reservoir of genes useful for breeding efforts. WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are encoded by one of the largest families in plants and are involved in several biological processes such as growth and development, signal transduction, and plant defence against stress. In this study, 79 and 84 genes encoding putative WRKY TFs have been identified in two wild potato relatives, Solanum commersonii and S. chacoense. Phylogenetic analysis of WRKY proteins divided ScWRKYs and SchWRKYs into three Groups and seven subGroups. Structural and phylogenetic comparative analyses suggested an interspecific variability of WRKYs. Analysis of gene expression profiles in different tissues and under various stresses allowed to select ScWRKY045 as a good candidate in wounding-response, ScWRKY055 as a bacterial infection triggered WRKY and ScWRKY023 as a multiple stress-responsive WRKY gene. Those WRKYs were further studied through interactome analysis allowing the identification of potential co-expression relationships between ScWRKYs/SchWRKYs and genes of various pathways. Overall, this study enabled the discrimination of WRKY genes that could be considered as potential candidates in both breeding programs and functional studies.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Solanum , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum/genética , Solanum/metabolismo , Solanum/microbiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
Planta ; 251(1): 34, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848729

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Arundo donax ecotypes react differently to salinity, partly due to differences in constitutive defences and methylome plasticity. Arundo donax L. is a C3 fast-growing grass that yields high biomass under stress. To elucidate its ability to produce biomass under high salinity, we investigated short/long-term NaCl responses of three ecotypes through transcriptional, metabolic and DNA methylation profiling of leaves and roots. Prolonged salt treatment discriminated the sensitive ecotype 'Cercola' from the tolerant 'Domitiana' and 'Canneto' in terms of biomass. Transcriptional and metabolic responses to NaCl differed between the ecotypes. In roots, constitutive expression of ion transporter and stress-related transcription factors' genes was higher in 'Canneto' and 'Domitiana' than 'Cercola' and 21-day NaCl drove strong up-regulation in all ecotypes. In leaves, unstressed 'Domitiana' confirmed higher expression of the above genes, whose transcription was repressed in 'Domitiana' but induced in 'Cercola' following NaCl treatment. In all ecotypes, salinity increased proline, ABA and leaf antioxidants, paralleled by up-regulation of antioxidant genes in 'Canneto' and 'Cercola' but not in 'Domitiana', which tolerated a higher level of oxidative damage. Changes in DNA methylation patterns highlighted a marked capacity of the tolerant 'Domitiana' ecotype to adjust DNA methylation to salt stress. The reduced salt sensitivity of 'Domitiana' and, to a lesser extent, 'Canneto' appears to rely on a complex set of constitutively activated defences, possibly due to the environmental conditions of the site of origin, and on higher plasticity of the methylome. Our findings provide insights into the mechanisms of adaptability of A. donax ecotypes to salinity, offering new perspectives for the improvement of this species for cultivation in limiting environments.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Ecótipo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Antioxidantes , Biomassa , Genes de Plantas/genética , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Pressão Osmótica , Estresse Oxidativo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Salinidade , Estresse Salino , Transcriptoma
6.
Planta ; 251(1): 32, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823009

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Genomic and transcriptomic studies in plants and, more in deep, in grapevine reveal that the disease-resistance RNL gene family is highly variable. RNLs (RPW8-NLRs) are a phylogenetically distinct class of nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) identified in plants. Two RNLs, namely, the NRG1 (N Requirement Gene 1) and the ADR1 (Activated Disease Resistance 1), have been characterized; however, little is known about the RNL evolutionary history in higher plants. To trace the diversification of RNL gene subfamily, we scanned the NLR proteins of 73 plant genomes belonging to 29 taxa, revealing a noticeable diversification across species and within the same genus or botanic family together with a conspicuous expansion in important crop species. To explore the RNL variability in Vitis vinifera and gain information with respect to their structure, evolutionary diversification of five grape genomes ('Aglianico', 'Falanghina', 'Sultanina', 'Tannat', and 'Nebbiolo') has been compared to the reference genome ('Pinot Noir'). The number of RNLs ranged from 6 ('Sultanina') to 14 ('Nebbiolo'), in contrast to the 10 'Pinot Noir' RNLs. The phylogenetic study on grapevine RNLs revealed that all collapsed into NRG1-clade, rather than four. To investigate more in depth the means of intraspecific variability of grape RNL copies, a transcriptomic profiling in response to powdery mildew (PM) infection was carried out through qRT-PCRs and public databases interrogation. The RNL expression variability identified in transcriptome data sets supports the hypothesis of a functional expansion/contraction in grapevine varieties. Although no direct correlations between grapevine PM-resistance and RNL expression was identified, our work can provide good candidates for functional studies able to elucidate the putative "helper" role of RNLs in grape immune signalling.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Vitis/genética , Vitis/metabolismo , Ascomicetos , Evolução Molecular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Neuregulina-1 , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Transcriptoma
7.
Hortic Res ; 6: 5, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30603091

RESUMO

Beneficial interactions of rhizosphere microorganisms are widely exploited for plant biofertilization and mitigation of biotic and abiotic constraints. To provide new insights into the onset of the roots-beneficial microorganisms interplay, we characterised the transcriptomes expressed in tomato roots at 24, 48 and 72 h post inoculation with the beneficial fungus Trichoderma harzianum T22 and analysed the epigenetic and post-trascriptional regulation mechanisms. We detected 1243 tomato transcripts that were differentially expressed between Trichoderma-interacting and control roots and 83 T. harzianum transcripts that were differentially expressed between the three experimental time points. Interaction with Trichoderma triggered a transcriptional response mainly ascribable to signal recognition and transduction, stress response, transcriptional regulation and transport. In tomato roots, salicylic acid, and not jasmonate, appears to have a prominent role in orchestrating the interplay with this beneficial strain. Differential regulation of many nutrient transporter genes indicated a strong effect on plant nutrition processes, which, together with the possible modifications in root architecture triggered by ethylene/indole-3-acetic acid signalling at 72 h post inoculation may concur to the well-described growth-promotion ability of this strain. Alongside, T. harzianum-induced defence priming and stress tolerance may be mediated by the induction of reactive oxygen species, detoxification and defence genes. A deeper insight into gene expression and regulation control provided first evidences for the involvement of cytosine methylation and alternative splicing mechanisms in the plant-Trichoderma interaction. A model is proposed that integrates the plant transcriptomic responses in the roots, where interaction between the plant and beneficial rhizosphere microorganisms occurs.

8.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 17(4): 812-825, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30256508

RESUMO

Chitin, a major component of fungal cell walls, is a well-known pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that triggers defense responses in several mammal and plant species. Here, we show that two chitooligosaccharides, chitin and chitosan, act as PAMPs in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) as they elicit immune signalling events, defense gene expression and resistance against fungal diseases. To identify their cognate receptors, the grapevine family of LysM receptor kinases (LysM-RKs) was annotated and their gene expression profiles were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis clearly distinguished three V. vinifera LysM-RKs (VvLYKs) located in the same clade as the Arabidopsis CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE1 (AtCERK1), which mediates chitin-induced immune responses. The Arabidopsis mutant Atcerk1, impaired in chitin perception, was transformed with these three putative orthologous genes encoding VvLYK1-1, -2, or -3 to determine if they would complement the loss of AtCERK1 function. Our results provide evidence that VvLYK1-1 and VvLYK1-2, but not VvLYK1-3, functionally complement the Atcerk1 mutant by restoring chitooligosaccharide-induced MAPK activation and immune gene expression. Moreover, expression of VvLYK1-1 in Atcerk1 restored penetration resistance to the non-adapted grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator). On the whole, our results indicate that the grapevine VvLYK1-1 and VvLYK1-2 participate in chitin- and chitosan-triggered immunity and that VvLYK1-1 plays an important role in basal resistance against E. necator.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Quitina/análogos & derivados , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Vitis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Quitina/metabolismo , Quitina/farmacologia , Quitosana , Oligossacarídeos , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vitis/genética , Vitis/imunologia
9.
Planta ; 248(3): 729-743, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948127

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: We provide advances in DCL and RDR gene diversity in Solanaceae. We also shed light on DCL and RDR gene expression in response to cold stress. DICER-like (DCL) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) genes form the core components to trigger small non-coding RNA (ncRNA) production. In spite of this, little is known about the two gene families in non-model plant species. As their genome sequences are now available, the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its cold-tolerant wild relative Solanum commersonii offer a valuable opportunity to advance our understanding of the above genes. To determine the extent of diversification and evolution of DCLs and RDRs in these species, we performed a comparative analysis. Seven DCLs were identified in the two species, whereas seven and six RDR genes were found in S. tuberosum and S. commersonii, respectively. Based on phylogenetic analysis with DCLs and RDRs from several species, we provide evidence for an increase in their number in both potato species. We also disclosed that tandem duplications played a major role in the evolution of these gene families in Solanaceae. DCL and RDR expression was investigated in different tissues and under cold and virus stresses, with divergent profiles of the tandem duplicated genes being found in different tissues. DCL paralogs showed a contrasting expression in S. tuberosum and S. commersonii following cold stress and virus infection. By contrast, no change in RDR transcript activity was detected following both stresses. Overall, this study provides the first comparative genomic analysis of the core components of the RNAi machinery in Solanaceae and offers a scaffold for future functional analysis of these gene families.


Assuntos
RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética , Ribonuclease III/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum/genética , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Alinhamento de Sequência , Solanum/enzimologia , Solanum tuberosum/enzimologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
10.
Food Chem ; 233: 52-59, 2017 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28530607

RESUMO

Aglianico grapes are known for their high content of proanthocyanidins (PAs), which are responsible for the astringency of wines derived from this cultivar. However, the accumulation of PAs and their genetic control during berry development remain largely unexplored. This work aimed to monitor astringency-causing PAs in Aglianico berries and correlate them with the expression of 14 key genes. Berries were collected during ripening and dissected in skins and seeds. PAs were fractionated and the content of total phenolics, flavans, anthocyanins, tannins reactive towards salivary proteins and tannin structural composition were evaluated. The results provided evidence that PAs were more abundant in seeds than in skins as expected, with differences in the structural composition between tissues, which did not varied during ripening. Expression analysis showed that Aglianico is able to accumulate polyphenols due to its ability to modulate key genes in a tissue-specific manner.


Assuntos
Vitis , Antocianinas , Frutas , Metabolômica , Proantocianidinas , RNA , Transcriptoma , Vinho
11.
J Hered ; 107(2): 187-92, 2016 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26663623

RESUMO

In plants, the most widely used cytological techniques to assess parental genome contributions are based on in situ hybridization (FISH and GISH), but they are time-consuming and need specific expertise and equipment. Recent advances in genomics and molecular biology have made PCR-based markers a straightforward, affordable technique for chromosome typing. Here, we describe the development of a molecular assay that uses single-copy conserved ortholog set II (COSII)-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the high-resolution melting (HRM) technique to assess the chromosome dosage of interspecific hybrids between a Solanum phureja-S. tuberosum diploid (2n = 2x = 24) hybrid and its wild relative S. commersonii. Screening and analysis of 45 COSII marker sequences allowed S. commersonii-specific SNPs to be identified for all 12 chromosomes. Combining the HRM technique with the establishment of synthetic DNA hybrids, SNP markers were successfully used to predict the expected parental chromosome ratio of 5 interspecific triploid hybrids. These results demonstrate the ability of this strategy to distinguish diverged genomes from each other, and to estimate chromosome dosage. The method could potentially be applied to any species as a tool to assess paternal to maternal ratios in the framework of a breeding program or following transformation techniques.


Assuntos
Dosagem de Genes , Genoma de Planta , Ploidias , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Cruzamento , Cromossomos de Plantas , DNA de Plantas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
Mol Biotechnol ; 56(11): 1011-20, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24973024

RESUMO

Native grapevines are the quintessential elements of Southern Italy winemaking, and genomic characterization plays a role of primary importance for preservation and sustainable use of these unexploited genetic resources. Among the various molecular techniques available, SSR and retrotransposons-based markers result to be the most valuable for cultivars and biotypes distinctiveness. A total of 62 accessions including 38 local grape cultivars were analyzed with 30 SSR, four REMAP and one IRAP markers to assess their genetic diversity and obtain a complete genomic profiling. The use of VrZAG79, VrZAG112, VVS2, VVMD25 and VVMD5 combined with retrotransposon-based markers proved to be the most discriminating and polymorphic markers for the rapid and unambiguous identification of minority grapevines from Campania region, which is considered one of the most appreciated Italian districts for wine production. Results revealed 58 SSR marker-specific alleles, 22 genotype-specific SSR alleles, and four REMAP and IRAP private bands. Cases of synonymy and homonymy were discovered. In conclusion, we provided evidences that the integrating SSR and retrotransposon-based markers is an effective strategy to assess the genetic diversity of autochthonous grapes, allowing their easy identification.


Assuntos
Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Retroelementos , Vitis/genética , DNA de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Itália , Filogenia , Vitis/classificação
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...