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1.
Epilepsia ; 60(5): 845-856, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the mode of onset of SCN8A-related severe epilepsy in order to facilitate early recognition, and eventually early treatment with sodium channel blockers. METHODS: We reviewed the phenotype of patients carrying a mutation in the SCN8A gene, among a multicentric cohort of 638 patients prospectively followed by several pediatric neurologists. We focused on the way clinicians made the diagnosis of epileptic encephalopathy, the very first symptoms, electroencephalography (EEG) findings, and seizure types. We made genotypic/phenotypic correlation based on epilepsy-associated missense variant localization over the protein. RESULTS: We found 19 patients carrying a de novo mutation of SCN8A, representing 3% of our cohort, with 9 mutations being novel. Age at onset of epilepsy was 1 day to 16 months. We found two modes of onset: 12 patients had slowly emerging onset with rare and/or subtle seizures and normal interictal EEG (group 1). The first event was either acute generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS; Group 1a, n = 6) or episodes of myoclonic jerks that were often mistaken for sleep-related movements or other movement disorders (Group 1b, n = 6). Seven patients had a sudden onset of frequent tonic seizures or epileptic spasms with abnormal interictal EEG leading to rapid diagnosis of epileptic encephalopathy. Sodium channel blockers were effective or nonaggravating in most cases. SIGNIFICANCE: SCN8A is the third most prevalent early onset epileptic encephalopathy gene and is associated with two modes of onset of epilepsy.

2.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1667-1671, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783266

RESUMO

The article has been corrected to account for one patient being investigated through genome sequencing rather than exome sequencing as originally published; thus amendments to the Abstract and Methods have been made as well as addition of the relevant authors and acknowledgment.

3.
Genet Med ; 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356099

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Germline WWOX pathogenic variants have been associated with disorder of sex differentiation (DSD), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), and WWOX-related epileptic encephalopathy (WOREE syndrome). We review clinical and molecular data on WWOX-related disorders, further describing WOREE syndrome and phenotype/genotype correlations. METHODS: We report clinical and molecular findings in 20 additional patients from 18 unrelated families with WOREE syndrome and biallelic pathogenic variants in the WWOX gene. Different molecular screening approaches were used (quantitative polymerase chain reaction/multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification [qPCR/MLPA], array comparative genomic hybridization [array-CGH], Sanger sequencing, epilepsy gene panel, exome sequencing). RESULTS: Two copy-number variations (CNVs) or two single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) were found respectively in four and nine families, with compound heterozygosity for one SNV and one CNV in five families. Eight novel missense pathogenic variants have been described. By aggregating our patients with all cases reported in the literature, 37 patients from 27 families with WOREE syndrome are known. This review suggests WOREE syndrome is a very severe epileptic encephalopathy characterized by absence of language development and acquisition of walking, early-onset drug-resistant seizures, ophthalmological involvement, and a high likelihood of premature death. The most severe clinical presentation seems to be associated with null genotypes. CONCLUSION: Germline pathogenic variants in WWOX are clearly associated with a severe early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. We report here the largest cohort of individuals with WOREE syndrome.

4.
Hum Genet ; 137(9): 753-768, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167850

RESUMO

NALCN is a conserved cation channel, which conducts a permanent sodium leak current and regulates resting membrane potential and neuronal excitability. It is part of a large ion channel complex, the "NALCN channelosome", consisting of multiple proteins including UNC80 and UNC79. The predominant neuronal expression pattern and its function suggest an important role in neuronal function and disease. So far, biallelic NALCN and UNC80 variants have been described in a small number of individuals leading to infantile hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, and characteristic facies 1 (IHPRF1, OMIM 615419) and 2 (IHPRF2, OMIM 616801), respectively. Heterozygous de novo NALCN missense variants in the S5/S6 pore-forming segments lead to congenital contractures of the limbs and face, hypotonia, and developmental delay (CLIFAHDD, OMIM 616266) with some clinical overlap. In this study, we present detailed clinical information of 16 novel individuals with biallelic NALCN variants, 1 individual with a heterozygous de novo NALCN missense variant and an interesting clinical phenotype without contractures, and 12 individuals with biallelic UNC80 variants. We report for the first time a missense NALCN variant located in the predicted S6 pore-forming unit inherited in an autosomal-recessive manner leading to mild IHPRF1. We show evidence of clinical variability, especially among IHPRF1-affected individuals, and discuss differences between the IHPRF1- and IHPRF2 phenotypes. In summary, we provide a comprehensive overview of IHPRF1 and IHPRF2 phenotypes based on the largest cohort of individuals reported so far and provide additional insights into the clinical phenotypes of these neurodevelopmental diseases to help improve counseling of affected families.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Canalopatias/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Canais de Sódio/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Canalopatias/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Genet Med ; 2018 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997391

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the genetic basis of congenital ataxias (CAs), a unique group of cerebellar ataxias with a nonprogressive course, in 20 patients from consanguineous families, and to identify new CA genes. METHODS: Singleton -exome sequencing on these 20 well-clinically characterized CA patients. We first checked for rare homozygous pathogenic variants, then, for variants from a list of genes known to be associated with CA or very early-onset ataxia, regardless of their mode of inheritance. Our replication cohort of 180 CA patients was used to validate the new CA genes. RESULTS: We identified a causal gene in 16/20 families: six known CA genes (7 patients); four genes previously implicated in another neurological phenotype (7 patients); two new candidate genes (2 patients). Despite the consanguinity, 4/20 patients harbored a heterozygous de novo pathogenic variant. CONCLUSION: Singleton exome sequencing in 20 consanguineous CA families led to molecular diagnosis in 80% of cases. This study confirms the genetic heterogeneity of CA and identifies two new candidate genes (PIGS and SKOR2). Our work illustrates the diversity of the pathophysiological pathways in CA, and highlights the pathogenic link between some CA and early infantile epileptic encephalopathies related to the same genes (STXBP1, BRAT1, CACNA1A and CACNA2D2).

6.
Brain Dev ; 40(9): 768-774, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Heterozygous mutations in the ATP1A3 gene are responsible for various neurological disorders, ranging from early-onset alternating hemiplegia of childhood to adult-onset dystonia-parkinsonism. Next generation sequencing allowed the description of other phenotypes, including early-onset epileptic encephalopathy in two patients. We report on three more patients carrying ATP1A3 mutations with a close phenotype and discuss the relationship of this phenotype to alternating hemiplegia of childhood. METHODS: The patients' DNA underwent next generation sequencing. A retrospective analysis of clinical case records is reported. RESULTS: Each of the three patients had an unreported heterozygous de novo sequence variant in ATP1A3. These patients shared a similar phenotype characterized by early-onset attacks of movement disorders, some of which proved to be epileptic, and severe developmental delay. (Hemi)plegic attacks had not been considered before genetic testing. SIGNIFICANCE: Together with the two previously reported cases, our patients confirm that ATP1A3 mutations are associated with a phenotype combining features of early-onset encephalopathy, epilepsy and dystonic fits, as in the most severe forms of alternating hemiplegia of childhood, but in which (hemi)plegic attacks are absent or only suspected retrospectively.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Transtornos dos Movimentos/genética , Mutação , Convulsões/genética , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , Adolescente , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hemiplegia/genética , Hemiplegia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos dos Movimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos dos Movimentos/fisiopatologia , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/fisiopatologia
7.
Hum Mutat ; 39(7): 934-938, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663568

RESUMO

Early myoclonic epilepsy (EME) or Aicardi syndrome is one of the most severe epileptic syndromes affecting neonates. We performed whole exome sequencing in a sporadic case affected by EME and his parents. In the proband, we identified a homozygous missense variant in the ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 5 (UBA5) gene, encoding a protein involved in post-translational modifications. Functional analysis of the UBA5 variant protein reveals that it is almost completely unable to perform its trans-thiolation activity. Although recessive variants in UBA5 have recently been associated with epileptic encephalopathy, variants in this gene have never been reported to cause EME. Our results further demonstrate the importance of post-translational modifications such as the addition of an ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 (UFM1) to target proteins (ufmylation) for normal neuronal networks activity, and reveal that the dysfunction of the ubiquitous UBA5 protein is a cause of EME.

8.
F1000Res ; 7: 398, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29636907

RESUMO

Rett Syndrome is a severe neurological disorder mainly due to de novo mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene ( MECP2). Mecp2 is known to play a role in chromatin organization and transcriptional regulation. In this review, we report the latest advances on the molecular function of Mecp2 and the new animal and cellular models developed to better study Rett syndrome. Finally, we present the latest innovative therapeutic approaches, ranging from classical pharmacology to correct symptoms to more innovative approaches intended to cure the pathology.

9.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 5(2): 118-127, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29468173

RESUMO

Objective: Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental condition with breathing disorders, affecting around one in 10,000 female births. Desipramine, a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, reduced the number of apneas in Mecp2-deficient mice, a model of RTT. We planned a phase 2 trial to test its efficacy and its safety on breathing patterns in 36 girls with RTT. Methods: The trial was a 6-month, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00990691. Girls diagnosed according to clinical examination and confirmed by genotyping were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive 2-3 mg/kg Desipramine per day (high Desipramine), 1-2 mg/kg Desipramine per day (low Desipramine), or a placebo. The primary outcome was the change of apnea hypopnea index (AHI), defined by the number of apnea and hypopnea events per hour, assessed at 6 months from baseline. Intention-to-treat analysis was applied. Results: The median change in AHI from baseline to 6 months was -31 (IQR: -37 to -11) for the high Desipramine, -17.5 (IQR: -31 to 13) for the low Desipramine, and -13 (IQR:-31 to 0) for the placebo group. We did not find any significant difference in these changes between the groups (P = 0.781). A significant inverse correlation between Desipramine plasma concentration and AHI (r = -0.44; P = 0.0002) was underlined. Interpretation: This first clinical trial of desipramine did not show clinical efficacy. Although required further studies, the significant correlation between Desipramine concentrations and improvement of AHI provided additional and relevant reasons to test the noradrenergic pathway in RTT.

10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(1): 143-148, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29187737

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A large number of genes involved in autosomal recessive forms of intellectual disability (ID) were identified over the past few years through whole-exome sequencing (WES) or whole-genome sequencing in consanguineous families. Disease-associated variants in TRAPPC9 were reported in eight multiplex consanguineous sibships from different ethnic backgrounds, and led to the delineation of the phenotype. Affected patients have microcephaly, obesity, normal motor development, severe ID, and language impairment and brain anomalies. PATIENTS: We report six new patients recruited through a national collaborative network. RESULTS: In the two patients heterozygous for a copy-number variation (CNV), the phenotype was clinically relevant with regard to the literature, which prompted to sequence the second allele, leading to identification of disease-associated variants in both. The third patient was homozygote for an intragenic TRAPPC9 CNV. The phenotype of the patients reported was concordant with the literature. Recent reports emphasized the role of CNVs in the etiology of rare recessive disorders. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that CNVs significantly contribute to the mutational spectrum of TRAPPC9 gene, and also confirms the interest of combining WES with CNV analysis to provide a molecular diagnosis to patients with rare Mendelian disorders.

11.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 21(5): 783-786, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28506426

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES: We report the case of a child prospectively followed in our institution for a severe, neonatal onset epilepsy presenting with severe attacks of apnea that were not initially recognized as seizure since they were not associated with any abnormal movement and since interictal EEG was normal. Recording of attacks using prolonged video-EEG recording allowed to confirm the diagnosis of epileptic seizures. RESULTS: Using whole exome sequencing we found a de novo heterozygous, missense mutation of FHF1 (p.Arg52His, NM_004113), a mutation that has been very recently described in 7 patients with an early onset epileptic encephalopathy. The initial workup showed a partial deficit of the complex II of the respiratory chain in muscle and liver. The prospective follow-up demonstrated that 2 drugs seemed to be more effective than the others: sodium blocker carbamazepine, and serotonin reuptake blocker fluoxetine. GABAergic drugs seemed to be ineffective. No drug aggravated the epilepsy. DISCUSSION: This case report contributes to the description of an emerging phenotype for this condition.


Assuntos
Apneia/etiologia , Complexo II de Transporte de Elétrons/deficiência , Epilepsia/genética , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Mutação/genética , Convulsões/genética , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/complicações , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Convulsões/complicações , Gravação em Vídeo
12.
Brain ; 140(5): 1316-1336, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28379373

RESUMO

Mutations in SCN2A, a gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.2, have been associated with a spectrum of epilepsies and neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we report the phenotypes of 71 patients and review 130 previously reported patients. We found that (i) encephalopathies with infantile/childhood onset epilepsies (≥3 months of age) occur almost as often as those with an early infantile onset (<3 months), and are thus more frequent than previously reported; (ii) distinct phenotypes can be seen within the late onset group, including myoclonic-atonic epilepsy (two patients), Lennox-Gastaut not emerging from West syndrome (two patients), and focal epilepsies with an electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep-like EEG pattern (six patients); and (iii) West syndrome constitutes a common phenotype with a major recurring mutation (p.Arg853Gln: two new and four previously reported children). Other known phenotypes include Ohtahara syndrome, epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures, and intellectual disability or autism without epilepsy. To assess the response to antiepileptic therapy, we retrospectively reviewed the treatment regimen and the course of the epilepsy in 66 patients for which well-documented medical information was available. We find that the use of sodium channel blockers was often associated with clinically relevant seizure reduction or seizure freedom in children with early infantile epilepsies (<3 months), whereas other antiepileptic drugs were less effective. In contrast, sodium channel blockers were rarely effective in epilepsies with later onset (≥3 months) and sometimes induced seizure worsening. Regarding the genetic findings, truncating mutations were exclusively seen in patients with late onset epilepsies and lack of response to sodium channel blockers. Functional characterization of four selected missense mutations using whole cell patch-clamping in tsA201 cells-together with data from the literature-suggest that mutations associated with early infantile epilepsy result in increased sodium channel activity with gain-of-function, characterized by slowing of fast inactivation, acceleration of its recovery or increased persistent sodium current. Further, a good response to sodium channel blockers clinically was found to be associated with a relatively small gain-of-function. In contrast, mutations in patients with late-onset forms and an insufficient response to sodium channel blockers were associated with loss-of-function effects, including a depolarizing shift of voltage-dependent activation or a hyperpolarizing shift of channel availability (steady-state inactivation). Our clinical and experimental data suggest a correlation between age at disease onset, response to sodium channel blockers and the functional properties of mutations in children with SCN2A-related epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.2/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.2/fisiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Neurobiol Dis ; 99: 1-11, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27974239

RESUMO

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder that is primarily caused by mutations in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2). RTT is the second most prevalent cause of intellectual disability in girls and there is currently no cure for the disease. The finding that the deficits caused by the loss of Mecp2 are reversible in the mouse has bolstered interest in gene therapy as a cure for RTT. In order to assess the feasibility of gene therapy in a RTT mouse model, and in keeping with translational goals, we investigated the efficacy of a self-complementary AAV9 vector expressing a codon-optimized version of Mecp2 (AAV9-MCO) delivered via a systemic approach in early symptomatic Mecp2-deficient (KO) mice. Our results show that AAV9-MCO administered at a dose of 2×1011 viral genome (vg)/mouse was able to significantly increase survival and weight gain, and delay the occurrence of behavioral deficits. Apneas, which are one of the core RTT breathing deficits, were significantly decreased to WT levels in Mecp2 KO mice after AAV9-MCO administration. Semi-quantitative analysis showed that AAV9-MCO administration in Mecp2 KO mice resulted in 10 to 20% Mecp2 immunopositive cells compared to WT animals, with the highest Mecp2 expression found in midbrain regions known to regulate cardio-respiratory functions. In addition, we also found a cell autonomous increase in tyrosine hydroxylase levels in the A1C1 and A2C2 catecholaminergic Mecp2+ neurons in treated Mecp2 KO mice, which may partly explain the beneficial effect of AAV9-MCO administration on apneas occurrence.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/administração & dosagem , Síndrome de Rett/terapia , Aminas , Animais , Apneia/metabolismo , Apneia/patologia , Apneia/prevenção & controle , Códon , Ácidos Cicloexanocarboxílicos , Dependovirus , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Gabapentina , Vetores Genéticos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Masculino , Mesencéfalo/metabolismo , Mesencéfalo/patologia , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Respiração , Síndrome de Rett/metabolismo , Síndrome de Rett/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(11): 2847-2859, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27605097

RESUMO

KBG syndrome, due to ANKRD11 alteration is characterized by developmental delay, short stature, dysmorphic facial features, and skeletal anomalies. We report a clinical and molecular study of 39 patients affected by KBG syndrome. Among them, 19 were diagnosed after the detection of a 16q24.3 deletion encompassing the ANKRD11 gene by array CGH. In the 20 remaining patients, the clinical suspicion was confirmed by the identification of an ANKRD11 mutation by direct sequencing. We present arguments to modulate the previously reported diagnostic criteria. Macrodontia should no longer be considered a mandatory feature. KBG syndrome is compatible with autonomous life in adulthood. Autism is less frequent than previously reported. We also describe new clinical findings with a potential impact on the follow-up of patients, such as precocious puberty and a case of malignancy. Most deletions remove the 5'end or the entire coding region but never extend toward 16q telomere suggesting that distal 16q deletion could be lethal. Although ANKRD11 appears to be a major gene associated with intellectual disability, KBG syndrome remains under-diagnosed. NGS-based approaches for sequencing will improve the detection of point mutations in this gene. Broad knowledge of the clinical phenotype is essential for a correct interpretation of the molecular results. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/diagnóstico , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Anormalidades Dentárias/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Dentárias/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16 , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Epilepsia ; 57(5): e87-93, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27030113

RESUMO

Mutations in the KCNQ2 gene encoding the voltage-gated potassium channel subunit Kv7.2 cause early onset epileptic encephalopathy (EOEE). Most mutations have been shown to induce a loss of function or to affect the subcellular distribution of Kv7 channels in neurons. Herein, we investigated functional consequences and subcellular distribution of the p.V175L mutation of Kv7.2 (Kv7.2(V175L) ) found in a patient presenting EOEE. We observed that the mutation produced a 25-40 mV hyperpolarizing shift of the conductance-voltage relationship of both the homomeric Kv7.2(V175L) and heteromeric Kv7.2(V175L) /Kv7.3 channels compared to wild-type channels and a 10 mV hyperpolarizing shift of Kv7.2(V175L) /Kv7.2/Kv7.3 channels in a 1:1:2 ratio mimicking the patient situation. Mutant channels also displayed faster activation kinetics and an increased current density that was prevented by 1 µm linopirdine. The p.V175L mutation did not affect the protein expression of Kv7 channels and its localization at the axon initial segment. We conclude that p.V175L is a gain of function mutation. This confirms previous observations showing that mutations having opposite consequences on M channels can produce EOEE. These findings alert us that drugs aiming to increase Kv7 channel activity might have adverse effects in EOEE in the case of gain-of-function variants.


Assuntos
Canal de Potássio KCNQ2/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Animais , Anquirinas/metabolismo , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Células CHO , Carbamatos/farmacologia , Cricetulus , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Hipocampo/citologia , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/genética , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Fenilenodiaminas/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia
17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(4): 615-8, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26173968

RESUMO

Variants in the WD repeat 45 (WDR45) gene in human Xp11.23 have recently been identified in patients suffering from neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous condition. WDR45 variants cause a childhood-onset encephalopathy accompanied by neurodegeneration in adulthood and iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. They have been almost exclusively found in females, and male lethality was suggested. Here we describe a male patient suffering from a severe and early neurological phenotype, initially presenting early-onset epileptic spasms in clusters associated with an abnormal interictal electroencephalography showing slow background activity, large amplitude asynchronous spikes and abnormal neurological development. This patient is a carrier of a 19.9-kb microdeletion in Xp11.23 containing three genes, including WDR45. These findings reveal that males with WDR45 deletions are viable, and can present with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy without brain iron accumulation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Deleção de Genes , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Distrofias Neuroaxonais/genética , Convulsões/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Distrofias Neuroaxonais/diagnóstico , Convulsões/diagnóstico
18.
Epilepsia ; 56(12): 1931-40, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26514728

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the syntaxin binding protein 1 gene (STXBP1) have been associated mostly with early onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs) and Ohtahara syndrome, with a mutation detection rate of approximately 10%, depending on the criteria of selection of patients. The aim of this study was to retrospectively describe clinical and electroencephalography (EEG) features associated with STXBP1-related epilepsies to orient molecular screening. METHODS: We screened STXBP1 in a cohort of 284 patients with epilepsy associated with a developmental delay/intellectual disability and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without any obvious structural abnormality. We reported on patients with a mutation and a microdeletion involving STXBP1 found using array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). RESULTS: We found a mutation of STXBP1 in 22 patients and included 2 additional patients with a deletion including STXBP1. In 22 of them, epilepsy onset was before 3 months of age. EEG at onset was abnormal in all patients, suppression-burst and multifocal abnormalities being the most common patterns. The rate of patients carrying a mutation ranged from 25% in Ohtahara syndrome to <5% in patients with an epilepsy beginning after 3 months of age. Epilepsy improved over time for most patients, with an evolution to West syndrome in half. Patients had moderate to severe developmental delay with normal head growth. Cerebellar syndrome with ataxic gait and/or tremor was present in 60%. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data confirm that STXBP1 mutations are associated with neonatal-infantile epileptic encephalopathies. The initial key features highlighted in the cohort of early epileptic patients are motor seizures either focal or generalized, abnormal initial interictal EEG, and normal head growth. In addition, we constantly found an ongoing moderate to severe developmental delay with normal head growth. Patients often had ongoing ataxic gait with trembling gestures. Altogether these features should help the clinician to consider STXBP1 molecular screening.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Proteínas Munc18/genética , Idade de Início , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsia/patologia , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mutação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Deleção de Sequência , Espasmos Infantis/genética
20.
Mol Cytogenet ; 8: 39, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26082802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The premature fusion of metopic sutures results in the clinical phenotype of trigonocephaly. An association of this characteristic with the monosomy 9p syndrome is well established and the receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase gene (PTPRD), located in the 9p24.1p23 region and encoding a major component of the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic organization, is considered as a good candidate to be responsible for this form of craniosynostosis. Moreover PTPRD is known to recruit multiple postsynaptic partners such as IL1RAPL1 which gene alterations lead to non syndromic intellectual disability (ID). RESULTS: We describe a 30 month old boy with severe intellectual disability, trigonocephaly and dysmorphic facial features such as a midface hypoplasia, a flat nose, a depressed nasal bridge, hypertelorism, a long philtrum and a drooping mouth. Microarray chromosomal analysis revealed the presence of a homozygous deletion involving the PTPRD gene, located on chromosome 9p22.3. Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR) amplifications all along the gene failed to amplify the patient's cDNA in fibroblasts, indicating the presence of two null PTPRD alleles. Synaptic PTPRD interacts with IL1RAPL1 which defects have been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder. The absence of the PTPRD transcript leads to a decrease in the expression of IL1RAPL1. These results suggest the direct involvement of PTPRD in ID, which is consistent with the PTPRD -/- mice phenotype. Deletions of PTPRD have been previously suggested as a cause of trigonocephaly in patients with monosomy 9p and genome-wide association study suggested variations in PTPRD are associated with hearing loss. CONCLUSIONS: The deletion identified in the reported patient supports previous hypotheses on its function in ID and hearing loss. However, its involvement in the occurrence of metopic synostosis is still to be discussed as more investigation of patients with the 9p monosomy syndrome is required.

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