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1.
Clin Ter ; 170(1): e59-e65, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850486

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, for which the survival rate is increasing over time. Growing evidence are showing that the effect of lifestyle could have the same weight of the effect of the usual clinical-pathological risk factors on survival rate. The DianaWeb study responds to the pressing request of patients diagnosed with breast cancer to know the most advanced point of scientific research on the prevention of recurrences, to have a virtual space to meet, where to receive advice and practical information for the daily management the lifestyle change. DianaWeb is a community-based participatory research, dedicated to breast cancer patients, aimed to monitor lifestyle, provide them tips to encourage sustainable lifestyle changes, and to analyze clinical outcomes. In order to achieve these aims, DianaWeb uses a specific interactive website (http://www.dianaweb.org/). METHODS: The web architecture has been designed essential and light, with a rigorous implantation that brings the figure of the woman to the center. In order to humanized the project the acronym used to identify the study was Diana (Diet and Androgens), a classical female name, who was illustrated as a female avatar, aimed to symbolize all women. The graphical interface was developed using seven pastel tones colors, which become a fundamental elements of the layout, such as frame, navigation menu, and separation interspaces. RESULTS: The project started in 2015, and in 4 days the web site was visited by more than 1000 people. A total of 2823 persons enrolled in the study, but 2182 did not send the full documentations, 61 persons abandoned the study, 641 timely answered to the questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: The high number of participants' interaction within the web page, confirmed the high usability of the web page and the great interest of patients. Prevention of breast cancer recurrences with low cost technologies, easily available to everybody, is a priority for both public health and public finances.

2.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 59(1): E14-E19, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29938235

RESUMO

Vaccines recommendations are available for both healthcare professionals and the general public, but although the vaccination is the most effective method to prevent infectious diseases, the coverage is still behind the recommended rate. In Italy, according to a recent study, the anti-flu vaccination rate among healthcare worker range between 9% to 30%. The aim of our study was to identify knowledge, attitude and behaviours regarding influenza vaccination among community pharmacists in order to increase the coverage rate among healthcare professional. "PErCEIVE (Pharmacist Perception on Influenza Vaccine) in Umbria" was a cross sectional survey among community pharmacists in Umbria conducted between 16th November 2015 to 29th February 2016. The questionnaire was anonymous, on-line self-administered survey. Statistical analysis were performed using STATA/SE 12 software. The response rate was 28.91% (n = 72/249). Among the studied population 76.39% (n = 55) had never performed influenza vaccine during the previous 5 years. Regarding source of information, only 15.28% of the subjects (n = 11) consulted the scientific publications, vs 52.78% (n = 38) who did not show any kind of interest upon the influenza vaccine. Our results show a low attitude to be vaccinated among pharmacists together with a low grade of awareness regarding the important role that pharmacists might play in order to reduce influenza burden, to promote health literacy among their patients and to decrease the risk of patients infection. Pharmacists might be crucial healthcare workers involved in health promotion, in vaccines' uptake and practices progression.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação
3.
Ann Ig ; 30(6): 470-481, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The International Classification of Sleep disorders, the International Classification of Diseases and the Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders defines insomnia as an experience of insufficient or poor sleep quality, characterized by at least one of the following symptoms: difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep, early awakenings and poor restorative sleep. In Italy, the Morfeo 1 study detects a prevalence of 20% of insomnia and a 40% of cases with day-time symptoms. The chronic sleep deprivation is responsible for cognitive disorders with effects on social life. Being common knowledge, lifestyle can also influence sleep. Some of the "sleep hygiene rules" involve a control on smoking, coffee consumption and diet. The Mediterranean Diet (MD), thanks to its high level of tryptophan, has a positive influence on sleep and can protect against stress and anxiety. STUDY DESIGN: The aim of InSOMNIA study was to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders among nursing students of the University of Perugia and, therefore, to evaluate how lifestyle, eating habits, health status and academics performance are linked to night-time and daytime symptoms of the interrupted sleep. METHODS: We adopted a cross sectional survey, collecting data from "Sleep and Daytime Habits Questionnaire" to evaluate the sleep disorders and from PREDIMED questionnaire to assess the adherence to MD. RESULTS: We found a statistical significant association between PREDIMED score and BMI (p-value=0.0127), smoking habit (p-value = 0.0125), quality of life (p-value = 0.0480) and academic progress (p-value = 0.0092). CONCLUSIONS: We found a high prevalence of sleep disturbances statistically associated with diet and poor academic progress.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Dieta Mediterrânea , Qualidade de Vida , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Café , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Aprendizagem , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/prevenção & controle , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Triptofano/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
4.
Clin Ter ; 168(5): e327-e332, 2017.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29044356

RESUMO

AIMS: The study is a part of the "Active surveillance of adverse events following HPV vaccination" project conducted in order to actively register all common adverse events in girls 9-26 years after anti-HPV vaccination. METHODS: It is a multicenter cohort study which included 12 Regions and 87 local health authorities, coordinated by the National Centre for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion (CNESPS) ISS. We included all adolescents, 12 years old, actively contacted for HPV vaccination, as well as all women aged 9-26 years who recived, in the period under review, the same vaccination at the local health authorities in Spoleto. RESULT: Out of 147 girls enrolled in the program, only 102 have reported the diary filled after the first vaccine dose, 62 and 88 respectively after the second and third dose. The filled diaries shown that adverse events, if any, have occurred almost exclusively during the first 5 days of vaccination, with a strong prevalence of local reactions (erythema, pain and swelling at the injection site) followed by headache and muscles pain. CONCLUSION: Even though the results show a high number of reported adverse events, mainly due to the detection method (active surveillance), they are mild or moderate in almost all the cases. This is in line with that seen in previous trials.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Vigilância Imunológica , Itália , Adulto Jovem
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2016: 7529521, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27965980

RESUMO

Lycium barbarum is a famous plant in the traditional Chinese medicine. The plant is known to have health-promoting bioactive components. The properties of Lycium barbarum berries cultivated in Umbria (Italy) and their effect on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) have been investigated in this work. The obtained results demonstrated that the Lycium barbarum berries from Umbria region display high antioxidant properties evaluated by total phenolic content and ORAC method, on hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Moreover, on HepG2 cell line Lycium barbarum berries extract did not change cell viability analyzed by MTT and Trypan blue exclusion assay and did not induce genotoxic effect analyzed by comet assay. Furthermore, it was demonstrated, for the first time, that the berries extract showed a protective effect on DNA damage, expressed as antigenotoxic activity in vitro. Finally, Lycium barbarum berries extract was able to modulate the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress, proliferation, apoptosis, and cancer. In particular, downexpression of genes involved in tumor migration and invasion (CCL5), in increased risk of metastasis and antiapoptotic signal (DUSP1), and in carcinogenesis (GPx-3 and PTGS1), together with overexpression of tumor suppressor gene (MT3), suggested that Umbrian Lycium barbarum berries could play a protective role against hepatocellular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/prevenção & controle , Frutas/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevenção & controle , Lycium/química , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Itália , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Mutat Res ; 770(Pt A): 35-45, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27894689

RESUMO

Many studies have reported the occurrence of work-environment contamination by antineoplastic drugs (ANPD), with significant incorporation of trace amounts of these hazardous drugs in hospital personnel. Given the ability of most ANPD to actively bind DNA, thus inducing genotoxic effects, it is of pivotal importance to assess the degree of genotoxic damage (i.e., residual genotoxic risk) in occupationally exposed subjects. The lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus (L-CBMN) assay is largely used for biological effect monitoring in subjects occupationally exposed to ANPD. In this study, we identified and analyzed the studies published reporting the use of the L-CBMN assay as biomarker of genotoxic risk in health care workers exposed to ANPD with the aim of performing meta-analysis and providing a meta-estimate of the genotoxic effect of exposure. We retrieved 24 studies, published from 1988 to 2015, measuring MN in peripheral blood lymphocytes in health care workers occupationally exposed to ANPD. In 15 out of the 24 studies (62.5%), increased MN frequencies were recognized in exposed subjects as compared to controls. The meta-analysis of MN frequency of the combined studies confirmed an association between occupational exposure to ANPD and cytogenetic effects with an overall meta-estimate of 1.67 [95% CI: 1.41-1.98]. In 16 out of the 24 studies (66.6%) at least one other genotoxicity biomarker, besides L-CBMN assay, was employed for biological effect monitoring. In several studies the effect of exposure to ANPD was evaluated also in terms of MN in exfoliated buccal cells. Other studies focused on genotoxicity endpoints, such as sister chromatid exchanges (3 studies), chromosome aberrations (6 studies), or primary DNA damage investigated by comet assay (7 studies). Overall, there was good agreement between other genotoxicity tests employed and L-CBMN assay outcomes.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Citocinese/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional , Humanos , Linfócitos/ultraestrutura
7.
Ann Ig ; 28(5): 339-48, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27627665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet (MD) is considered one of the healthiest dietary models, as it decreases the risk of chronic diseases and may modulate the organism's early response to environmental pollution. In recent decades, Mediterranean countries have been replacing their traditional diet with other less healthy eating habits, especially among children and teenagers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the MD and the level of adherence to it in 6-8 year old Italian children, in relation to residence, lifestyle, and social and family contexts. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to the children's parents in two seasons in 5 Italian towns. The diet section contained 116 questions investigating the frequency of consumption of different types of food. The Italian Mediterranean Index (IMI) was calculated according to the intake of 6 typical Mediterranean and 4 non-Mediterranean foods. On the basis of IMI score, MD adherence was classified as low (≤ 3 IMI score), medium (4-5) and high (≥ 6). Total energy load and diet composition in micro- and macronutrients were calculated from consumption frequency. RESULTS: Diet analysis was computed on 1164 subjects with two complete questionnaires. Body mass index, calculated for each subject, showed that 28.9% of the children were overweight, the figure varying slightly with area of residence. Our findings showed that 59.0% of the children had a low score for MD adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that most Italian children did not follow the MD and socio-economic characteristics appeared not to be associated with type of diet.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Estilo de Vida , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pais , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Ann Ig ; 27(4): 646-56, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26241109

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The MAPEC-Life project aims to study the biological effects of early exposure to air pollutants on the oral mucosa cells of school-age children in five Italian cities. A questionnaire was created to evaluate the association between outdoor and indoor airborne pollutants, lifestyle, diet and biomarker effects. The feasibility and reliability of the questionnaire were evaluated. METHODS: A questionnaire was drawn up to be filled in by the parents of 6-8-year-old children. It consisted of 148 questions on the children's health, physical activity, environmental exposures and the frequency of food consumption at the main meals. First we conducted a questionnaire feasibility study involving 53 volunteer parents. We then performed a reliability study by administering the questionnaire to a further 156 parents and again one month later (test/retest method). The correlations between answers at the first and second administration of the questionnaire were evaluated using the Kappa statistic and Spearman's coefficient. RESULTS: After verifying the feasibility of the questionnaire, we conducted a reliability analysis on 132 completed questionnaires. The percentage of agreement between the first and the second responses given was over 70%, all K values being greater than 0.6. The analysis of calories and macronutrients also showed good agreement. CONCLUSIONS: The questionnaire drawn up for the study proved to be sufficiently reliable for gathering information about the factors of interest in our study of the relationship between air pollution and early biological effects in children.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental , Nível de Saúde , Atividade Motora , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Chemosphere ; 120: 221-9, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25084136

RESUMO

Urban air contains many mutagenic pollutants. This research aimed to investigate the presence of mutagens in the air by short-term mutagenicity tests using bacteria, human cells and plants. Inflorescences of Tradescantia were exposed to air in situ for 6h, once a month from January to May, to monitor volatile compounds and micronuclei frequency was computed. On the same days PM10 was collected continuously for 24h. Half of each filter was extracted with organic solvents and studied by means of the Ames test, using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains, and the comet assay on human leukocytes. A quarter of each filter was extracted with distilled water in which Tradescantia was exposed. PM10 concentration was particularly high in the winter season (> 50 µg/m(3)). In situ exposure of inflorescences to urban air induced a significant increase in micronuclei frequency at all the sites considered, but only in January (p < 0.01). Aqueous extracts collected in January and February induced genotoxic effects in Tradescantia exposed in the laboratory (p < 0.01). Ames test showed that organic extracts of winter urban air were able to induce genetic mutations in S. typhimurium TA98 strain (± S9), but not in TA100 strain, with a revertants/plate number nine times higher than the negative control. Comet assay showed that winter extracts were more toxic and genotoxic than spring extracts. All the mutagenicity tests performed confirmed that urban air in North Italy in winter contains both volatile and non-volatile genotoxic substances able to induce genetic damage in bacteria, human cells and plants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mutagênicos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Ensaio Cometa , Humanos , Itália , Leucócitos/química , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Mutação Puntual/efeitos dos fármacos , Pólen/química , Pólen/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhimurium/química , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Tradescantia/química , Tradescantia/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
BMJ Open ; 4(9): e006096, 2014 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25227631

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Genotoxic biomarkers have been studied largely in adult population, but few studies so far have investigated them in children exposed to air pollution. Children are a high-risk group as regards the health effects of air pollution and some studies suggest that early exposure during childhood can play an important role in the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. The objective of the project is to evaluate the associations between the concentration of urban air pollutants and biomarkers of early biological effect in children, and to propose a model for estimating the global risk of early biological effects due to air pollutants and other factors in children. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Two biomarkers of early biological effects, DNA damage by the comet assay and the micronuclei (MN) test, will be investigated in oral mucosa cells of 6-8-year-old children. Concurrently, some toxic airborne pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and nitro-PAH) and in vitro air mutagenicity and toxicity in ultra-fine air particulates (PM0.5) will be evaluated. Furthermore, demographic and socioeconomic variables, other sources of exposures to air pollutants and lifestyle variables will be assessed by a structured questionnaire. The associations between sociodemographic, environmental and other exposure variables and biomarkers of early biological effect using univariate and multivariate models will be analysed. A tentative model for calculating the global absolute risk of having early biological effects caused by air pollution and other variables will be proposed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The project has been approved by the Ethics Committees of the local Health Authorities. The results will be communicated to local Public Health Agencies, for supporting educational programmes and health policy strategies. LIFE+2012 Environment Policy and Governance. LIFE12 ENV/IT/000614.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Política de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Environ Pollut ; 157(12): 3354-6, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19836119

RESUMO

Genotoxicity of urban air has been analysed almost exclusively in airborne particulates. We monitored the genotoxic effects of airborne pollutants in the urban air of Perugia (Central Italy). Two plant bioindicators with different genetic endpoints were used: micronuclei in meiotic pollen mother cells using Tradescantia-micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN) and DNA damage in nuclei of Nicotiana tabacum leaves using comet assay (Nicotiana-comet). Buds of Tradescantia clone # 4430 and young N. tabacum cv. Xanthi plants were exposed for 24 h at three sites with different pollution levels. One control site (indoor control) was also used. The two bioassays showed different sensitivities toward urban pollutants: Trad-MCN assay was the most sensitive, but DNA damage in N. tabacum showed a better correlation with the pollutant concentrations. In situ biomonitoring of airborne genotoxins using higher plants combined with chemical analysis is thus recommended for characterizing genotoxicity of urban air.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Bioensaio/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Tabaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tradescantia/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Tabaco/genética , Tradescantia/genética , Saúde da População Urbana
12.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 71(21): 1430-9, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18800292

RESUMO

In tunnel construction workers, occupational exposure to dust (alpha-quartz and other particles from blasting), gases (nitrogen dioxide, NO(2)), diesel exhausts, and oil mist has been associated with lung function decline, induction of inflammatory reactions in the lungs with release of mediators that may influence blood coagulation, and increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The present molecular epidemiology study was designed to evaluate whether occupational exposure to indoor pollutants during road tunnel construction might result in genotoxic effects. A study group of 39 underground workers and a reference group of 34 unexposed subjects were examined. Primary and oxidative DNA damage, sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE), and micronuclei (MN) were measured in peripheral blood cells. The possible influences of polymorphisms in gene encoding for CYP1A1 and GSTM1 xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes were also investigated. Exposure assessment was performed with detailed interviews and questionnaires. There were no significant differences in the level of primary and oxidative DNA damage and frequency of SCE between the tunnel workers and controls, whereas the frequency of MN showed a significant increase in exposed subjects compared to controls. No effects of CYP1A1 or GSTM1 variants were observed for the analyzed biomarkers. Since MN in peripheral blood lymphocytes are recognized as a predictive biomarker of cancer risk within a population of healthy subjects, the genotoxic risk of occupational exposure to various indoor environmental pollutants during road tunnel construction cannot be excluded by this biomonitoring study.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo Genético , Quartzo/efeitos adversos , Troca de Cromátide Irmã/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportes , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio Cometa/métodos , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/efeitos dos fármacos , Poeira , Glutationa Transferase/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Water Res ; 42(15): 4075-82, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18718628

RESUMO

In the last few years chlorine dioxide has been increasingly used for disinfecting drinking water in many countries. Although it does not react with humic substances, chlorine dioxide added to water is reduced primarily to chlorite and chlorate ions, compounds that are under investigation for their potential adverse effects on human health. The aim of this research was to study the genotoxicity of chlorite and chlorate and their mixtures. The end-points included two plant tests (chromosomal aberration test in Allium cepa and micronucleus assay in Tradescantia, carried out at different times of exposure) and two genotoxicity tests in human HepG2 cells (comet assay and cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus test). Preliminary toxicity tests were carried out for both plant and HepG2 assays. The results showed that chlorite and chlorate are able to induce chromosomal damage to plant systems, particularly chromosomal aberrations in A. cepa root tip cells, even at concentrations lower than the limit established by Italian normative law and WHO guidelines. In HepG2 cells increased DNA damage was only observed for chlorate at the lowest concentration. No increase in micronuclei frequency was detected in any of the samples tested in human HepG2 cells.


Assuntos
Cloratos/toxicidade , Cloretos/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Bioensaio/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromossomos de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Ensaio Cometa/métodos , Humanos , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cebolas/genética , Tradescantia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tradescantia/genética
14.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 102(1): 37-47, 2005 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15925000

RESUMO

Antigenotoxicity is considered an important property for probiotic lactobacilli. The ability of non probiotic lactobacilli from dairy products and starters to inhibit two reference genotoxins: 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine was evaluated. The study was carried out using short-term assays with different targets, such as procaryotic cells (SOS-Chromotest for genotoxicity in Escherichia coli and Ames test for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium) and eucaryotic cells (Comet assay for genotoxicity in Caco-2 enterocytes). A high proportion of strains inhibiting 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide activity was found in Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus plantarum. Inhibition of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine activity occurred in only one L. acidophilus strain. All the strains with antigenotoxic properties also demonstrated antimutagenic activity and produced modifications in genotoxin spectroscopic profiles. Strain viability during and after genotoxin exposure was confirmed. Concordance of the results obtained with microbial and mammalian cell-based tests is underlined.


Assuntos
4-Nitroquinolina-1-Óxido/toxicidade , Laticínios/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Metilnitronitrosoguanidina/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Células CACO-2 , Ensaio Cometa , Humanos , Lactobacillus/genética , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Probióticos
15.
Ann Ig ; 16(1-2): 321-40, 2004.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15554538

RESUMO

During the last two decades, concerns have arisen regarding a possible association between extremely-low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) exposure and cancer incidence (e.g. childhood acute leukaemia, cancer of the nervous system, and lymphomas). In 1979, Wertheimer and Leeper firstly reported an excess of cancer mortality among children living in homes located near power lines and presumably exposed to elevated magnetic fields. Subsequently, a large number of epidemiological studies investigated the possible association between residential or occupational exposure to ELF-EMF and cancer. Several in vivo and in vitro models have been investigated with the effort to determine a link, if any, between such fields and mutagenesis and to determine the possible mechanism of cancer risk. However, a causal relationship between exposure to ELF-EMF and cancer has been suggested but has not been unequivocally demonstrated. In 1998, following an analysis of the results retrieved in the literature, the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences proposed to apply a "possible human carcinogen" category (Group 2B) to ELF-EMF. More recently, in 2002, the same classification for ELF-MF was proposed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In this in vitro approach, to test the genotoxic and/or co-genotoxic potency of ELF-MF, we used the alkaline single-cell microgel-electrophoresis (comet) assay and the cytokinesis block micronucleus test. Co-exposure assays were performed in the presence of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide (4NQO), benzene, 1,4-benzenediol (1,4-BD), or 1,2,4-benzenetriol (1,2,4-BT). An ELF-MF (50 Hz, 5 mT) was obtained by a system composed of capsulated induction coils. ELF-MF alone was unable to cause direct primary DNA damage. Whereas, an increased extent of DNA damage was observed in cells co-exposed to ELF-MF and MNNG, 1,4-BD, or 1,2,4-BT. An opposite trend was observed in cells treated with 4NQO and co-exposed to ELF-MF. Moreover, the frequency of micronucleated cells in ELF-MF-exposed cells was higher than in control cultures. Our findings suggest that the tested ELF-MF (50 Hz, 5 mT) possess genotoxic (micronucleus test) and co-genotoxic (comet assay) capabilities. The possibility that ELF-MF might interfere with the genotoxic activity of xenobiotics has important implications, since human populations are likely to be exposed to a variety of genotoxic agents concomitantly with exposure to this type of physical agent.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Testes de Mutagenicidade
16.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 17(5-6): 581-6, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14599448

RESUMO

The generation, transmission (e.g. power lines, transformers, service wires, and electrical panels), and use (e.g. home appliances, such as electric blankets, shavers, and televisions) of electrical energy is associated with the production of weak electric and magnetic fields (EMF) which oscillate 50 (Europe) or 60 (USA) times per second (power-line frequency), falling in the extremely-low frequency (ELF) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Epidemiological reports suggest a possible association between exposure to ELF-EMF and an increased risk of cancer (e.g. childhood acute leukaemia). Benzene is an established human leukomogen. This xenobiotic, which is unlikely to be the ultimate carcinogen, is metabolized in the liver to its primary metabolite phenol, which is hydroxylated to hydroquinone (1,4-benzenediol) and 1,2,4-benzenetriol. In this in vitro approach, to test the genotoxic and / or co-genotoxic potency of ELF-EMF, the cytokinesis block micronucleus (MN) method with Jurkat cells has been used. A 50 Hz magnetic field (MF) of 5 mT field strength was applied for different length of time (from 1 to 24 h), either alone or with benzene, 1,4-benzenediol, or 1,2,4-benzenetriol. Our preliminary results show that, after 24 h exposure, the frequency of micronucleated cells in MF-exposed cultures is 1.9 fold higher than in sham-exposed (control) cultures. Benzene exposure does not show any cytogenetic activity, whereas 1,4-benzenediol or 1,2,4-benzenetriol alone significantly affect the number of MN in Jurkat cells, as compared to untreated cultures. Moreover, co-exposure to ELF-MF does not seem to affect the frequency of micronuclei induced by benzene, 1,4-benzenediol, or 1,2,4-benzenetriol.


Assuntos
Benzeno/toxicidade , Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Hidroquinonas/toxicidade , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/efeitos dos fármacos , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Testes para Micronúcleos , Índice Mitótico , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Toxicology ; 188(2-3): 187-95, 2003 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12767690

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the primary DNA damage due to occupational exposure to chromium (VI), DNA strand-breaks and apoptosis in peripheral lymphocytes were measured in a group of 19 chrome-plating workers. DNA strand-breaks was assessed by alkaline (pH>13) single-cell microgel electrophoresis ('comet') assay, while apoptosis was measured by flow-cytometry after propidium iodide staining of the cells. Concentrations of chromium in urine, erythrocytes and lymphocytes were investigated as biological indicators of exposure. A group of 18 hospital workers (control group I) and another 20 university personnel (control group II) without exposure to chromium were also studied as controls. The results of the study show that chrome-plating workers have higher levels of chromium in urine, erythrocytes and lymphocytes than unexposed workers. Comet tail moment values, assumed as index of DNA damage, are increased in chromium-exposed workers and results are significantly correlated to chromium lymphocyte concentrations. No difference emerged in the percentage of apoptotic nuclei in exposed and unexposed workers. The study confirms that measurements of chromium in erythrocytes and lymphocytes may provide useful information about recent and past exposure to hexavalent chromium at the workplace. The increase in DNA strand-breaks measured by comet assay suggests this test is valid for the biological monitoring of workers exposed to genotoxic compounds such as chromium (VI).


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinógenos Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Cromo/efeitos adversos , Dano ao DNA , Metalurgia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Carcinógenos Ambientais/metabolismo , Cromo/sangue , Cromo/urina , Ensaio Cometa , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11501318

RESUMO

This paper presents a study on environmental assessment of an abandoned industrial area located in central Italy. Main production was refractory materials and compounds for treatment of industrial wastewater. The present work deals with a methodology for development of a sound sampling design, chemical characterization of soil samples, definition of the degree of site contamination according to law limits and evaluation of the fate and transport of contaminants by EPA simulation model (VLEACH 2.2a). Results indicate that toxic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and plasticizers) are uniformly distributed in the contaminated site and only in one sampling point their concentrations exceed law limits. Modeling results confirm that contaminants migration to groundwater can be excluded, addressing for a site remediation limited to the surface layer.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Plastificantes/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Indústrias , Poluentes da Água/análise
19.
Mutat Res ; 490(2): 159-69, 2001 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11342241

RESUMO

This research was designed to examine the presence of mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds in airborne pollutants in the rubber industry using an integrated chemical/biological approach. Inhalable airborne particulate matter (PM-10: <10 microm) was collected in four rubber factories using a high-volume sampler equipped with a cascade impactor for particle fractionation. The organic extracts of two different fractions (0.5-10 microm and <0.5 microm) were examined for mutagenicity with the Ames test and for in vitro DNA-damaging activity in human leukocytes by single-cell microgel electrophoresis (Comet assay). The extracts were also studied by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. Nitrosamines in ambient air were sampled on cartridges and analysed by GC with a thermal energy analyser (TEA) detector. Airborne volatile genotoxins were monitored in situ using a clastogenicity plant test (Tradescantia/micronuclei test). The results showed that airborne particulates were mainly very fine (<0.5 microm) and that trace amounts of genotoxic nitrosamines (N-nitrosodimethylamine: 0.10-0.98 microg/m(3); N-nitrosomorpholine: 0.77-2.40 microg/m(3)) and PAH (total PAH: 0.34-11.35 microg/m(3)) were present in air samples. Some extracts, particularly those obtained from the finest fractions, were mutagenic with the Ames test and genotoxic with the Comet assay. In situ monitoring of volatile mutagens using the Tradescantia/micronuclei test gave positive results in two working environments. The results showed the applicability of this integrated chemical-biological approach for detecting volatile and non-volatile genotoxins and for monitoring genotoxic hazards in the rubber industry.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Indústria Química , Dano ao DNA , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Borracha , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Ensaio Cometa , DNA Bacteriano/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA de Plantas/genética , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Nitrosaminas/isolamento & purificação , Nitrosaminas/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/genética , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/isolamento & purificação , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Volatilização
20.
Mutat Res ; 464(2): 269-77, 2000 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10648914

RESUMO

Previous literature reports have demonstrated that nucleated trout erythrocytes in conditions of oxidative stress are subjected to DNA and membrane damage, and inactivation of glutathione peroxidase. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of three diaryl tellurides and the organoselenium compound ebselen to protect trout (Salmo irideus) erythrocytes against oxidative stress, induced thermally and by a variation of pH. The antioxidant ability of these molecules was evaluated through chemiluminescence. Impairment of DNA was assessed using the comet assay, a rapid and sensitive single cell gel electrophoresis technique, used to detect primary DNA damage in individual cells. At low concentrations (<10 microM), all the compounds used presented a protective effect on DNA damage without altering the hemolysis rate. In higher concentrations, they accelerated the hemolysis rate and two of the diaryl tellurides were strongly genotoxic.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Azóis/toxicidade , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Compostos Organometálicos/toxicidade , Compostos Organosselênicos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ensaio Cometa , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eritrócitos/citologia , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Medições Luminescentes , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Telúrio/química
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