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1.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 66(2): 246-253, 2019 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200422

RESUMO

Clinical trials become very relevant in the development of new drugs when their pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficiency, safety and possible adverse effects are being assessed. So new drugs are available for their daily use in patients, a model has been proposed for more than four decades; This model consists in the realization of sequential research studies, which were called clinical phases I, II, III and IV, which begin once the drugs' effects have been verified in cellular and animal models (preclinical phase). In this article, the general characteristics of each of the clinical phases are synthesized but, apart from that, the modifications that have been done over the years are described with the purpose of making new drugs available in a quicker way.

2.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(4): 792-798, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192683

RESUMO

Introduction: Background: there are multiple factors that increase the presence of dyslipidemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective: to determine if the android/gynecoid ratio (A/GR) has utility as a cardiometabolic factor for dyslipidemia in pediatric patients with chronic renal failure. Materials and methods: cohort study. Patients with terminal CKD in peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis were included. Determinations of body composition, body mass index (BMI), and lipid profile were assessed for each patient. Subsequently, somatometry and lipid profile were performed at 6 and 12 months of follow-up. Statistical analysis: to identify the difference between the initial somatic and biochemical variables, and at 6 and 12 months, the Friedman test was applied. The Spearman coefficient determined the correlation of bodily and biochemical variables. Results: twenty-one patients were analyzed. Tryglycerides (TGL) serum at 12 months of follow-up increased significantly (6 vs 12 months, p = 0.05), without evidence of an increase in the Z score of the BMI (p = 0.98) or total cholesterol (p = 0.49). Body fat, fat percentage and Z score BMI did not correlate with changes in cholesterol and triglyceride levels at 6 and 12 months; however, the A/GI presented a statistically significant association with the change in serum concentrations of TGL at 6 (r = 0.65, p = 0.003) and 12 months of follow-up (r = 0.54, p = 0.02). Conclusions: the A/GI showed an association with the increase in the serum concentration of TGL at 12 months of follow-up.

3.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 66(1): 115-122, 2019 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013412

RESUMO

Research on human subjects cannot occur if it does not comply with these ethical principles: autonomy, beneficence and justice. The historical antecedents that emphasized the need to have documents to guide the researchers' behavior point to regrettable events for humanity. Even though the first recommendations were published more than 50 years ago in the Declaration of Helsinki, it is possible to find examples of investigations that have been conducted without complying with the aforementioned ethical principles. Approval by an ethics committee is required by law for all the research projects that involve human subjects. At present, virtually all scientific journals require the proof of approval and they assess whether the risks which participants were subjected to in the studies were necessary, and they also assess whether the benefits that were obtained from the research justify its conduction. Meeting the criteria that are required in order to conduct a study in an ethical manner should not be seen as an imposition; but as a moral commitment that has been established between the researcher and the participants of the study.

4.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(3): 563-570, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033333

RESUMO

Introduction: Objective: to identify the factors related to the presence of hospital malnutrition (HM) in patients under five years of age hospitalized in a third level care unit. Material and methods: cohort study. Patients under five years of age hospitalized were included. The record identified age, sex, pathological history, reason for admission and nutritional status by calculating weight/age (W/A), height/age (H/A) and weight/height (W/H). The entire somatometry intake process was performed upon admission, and was repeated on days 2, 4 and 7 of follow-up. The HM was defined as a decrease of more than 0.25 standard deviations in the W/H after seven days of hospitalization. Results: eighty-three patients were identified. The reason for admission was non-surgical pathology in 77% (n = 64). Seventy per cent (n = 58) had underlying disease. At the time of admission, 66% (n = 55) presented malnutrition. A progressive decrease in the Z score of W/H was observed as hospitalization progressed (p < 0.001). An incidence of 67.5% of HM was identified. It was shown that the presence of malnutrition at admission of hospitalization increased the risk of HM (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.05 to 8.10, p = 0.03). In patients with malnutrition from admission, an age younger than two years decreased the risk of HM (OR 0.093, 95% CI 0.009 to 0.959, p = 0.046), while the underlying disease increased the risk (OR 6.34, 95% CI 1.009 to 39.89, p = 0.049). Conclusions: the presence of malnutrition and underlying disease prior to admission were risk factors to present HM.

5.
Nutrition ; 65: 202-207, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879954

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In neonates on total parenteral nutrition (TPN), amino acids may be a risk factor for developing total parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (TPNAC). We aimed, first, to compare methionine, cysteine, and taurine plasma levels between neonates on TPN who were receiving an intravenous amino acid solution based on a breast milk aminogram and those on an intravenous solution of pediatric amino acids based on an umbilical cord aminogram, and second, to determine the frequency of TPNAC. METHODS: A double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted. Ninety-four neonates with a birthweight of 1000g or more and a gestational age of 30 wk or older were admitted and enrolled. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 7, and 14 d of TPN, and plasma amino acid concentrations were determined by ultra-high-resolution liquid chromatography. Continuous variables were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test or Student's t test; categorical variables were compared using the Fisher exact test. RESULTS: Thirty-five neonates completed the study (Primene, n = 14; TrophAmine, n = 21). On day 14, methionine plasma concentrations were significantly lower in the Primene group than in the TrophAmine group (27 µmol/L versus 32.9 µmol/L, P = 0.044); the taurine concentration was significantly higher in the same group (72.4 µmol/L versus 45.3 µmol/L, P < 0.0001). There were no differences in TPNAC incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Administering an intravenous solution of pediatric amino acids based on the umbilical cord aminogram yielded a higher taurine and lower methionine plasma concentration than did administering a similar solution based on the breast milk aminogram.

6.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 65(2): 178-186, 2018 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29983015

RESUMO

Experimental studies are used to assess the efficacy and effectiveness of therapeutic (pharmacological or surgical), preventive (such as vaccination or lifestyle changes) or educational interventions (e.g., workshops to improve quality and healthcare). There are different experimental studies but, currently, randomized controlled trial (RCT) is recognized as the type of study that provides the highest level of evidence. When this type of research cannot be carried out, there are quasi-experimental studies, where there may be no randomization or a control group; however, this type of studies has a lower degree of validity. This article describes the way different types of RCT and quasi-experimental studies are performed; their advantages and disadvantages are also explained.

7.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 65(1): 92-98, 2018 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723944

RESUMO

Clinical case reports correspond to articles that have the lowest level of evidence within different research trials. However, not only are they common and significant in the medical field, but they have often been the basis the generation of research. The purpose of their publication can be scientific or educational. In general terms, the discovery of new diseases, the presentation of rare diseases, unusual forms of common diseases, the complications of a common treatment, or the effect (beneficial or adverse) of a treatment, among other things, are narrated in these documents. Clinical case reports continue to be one of the most important sources of knowledge. The advent of a standardized guideline for the creation of this type of reports allows homogenizing the form and content of the cases intended to be described in the near future and, furthermore, will enable authors to have a reference when preparing this type of publications. Case reports are valuable resources of new and unusual information that can encourage and serve to conduct future research studies with a higher level of evidence.

8.
Gac Med Mex ; 154(2): 202-208, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733056

RESUMO

Introduction: In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), obesity, hyperinsulinemia and leptin levels are increased. Objective: To identify the frequency of cardiometabolic risk factors (CRF) in children and adolescents with CAH and to explore the relationship with leptin levels. Method: Cross-sectional study of 40 patients who underwent anthropometric measurements and had fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, 17-hidroxyprogesterone, leptin, HDL and LDL-cholesterol assessed. The patients were classified according to the number of CRFs, and leptin levels were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test. Pearson's correlation was applied between leptin, body mass index (BMI) z-score and body fat percentage. Results: Fifty percent of the patients had obesity and overweight, 59% had hypertriglyceridemia, 40%, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, 27.5%, high LDL-cholesterol and 22.5% insulin resistance. There was positive correlation between leptin and body fat percentage (r = 0.64), BMI z-score (r = 0.55) and the number of CRFs (r = 0.65). In the obesity-adjusted multivariate analysis, leptin levels were associated with the number of CRFs. Conclusion: CAH had a high frequency of CRFs and leptin appeared to be associated with a more adverse cardiometabolic profile in subjects with obesity and overweight.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/sangue , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Leptina/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
9.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 65(4): 414-421, 2018 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602211

RESUMO

The concept of validity in research refers to what is true or what is close to the truth. It is considered that the results of an investigation will be valid when the study is free of errors. The errors or biases appear in the development of research, are due to methodological problems and, in general, can be grouped into three: selection bias, measurement bias and confusion bias. In this article, measurement biases will be addressed; this type of error has three axes: 1) the research subject, 2) the instrument for the measurement of the variable (s), and 3) those who make the evaluation of the measurement (s). To improve the obtaining of data and to prevent errors, some strategies can be followed: in every study protocol, it is necessary to include the operational definition of the variables; the subjects that will carry out the measurements or surveys must be trained. If measuring instruments are used, their proper functioning must be verified; when questionnaires are included, they must be validated in the language in which they will be applied, they have had a process of adaptation to the language of the participants in the study, and self-applicable ones are preferred. It is necessary to quantify the variability of the measurements from the statistical point of view to increase the validity of a study.

10.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 64(3): 364-370, 2017 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29046032

RESUMO

The statistical analysis can be divided in two main components: descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. An inference is to elaborate conclusions from the tests performed with the data obtained from a sample of a population. Statistical tests are used in order to establish the probability that a conclusion obtained from a sample is applicable to the population from which it was obtained. However, choosing the appropriate statistical test in general poses a challenge for novice researchers. To choose the statistical test it is necessary to take into account three aspects: the research design, the number of measurements and the scale of measurement of the variables. Statistical tests are divided into two sets, parametric and nonparametric. Parametric tests can only be used if the data show a normal distribution. Choosing the right statistical test will make it easier for readers to understand and apply the results.

11.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 64(2): 220-227, 2017 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28658730

RESUMO

Sample size refers to the number of participants to be included in a research study. If the calculation is carried out properly, not only conclusions will be established with statistical support and the potential risks to the subjects included in the investigation will be limited, but also the study can be properly planned to optimize economic and time costs. Calculation of sample size requires information that must be supported by the research protocol. This information includes that the objectives (descriptive study or a study to establish differences between groups) and hypotheses are well elaborated (with magnitude and direction), the scale of measurement of the outcome variable(s) must be defined, and type I error and type II error appropriately identified. This review describes how to specify the requirements needed for sample size calculation, including examples in clinical research designs.

12.
Nutr Hosp ; 34(2): 301-307, 2017 03 30.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28421782

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of breastfeeding (BF) for the management in acute pain after vaccination in infants under 6 months of age when compared to the milk substitute (MS) and not to apply any maneuver. Methods: A controlled, single-blind phase III clinical trial was conducted on infants under 6 months old to evaluate the effectiveness of BF in acute pain by vaccination. Divided in 3 groups: BF, milk substitutes (MS), and without applying any analgesic maneuver (control). Pain was measured by crying time and pediatric pain scale. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U for quantitative variables. For qualitative data, Chi2 was applied Kaplan Meier was used to analyze the total time crying. Results: A total of 144 patients were recruited, divided in groups of 48 patients. The group of BF had fewer crying time (p = 0.007) and pain rating at 90 (p = 0.006) and 120 (p = 0.003) seconds compared with other groups. There was no significant difference in the crying time (p = 0.396) and the pain scale between the group receiving MR and control. Conclusions: Breastfeeding is effective in management of acute pain by vaccination in infants under six months of age compared to milk substitute and control.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/terapia , Aleitamento Materno , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Aguda/etiologia , Choro , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Medição da Dor , Método Simples-Cego , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
14.
Nutr. hosp ; 34(2): 301-307, mar.-abr. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-162430

RESUMO

Objetivo: determinar la eficacia de la lactancia materna (LM) para el manejo del dolor agudo después de la vacunación en lactantes menores de 6 meses al compararse con el sucedáneo de la leche (SL) y no aplicar ninguna maniobra. Métodos: se realizó un ensayo clínico controlado aleatorizado, ciego simple en fase III en lactantes menores de 6 meses de edad. Se incluyeron 3 grupos: LM, SL y sin aplicar analgesia (control). El dolor se midió a través del tiempo de llanto y una escala de dolor pediátrico. En el análisis estadístico se utilizaron las pruebas de Kruskal Wallis y U de Mann Whitney para variables cuantitativas y para variables cualitativas se aplicó la prueba de Chi2. Se utilizó Kaplan Meier para analizar el tiempo de llanto total. Resultados: se analizaron un total de 144 pacientes, 48 por grupos. El grupo de LM tuvo menor tiempo de llanto (p = 0,007) y menor calificación de dolor a los 90 (p = 0,006) y 120 (p = 0,003) segundos comparado con los otros 2 grupos. Mientras que entre el grupo SL y el grupo control no hubo diferencia significativa en la duración del llanto ni la escala de dolor. Conclusiones: la lactancia materna es efectiva para el manejo del dolor agudo después de la vacunación en lactantes menores de 6 meses de edad en comparación al sucedáneo de leche y no aplicar analgesia (AU)


Objective: To determine the effectiveness of breastfeeding (BF) for the management in acute pain after vaccination in infants under 6 months of age when compared to the milk substitute (MS) and not to apply any maneuver. Methods: A controlled, single-blind phase III clinical trial was conducted on infants under 6 months old to evaluate the effectiveness of BF in acute pain by vaccination. Divided in 3 groups: BF, milk substitutes (MS), and without applying any analgesic maneuver (control). Pain was measured by crying time and pediatric pain scale. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U for quantitative variables. For qualitative data, Chi2 was applied Kaplan Meier was used to analyze the total time crying. Results: A total of 144 patients were recruited, divided in groups of 48 patients. The group of BF had fewer crying time (p = 0.007) and pain rating at 90 (p = 0.006) and 120 (p = 0.003) seconds compared with other groups. There was no signifi cant difference in the crying time (p = 0.396) and the pain scale between the group receiving MR and control. Conclusions: Breastfeeding is effective in management of acute pain by vaccination in infants under six months of age compared to milk substitute and control (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Dor Aguda/diagnóstico , Dor Aguda/terapia , Aleitamento Materno/tendências , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Medição da Dor , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Método Simples-Cego , Protocolos Clínicos , Análise Estatística
15.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 93(2): 136-141, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-841330

RESUMO

Abstract Objectives: In prepubertal type 1 diabetic patients (DM1), the availability of an informal primary caregiver (ICP) is critical to making management decisions; in this study, the ICP-related risk factors associated with glycemic control were identified. Patients, materials, and methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was performed. Fifty-five patients with DM1 under the age of 11 years were included. The patient-related factors associated with glycemic control evaluated were physical activity, DM1 time of evolution, and adherence to medical indications. The ICP-related factors evaluated were education, employment aspects, depressive traits (Beck questionnaire), family functionality (family APGAR), support of another person in patient care, stress (Perceived Stress Scale), and socioeconomic status (Bronfman questionnaire). Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. Results: The patients' median age was 8 years; 29 patients had good glycemic control, and 26 were uncontrolled. The main risk factor associated with glycemic dyscontrol was stress in the ICP (OR 24.8; 95% CI 4.06-151.9, p = 0.001). While, according to the linear regression analysis it was found that lower level of education (β 0.991, 95% CI 0.238-1.743, p = 0.011) and stress (β 1.918, 95% CI 1.10-2.736, p = 0.001) in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction (β 1.256, 95% CI 0.336-2.177, p = 0.008) were associated with higher levels of glycated hemoglobin. Conclusions: Level of education and stress in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction, are factors that influence the lack of controlled blood glucose levels among prepubertal DM1 patients.


Resumo Objetivos: Em pacientes pré-púberes com diabetes tipo 1 (DM1), a disponibilidade de um cuidador familiar principal (CFP) é fundamental para tomar decisões de administração; neste estudo, foram identificados os fatores de risco relacionados a CFPs associados ao controle glicêmico. Pacientes, materiais e métodos: Foi feito um estudo transversal comparativo. Foram incluídos 55 pacientes com DM1 menores de 11 anos. Os fatores relacionados aos pacientes associados ao controle glicêmico avaliados foram atividade física, tempo de evolução da DM1 e adesão às indicações médicas. Os fatores relacionados a CFPs avaliados foram escolaridade, aspectos profissionais, traços de depressão (questionário de Beck), funcionalidade familiar (Apgar familiar), ajuda de outra pessoa no cuidado do paciente, estresse (Escala de Estresse Percebido) e situação socioeconômica (questionário de Bronfman). Foram feitas análises de regressão logística multivariada e de regressão linear. Resultados: A idade média dos pacientes era de oito anos; 29 pacientes apresentavam bom controle glicêmico e 26 não tinham controle. O principal fator de risco associado ao descontrole glicêmico foi o estresse no CFP (RC 24,8; IC de 95% 4,06-151,9, p = 0,001). Ao passo que, de acordo com a análise de regressão linear, constatamos que: o menor nível de escolaridade (0,991, IC de 95% 0,238-1,743, p = 0,011) e estresse (1,918, IC de 95% 1,10-2,736, p = 0,001) do CFP, bem como a disfunção familiar (1,256, IC de 95% 0,336-2,177, p = 0,008), foram associados a níveis maiores de hemoglobina glicosilada. Conclusões: O nível de escolaridade e o estresse do CFP e a disfunção familiar são fatores que influenciam a falta de níveis glicêmicos controlados entre pacientes pré-púberes com DM1.

16.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 74(2): 98-106, mar.-abr. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-888603

RESUMO

Resumen: Introducción: El Programa de Estancias Infantiles (PEI) se enfoca en padres de niños de 1-3 años en situación de pobreza. Incluye educación y cuidado de los niños por 8 h, 5 días por semana. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la asociación entre el tiempo de permanencia en el PEI y el nivel de desarrollo infantil. Métodos: Estudio transversal de base poblacional en dos estados de México. Se incluyeron todos los niños de 12-48 meses inscritos al PEI de noviembre de 2014 a enero de 2015. Se evaluó el nivel de desarrollo con la prueba EDI. Se calculó la razón de momios de prevalencia (RMP) para desarrollo normal por tiempo de estancia, ajustado por sexo, edad y discapacidad, teniendo como referencia a los niños que tenían < 30 días en el PEI. Resultados: Se incluyeron 3387 niños de 177 estancias infantiles: 53% de sexo masculino; 22.3% de 12-24 meses, 37.6% de 25-36 meses y 40.1% de 37-42 meses de edad. El RMP ajustado para desarrollo normal fue de 1.90 (IC95%:1.30-2.78) para 6-11 meses, 2.36 (IC95%:1.60-3.50) para 12-17 meses, 2.78 (IC95%:1.65-4.65) para 18-23 meses y 3.46 (2.13-5.60) para > 24 meses. Por área de desarrollo, se observó una mayor probabilidad de desarrollo normal a partir de 6 meses de estancia para lenguaje y social, y a partir de 12 meses para motor grueso, fino y conocimiento. Conclusiones: El tiempo de permanencia en el PEI a partir de 6 meses incrementa, de forma significativa y progresiva, la probabilidad de tener un desarrollo normal independiente del sexo y edad.


Abstract: Background: Early education program (EEP) was created to support parents with 1 to 3 year olds living in poverty situation in Mexico, and includes education and child daycare for 8 h five days per week. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between length of stay in EEP and the level of development in children. Methods: Cross sectional, population-based study conducted in two Mexican states. All children aged between 12 to 48 months enrolled in EEP from November 2014 to January 2015 were included. Child Development Evaluation (CDE) test was used to screen early development in every child. Normal early development prevalence odds ratio (OR) was calculated adjusted by gender, impairment and state, using as a reference those children with less than 30 days in the program. Results: The study included 3,387 children from 177 EEP nurseries, from which 53% were male; age by group was divided in 12-24 months (22.3%), 25-36 months (37.6%) and 37-42 months (40.1%). Normal development adjusted OR by age was 1.9 (CI95%: 1.30-2.78) for 6-11 months, 2.36 (CI95%: 1.60-3.50) for 12-17 months, 2.78 (CI95%: 1.65-4.65) for 18-23 months and 3.46 (CI95%: 2.13-5.60) for >24 months. By area of development, a greater probability of having a normal result for language and social areas was observed after 6 months in the program, and for motor (both gross and fine) and knowledge areas after 12 months. Conclusion: The length of the stay in the EEP after 6 months significantly and progressively increases the probability of normal development regardless of gender and age.

17.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 93(2): 136-141, 2017 Mar - Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27686588

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In prepubertal type 1 diabetic patients (DM1), the availability of an informal primary caregiver (ICP) is critical to making management decisions; in this study, the ICP-related risk factors associated with glycemic control were identified. PATIENTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was performed. Fifty-five patients with DM1 under the age of 11 years were included. The patient-related factors associated with glycemic control evaluated were physical activity, DM1 time of evolution, and adherence to medical indications. The ICP-related factors evaluated were education, employment aspects, depressive traits (Beck questionnaire), family functionality (family APGAR), support of another person in patient care, stress (Perceived Stress Scale), and socioeconomic status (Bronfman questionnaire). Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: The patients' median age was 8 years; 29 patients had good glycemic control, and 26 were uncontrolled. The main risk factor associated with glycemic dyscontrol was stress in the ICP (OR 24.8; 95% CI 4.06-151.9, p=0.001). While, according to the linear regression analysis it was found that lower level of education (ß 0.991, 95% CI 0.238-1.743, p=0.011) and stress (ß 1.918, 95% CI 1.10-2.736, p=0.001) in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction (ß 1.256, 95% CI 0.336-2.177, p=0.008) were associated with higher levels of glycated hemoglobin. CONCLUSIONS: Level of education and stress in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction, are factors that influence the lack of controlled blood glucose levels among prepubertal DM1 patients.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Cuidadores/educação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Masculino , México , Fatores de Risco
18.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 74(2): 98-106, 2017 Mar - Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early education program (EEP) was created to support parents with 1 to 3 year olds living in poverty situation in Mexico, and includes education and child daycare for 8h five days per week. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between length of stay in EEP and the level of development in children. METHODS: Cross sectional, population-based study conducted in two Mexican states. All children aged between 12 to 48 months enrolled in EEP from November 2014 to January 2015 were included. Child Development Evaluation (CDE) test was used to screen early development in every child. Normal early development prevalence odds ratio (OR) was calculated adjusted by gender, impairment and state, using as a reference those children with less than 30 days in the program. RESULTS: The study included 3,387 children from 177 EEP nurseries, from which 53% were male; age by group was divided in 12-24 months (22.3%), 25-36 months (37.6%) and 37-42 months (40.1%). Normal development adjusted OR by age was 1.9 (CI95%: 1.30-2.78) for 6-11 months, 2.36 (CI95%: 1.60-3.50) for 12-17 months, 2.78 (CI95%: 1.65-4.65) for 18-23 months and 3.46 (CI95%: 2.13-5.60) for >24 months. By area of development, a greater probability of having a normal result for language and social areas was observed after 6 months in the program, and for motor (both gross and fine) and knowledge areas after 12 months. CONCLUSION: The length of the stay in the EEP after 6 months significantly and progressively increases the probability of normal development regardless of gender and age.

19.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 73(6): 457-466, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-951264

RESUMO

Abstract: Background: Oral mucositis (OM) is an inflammatory reaction of the oropharyngeal mucosa to cumulative chemotherapy (CT) and radiation therapy (RT), affecting one or more parts of the digestive tract along with the quality of life (QoL) of the patient. The goal of this study was to identify valid and reliable tools to evaluate QoL related to OM. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted up to May 2016. Articles were selected by peers using the PubMed database through a search following the inclusion and exclusion criteria and STAndards for the Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies (STARD) checklist with a cut-off point ≥ 70%. Results: We identified four relevant articles that described instruments to assess the QoL related to OM in patients undergoing cancer treatment. Conclusions: The evaluation of the QoL in patients with OM is a difficult scenario because of its multiple variables. The knowledge of this relationship is limited because general instruments of oral health or cancer therapy are commonly used for evaluation. However, valid instruments are already available for estimating the impact of OM on the QoL from the patient's perspective.


Resumen: Introducción: La mucositis oral (MO) es una reacción inflamatoria de la mucosa orofaríngea a la quimio y radioterapia acumulativa, que afecta una o varias partes del tracto digestivo, además de la calidad de vida (CV) del paciente. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar instrumentos válidos y confiables para evaluar la CV relacionada con MO. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura hasta mayo del 2016. Se realizó una selección por pares de los artículos a través de una búsqueda en PubMed, siguiendo los criterios de inclusión y exclusión y la lista de los estudios de precisión diagnóstica STARD (STAndards for the Reporting of Diagnostic) con un punto de corte ≥ 70%. Resultados: Se identificaron cuatro artículos relevantes que describen instrumentos para evaluar la CV relacionada con MO de pacientes que reciben tratamiento contra el cáncer. Conclusiones: El escenario para la evaluación de la CV de pacientes con MO resulta complicado debido a las múltiples variables. El conocimiento de la relación entre la CV y la MO es limitado porque los instrumentos generales son comúnmente utilizados tanto para la evaluación de la salud oral como para la terapia contra el cáncer. Sin embargo, ya se cuenta con instrumentos válidos para la evaluación del impacto de la MO sobre la CV desde la perspectiva del paciente.

20.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 63(4): 397-407, 2016 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27795220

RESUMO

Descriptive statistics is the branch of statistics that gives recommendations on how to summarize clearly and simply research data in tables, figures, charts, or graphs. Before performing a descriptive analysis it is paramount to summarize its goal or goals, and to identify the measurement scales of the different variables recorded in the study. Tables or charts aim to provide timely information on the results of an investigation. The graphs show trends and can be histograms, pie charts, "box and whiskers" plots, line graphs, or scatter plots. Images serve as examples to reinforce concepts or facts. The choice of a chart, graph, or image must be based on the study objectives. Usually it is not recommended to use more than seven in an article, also depending on its length.

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