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1.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1013, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variable size deletions affecting 12q12 have been found in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and distinct facial and physical features. For many genetic loci affected by deletions in individuals with NDDs, reciprocal duplications have been described. However, for the 12q12 region, there are no detailed descriptions of duplication cases in the literature. METHODS: We report a phenotypic description of a family with monozygotic twins diagnosed with NDDs, carrying a 9 Mb duplication at 12q12, and five other individuals with overlapping duplications ranging from 4.54 Mb up to 15.16 Mb. RESULTS: The duplication carriers had language delays, cognitive delays, and were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Additionally, distinct facial features (e.g., high foreheads, deeply set eyes, short palpebral fissures, small ears, high nasal bridges, abnormalities of the nose tip, thin lips), large feet, and abnormalities in the digits were noted. We also describe incomplete penetrance of the NDD phenotypes among the individuals with 12q12 duplication. CONCLUSION: This case series expands our knowledge on this rare genetic aberration and suggests that large 12q12 duplications may increase the risk for developing NDDs.

3.
Genet Med ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649276

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a rare autosomal dominant mandibulofacial dysostosis, with a prevalence of 0.2-1/10,000. Features include bilateral and symmetrical malar and mandibular hypoplasia and facial abnormalities due to abnormal neural crest cell (NCC) migration and differentiation. To date, three genes have been identified: TCOF1, POLR1C, and POLR1D. Despite a large number of patients with a molecular diagnosis, some remain without a known genetic anomaly. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing for four individuals with TCS but who were negative for pathogenic variants in the known causative genes. The effect of the pathogenic variants was investigated in zebrafish. RESULTS: We identified three novel pathogenic variants in POLR1B. Knockdown of polr1b in zebrafish induced an abnormal craniofacial phenotype mimicking TCS that was associated with altered ribosomal gene expression, massive p53-associated cellular apoptosis in the neuroepithelium, and reduced number of NCC derivatives. CONCLUSION: Pathogenic variants in the RNA polymerase I subunit POLR1B might induce massive p53-dependent apoptosis in a restricted neuroepithelium area, altering NCC migration and causing cranioskeletal malformations. We identify POLR1B as a new causative gene responsible for a novel TCS syndrome (TCS4) and establish a novel experimental model in zebrafish to study POLR1B-related TCS.

4.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(11): 2177-2190, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deletions or inactivating mutations of the cystinosin gene CTNS lead to cystine accumulation and crystals at acidic pH in patients with nephropathic cystinosis, a rare lysosomal storage disease and the main cause of hereditary renal Fanconi syndrome. Early use of oral cysteamine to prevent cystine accumulation slows progression of nephropathic cystinosis but it is a demanding treatment and not a cure. The source of cystine accumulating in kidney proximal tubular cells and cystine's role in disease progression are unknown. METHODS: To investigate whether receptor-mediated endocytosis by the megalin/LRP2 pathway of ultrafiltrated, disulfide-rich plasma proteins could be a source of cystine in proximal tubular cells, we used a mouse model of cystinosis in which conditional excision of floxed megalin/LRP2 alleles in proximal tubular cells of cystinotic mice was achieved by a Cre-LoxP strategy using Wnt4-CRE. We evaluated mice aged 6-9 months for kidney cystine levels and crystals; histopathology, with emphasis on swan-neck lesions and proximal-tubular-cell apoptosis and proliferation (turnover); and proximal-tubular-cell expression of the major apical transporters sodium-phosphate cotransporter 2A (NaPi-IIa) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2). RESULTS: Wnt4-CRE-driven megalin/LRP2 ablation in cystinotic mice efficiently blocked kidney cystine accumulation, thereby preventing lysosomal deformations and crystal deposition in proximal tubular cells. Swan-neck lesions were largely prevented and proximal-tubular-cell turnover was normalized. Apical expression of the two cotransporters was also preserved. CONCLUSIONS: These observations support a key role of the megalin/LRP2 pathway in the progression of nephropathic cystinosis and provide a proof of concept for the pathway as a therapeutic target.

5.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(9): 1093-1101, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189067

RESUMO

Lethal lung developmental disorders are a rare but important group of pediatric diffuse lung diseases presenting with neonatal respiratory failure. On the basis of histopathological appearance at lung biopsy or autopsy, they have been termed: alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of the pulmonary veins, acinar dysplasia, congenital alveolar dysplasia, and other unspecified primary pulmonary hypoplasias. However, the histopathological continuum in these lethal developmental disorders has made accurate diagnosis challenging, which has implications for recurrence risk. Over the past decade, genetic studies in infants with alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of the pulmonary veins have revealed the causative role of the dosage-sensitive FOXF1 gene and its noncoding regulatory variants in the distant lung-specific enhancer at chromosome 16q24.1. In contrast, the molecular bases of acinar dysplasia and congenital alveolar dysplasia have remained poorly understood. Most recently, disruption of the TBX4-FGF10-FGFR2 epithelial-mesenchymal signaling pathway has been reported in patients with these lethal pulmonary dysplasias. Application of next-generation sequencing techniques, including exome sequencing and whole-genome sequencing, has demonstrated their complex compound inheritance. These data indicate that noncoding regulatory elements play a critical role in lung development in humans. We propose that for more precise lethal lung developmental disorder diagnosis, a diagnostic pathway including whole-genome sequencing should be implemented.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1390-1394, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957429

RESUMO

Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a frequent cause of mandibulofacial dysostosis. To date, TCS-causing mutations in three genes, namely TCOF1, POLR1D, and POLR1C have been identified. TCS is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, with a high clinical variability and no phenotype-genotype correlation. Up-to now, five families have been reported with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance due to mutations in POLR1D or POLR1C. We report here a new family with two sisters affected by mild TCS carrying compound POLR1C heterozygous mutations, and review the literature on mild forms of TCS, autosomal recessive inheritance in this syndrome and POLR1C mutations.

8.
Mol Med ; 25(1): 6, 2019 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deleterious variants in the voltage-gated sodium channel type 2 (Nav1.2) lead to a broad spectrum of phenotypes ranging from benign familial neonatal-infantile epilepsy (BFNIE), severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) and intellectual disability (ID) to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Yet, the underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. METHODS: To further elucidate the genotype-phenotype correlation of SCN2A variants we investigated the functional effects of six variants representing the phenotypic spectrum by whole-cell patch-clamp studies in transfected HEK293T cells and in-silico structural modeling. RESULTS: The two variants p.L1342P and p.E1803G detected in patients with early onset epileptic encephalopathy (EE) showed profound and complex changes in channel gating, whereas the BFNIE variant p.L1563V exhibited only a small gain of channel function. The three variants identified in ID patients without seizures, p.R937C, p.L611Vfs*35 and p.W1716*, did not produce measurable currents. Homology modeling of the missense variants predicted structural impairments consistent with the electrophysiological findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that complete loss-of-function variants lead to ID without seizures, small gain-of-function variants cause BFNIE and EE variants exhibit variable but profound Nav1.2 gating changes. Moreover, structural modeling was able to predict the severity of the variant impact, supporting a potential role of structural modeling as a prognostic tool. Our study on the functional consequences of SCN2A variants causing the distinct phenotypes of EE, BFNIE and ID contributes to the elucidation of mechanisms underlying the broad phenotypic variability reported for SCN2A variants.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Neonatal Benigna/genética , Síndromes Epilépticas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.2/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Epilepsia Neonatal Benigna/fisiopatologia , Síndromes Epilépticas/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2025-2035, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723320

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lanosterol synthase (LSS) gene was initially described in families with extensive congenital cataracts. Recently, a study has highlighted LSS associated with hypotrichosis simplex. We expanded the phenotypic spectrum of LSS to a recessive neuroectodermal syndrome formerly named alopecia with mental retardation (APMR) syndrome. It is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by hypotrichosis and intellectual disability (ID) or developmental delay (DD), frequently associated with early-onset epilepsy and other dermatological features. METHODS: Through a multicenter international collaborative study, we identified LSS pathogenic variants in APMR individuals either by exome sequencing or LSS Sanger sequencing. Splicing defects were assessed by transcript analysis and minigene assay. RESULTS: We reported ten APMR individuals from six unrelated families with biallelic variants in LSS. We additionally identified one affected individual with a single rare variant in LSS and an allelic imbalance suggesting a second event. Among the identified variants, two were truncating, seven were missense, and two were splicing variants. Quantification of cholesterol and its precursors did not reveal noticeable imbalance. CONCLUSION: In the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, lanosterol synthase leads to the cyclization of (S)-2,3-oxidosqualene into lanosterol. Our data suggest LSS as a major gene causing a rare recessive neuroectodermal syndrome.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 213-228, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639323

RESUMO

Primary defects in lung branching morphogenesis, resulting in neonatal lethal pulmonary hypoplasias, are incompletely understood. To elucidate the pathogenetics of human lung development, we studied a unique collection of samples obtained from deceased individuals with clinically and histopathologically diagnosed interstitial neonatal lung disorders: acinar dysplasia (n = 14), congenital alveolar dysplasia (n = 2), and other lethal lung hypoplasias (n = 10). We identified rare heterozygous copy-number variant deletions or single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) involving TBX4 (n = 8 and n = 2, respectively) or FGF10 (n = 2 and n = 2, respectively) in 16/26 (61%) individuals. In addition to TBX4, the overlapping ∼2 Mb recurrent and nonrecurrent deletions at 17q23.1q23.2 identified in seven individuals with lung hypoplasia also remove a lung-specific enhancer region. Individuals with coding variants involving either TBX4 or FGF10 also harbored at least one non-coding SNV in the predicted lung-specific enhancer region, which was absent in 13 control individuals with the overlapping deletions but without any structural lung anomalies. The occurrence of rare coding variants involving TBX4 or FGF10 with the putative hypomorphic non-coding SNVs implies a complex compound inheritance of these pulmonary hypoplasias. Moreover, they support the importance of TBX4-FGF10-FGFR2 epithelial-mesenchymal signaling in human lung organogenesis and help to explain the histopathological continuum observed in these rare lethal developmental disorders of the lung.

11.
Ann Neurol ; 85(3): 385-395, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: SLC13A3 encodes the plasma membrane Na+ /dicarboxylate cotransporter 3, which imports inside the cell 4 to 6 carbon dicarboxylates as well as N-acetylaspartate (NAA). SLC13A3 is mainly expressed in kidney, in astrocytes, and in the choroid plexus. We describe two unrelated patients presenting with acute, reversible (and recurrent in one) neurological deterioration during a febrile illness. Both patients exhibited a reversible leukoencephalopathy and a urinary excretion of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) that was markedly increased and persisted over time. In one patient, increased concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid NAA and dicarboxylates (including αKG) were observed. Extensive workup was unsuccessful, and a genetic cause was suspected. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed. Our teams were connected through GeneMatcher. RESULTS: WES analysis revealed variants in SLC13A3. A homozygous missense mutation (p.Ala254Asp) was found in the first patient. The second patient was heterozygous for another missense mutation (p.Gly548Ser) and an intronic mutation affecting splicing as demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction performed in muscle tissue (c.1016 + 3A > G). Mutations and segregation were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Functional studies performed on HEK293T cells transiently transfected with wild-type and mutant SLC13A3 indicated that the missense mutations caused a marked reduction in the capacity to transport αKG, succinate, and NAA. INTERPRETATION: SLC13A3 deficiency causes acute and reversible leukoencephalopathy with marked accumulation of αKG. Urine organic acids (especially αKG and NAA) and SLC13A3 mutations should be screened in patients presenting with unexplained reversible leukoencephalopathy, for which SLC13A3 deficiency is a novel differential diagnosis. ANN NEUROL 2019;85:385-395.

12.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472483

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorders are complex neurodevelopmental syndromes characterized by phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Further identification of causal genes may help in better understanding the underlying mechanisms of the disorder, thus improving the patients' management. To date, abnormal synaptogenesis is thought to be one of the major underlying causes of autism spectrum disorders. Here, using oligoarray-based comparative genomic hybridization, we identified a de novo deletion at 2q37.2 locus spanning 1 Mb and encompassing AGAP1 and SH3BP4, in a boy with autism and intellectual disability. Both genes have been described as being involved in endosomal trafficking, and AGAP1 in particular has been shown to be expressed in the developing brain and to play a role in dendritic spine formation and synapse function, making it a potential causative gene to our patient's phenotype.

13.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190612

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the contribution of rare variants in the genetic background toward variability of neurodevelopmental phenotypes in individuals with rare copy-number variants (CNVs) and gene-disruptive variants. METHODS: We analyzed quantitative clinical information, exome sequencing, and microarray data from 757 probands and 233 parents and siblings who carry disease-associated variants. RESULTS: The number of rare likely deleterious variants in functionally intolerant genes ("other hits") correlated with expression of neurodevelopmental phenotypes in probands with 16p12.1 deletion (n=23, p=0.004) and in autism probands carrying gene-disruptive variants (n=184, p=0.03) compared with their carrier family members. Probands with 16p12.1 deletion and a strong family history presented more severe clinical features (p=0.04) and higher burden of other hits compared with those with mild/no family history (p=0.001). The number of other hits also correlated with severity of cognitive impairment in probands carrying pathogenic CNVs (n=53) or de novo pathogenic variants in disease genes (n=290), and negatively correlated with head size among 80 probands with 16p11.2 deletion. These co-occurring hits involved known disease-associated genes such as SETD5, AUTS2, and NRXN1, and were enriched for cellular and developmental processes. CONCLUSION: Accurate genetic diagnosis of complex disorders will require complete evaluation of the genetic background even after a candidate disease-associated variant is identified.

14.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142438

RESUMO

The CACNA1A gene encodes a calcium-dependent voltage channel, localized in neuronal cells. Pathogenic variants in this gene are known to lead to a broad clinical spectrum including episodic ataxia type 2, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6, familial hemiplegic migraine, and more recently epileptic encephalopathy. We report a large family revealing a wide variability of neurological manifestations associated with a CACNA1A missense pathogenic variant. The index case had early-onset epileptic encephalopathy with progressive cerebellar atrophy, although his mother and his great-grandmother suffered from paroxystic episodic ataxia. His grandfather and great grand-aunt reported no symptoms, but two of her sons displayed early-onset ataxia with intellectual disability. Two of her little daughters suffered from gait disorders, and also from epilepsy for one of them. All these relatives were carriers of the previously described heterozygous variant in CACNA1A gene. We report here the first family leading to major clinical variability and incomplete penetrance. Our family highlights the difficulties to provide accurate genetic counselling concerning prenatal diagnosis regarding highly variable severity of the clinical presentation.

15.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30083803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mucopolysaccharidoses are multisystem lysosomal storage diseases characterized by extensive skeletal deformities, including skull abnormalities. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of craniosynostosis in the different mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) types and its clinical consequences. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study spanning 10 years, skull imaging and clinical evaluations were performed in 47 MPS patients (type I, II, VI, and VII). A total of 215 radiographs of the skull were analyzed. The presence and type of craniosynostosis, the sutures involved, progression over time, skull shape, head circumference, fundoscopy, and ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) placement data were evaluated. RESULTS: Craniosynostosis of at least one suture was present in 77% of all 47 MPS patients (≤ 6 years of age in 40% of all patients). In 32% of all MPS patients, premature closure of all sutures was seen (≤ 6 years of age in 13% of all patients). All patients with early closure had a more severe MPS phenotype, both in the neuronopathic (MPS I, II) and non-neuronopathic (MPS VI) patient groups. Because of symptomatic increased intracranial pressure (ICP), a VPS was placed in six patients, with craniosynostosis as a likely or certain causative factor for the increased pressure in four patients. One patient underwent cranial vault expansion because of severe craniosynostosis. CONCLUSIONS: Craniosynostosis occurs in the majority of MPS patients. Since the clinical consequences can be severe and surgical intervention is possible, skull growth and signs and symptoms of increased ICP should be monitored in both neuronopathic and non-neuronopathic patients with MPS.

16.
Fetal Diagn Ther ; : 1-10, 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Analysis of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma is very promising for early diagnosis of monogenic diseases. However, it has been limited by the need to set up patient- or disease-specific custom-made approaches. Here we propose a universal test based on fluorescent multiplex PCR and size fragment analysis for an indirect diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: The test, based on haplotyping, includes nine intra- and extragenic short tandem repeats of the CFTR locus, the coamplification of p.Phe508del (the most frequent mutation in CF patients worldwide), and a specific SRY sequence. The assay is able to determine the inherited paternal allele. RESULTS: Our simple approach was successfully applied to 30 couples and provided clear results from the maternal plasma. The mean rate of informative markers was sufficient to propose it for use in indirect diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: This noninvasive prenatal diagnosis test, focused on indirect diagnosis of CF, offers many advantages over current methods: it is simple, rapid, and cost-effective. It allows for the testing of a large number of couples with high risk of CF, whatever the familial mutation of the CFTR gene. It provides an alternative method to reduce the number of invasive tests.

17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(12): 1784-1790, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135486

RESUMO

X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX2 or Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome, MIM #302960) is caused by mutations in the EBP gene. Affected female patients present with Blaschkolinear ichthyosis, coarse hair or alopecia, short stature, and normal psychomotor development. The disease is usually lethal in boys. Nevertheless, few male patients have been reported; they carry a somatic mosaicism in EBP or present with Klinefelter syndrome. Here, we report CDPX2 patients belonging to a three-generation family, carrying the splice variant c.301 + 5 G > C in intron 2 of EBP. The grandfather carries the variant as mosaic state and presents with short stature and mild ichthyosis. The mother also presents with short stature and mild ichthyosis and the female fetus with severe limb and vertebrae abnormalities and no skin lesions, with random X inactivation in both. This further characterizes the phenotypical spectrum of CDPX2, as well as intrafamilial variability, and raises the question of differential EBP mRNA splicing between the different target tissues.

18.
Ann Neurol ; 84(2): 200-207, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Developmental delay (DD) with favorable intellectual outcome and mild intellectual disability (ID) are mostly considered to be of complex genetic and environmental origin, but, in fact, often remain unclear. We aimed at proving our assumption that also mild cases of DD and ID may be of monogenic etiology. METHODS: We clinically evaluated 8 individuals and performed exome sequencing or array copy number analysis and identified variants in CUX1 as the likely cause. In addition, we included a case from the public database, DECIPHER. RESULTS: All 9 individuals harbored heterozygous null-allele variants in CUX1, encoding the Cut-homeobox 1 transcription factor that is involved in regulation of dendritogenesis and cortical synapse formation in layer II to IV cortical neurons. Six variants arose de novo, while in one family the variant segregated with ID. Of the 9 included individuals, 2 were diagnosed with moderate ID, 3 with mild ID, and 3 showed a normal age-related intelligence at ages 4, 6, and 8 years after a previous history of significant DD. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that null-allele variants, and thus haploinsufficiency of CUX1, cause an isolated phenotype of DD or ID with possible catch-up development. This illustrates that such a developmental course is not necessarily genetic complex, but may also be attributed to a monogenic cause. Ann Neurol 2018;84:200-207.

19.
Hum Genet ; 2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29974297

RESUMO

Two distinct syndromes arise from pathogenic variants in the X-linked gene BCOR (BCL-6 corepressor): oculofaciocardiodental (OFCD) syndrome, which affects females, and a severe microphthalmia ('Lenz'-type) syndrome affecting males. OFCD is an X-linked dominant syndrome caused by a variety of BCOR null mutations. As it manifests only in females, it is presumed to be lethal in males. The severe male X-linked recessive microphthalmia syndrome ('Lenz') usually includes developmental delay in addition to the eye findings and is caused by hypomorphic BCOR variants, mainly by a specific missense variant c.254C > T, p.(Pro85Leu). Here, we detail 16 new cases (11 females with 4 additional, genetically confirmed, affected female relatives; 5 male cases each with unaffected carrier mothers). We describe new variants and broaden the phenotypic description for OFCD to include neuropathy, muscle hypotonia, pituitary underdevelopment, brain atrophy, lipoma and the first description of childhood lymphoma in an OFCD case. Our male X-linked recessive cases show significant new phenotypes: developmental delay (without eye anomalies) in two affected half-brothers with a novel BCOR variant, and one male with high myopia, megalophthalmos, posterior embryotoxon, developmental delay, and heart and bony anomalies with a previously undescribed BCOR splice site variant. Our female OFCD cases and their affected female relatives showed variable features, but consistently had early onset cataracts. We show that a mosaic carrier mother manifested early cataract and dental anomalies. All female carriers of the male X-linked recessive cases for whom genetic confirmation was available showed skewed X-inactivation and were unaffected. In view of the extended phenotype, we suggest a new term of X-linked BCOR-related syndrome.

20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 744-759, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656859

RESUMO

RORα, the RAR-related orphan nuclear receptor alpha, is essential for cerebellar development. The spontaneous mutant mouse staggerer, with an ataxic gait caused by neurodegeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells, was discovered two decades ago to result from homozygous intragenic Rora deletions. However, RORA mutations were hitherto undocumented in humans. Through a multi-centric collaboration, we identified three copy-number variant deletions (two de novo and one dominantly inherited in three generations), one de novo disrupting duplication, and nine de novo point mutations (three truncating, one canonical splice site, and five missense mutations) involving RORA in 16 individuals from 13 families with variable neurodevelopmental delay and intellectual disability (ID)-associated autistic features, cerebellar ataxia, and epilepsy. Consistent with the human and mouse data, disruption of the D. rerio ortholog, roraa, causes significant reduction in the size of the developing cerebellum. Systematic in vivo complementation studies showed that, whereas wild-type human RORA mRNA could complement the cerebellar pathology, missense variants had two distinct pathogenic mechanisms of either haploinsufficiency or a dominant toxic effect according to their localization in the ligand-binding or DNA-binding domains, respectively. This dichotomous direction of effect is likely relevant to the phenotype in humans: individuals with loss-of-function variants leading to haploinsufficiency show ID with autistic features, while individuals with de novo dominant toxic variants present with ID, ataxia, and cerebellar atrophy. Our combined genetic and functional data highlight the complex mutational landscape at the human RORA locus and suggest that dual mutational effects likely determine phenotypic outcome.

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