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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(4): e0006429, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29708969

RESUMO

Buruli ulcer (BU), the third most frequent mycobacteriosis worldwide, is a neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. We report the clinical description and extensive genetic analysis of a consanguineous family from Benin comprising two cases of unusually severe non-ulcerative BU. The index case was the most severe of over 2,000 BU cases treated at the Centre de Dépistage et de Traitement de la Lèpre et de l'Ulcère de Buruli, Pobe, Benin, since its opening in 2003. The infection spread to all limbs with PCR-confirmed skin, bone and joint infections. Genome-wide linkage analysis of seven family members was performed and whole-exome sequencing of both patients was obtained. A 37 kilobases homozygous deletion confirmed by targeted resequencing and located within a linkage region on chromosome 8 was identified in both patients but was absent from unaffected siblings. We further assessed the presence of this deletion on genotyping data from 803 independent local individuals (402 BU cases and 401 BU-free controls). Two BU cases were predicted to be homozygous carriers while none was identified in the control group. The deleted region is located close to a cluster of beta-defensin coding genes and contains a long non-coding (linc) RNA gene previously shown to display highest expression values in the skin. This first report of a microdeletion co-segregating with severe BU in a large family supports the view of a key role of human genetics in the natural history of the disease.


Assuntos
Úlcera de Buruli/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Mycobacterium ulcerans/fisiologia , Adolescente , Benin , Úlcera de Buruli/microbiologia , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Deleção de Sequência , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
2.
J Exp Med ; 213(11): 2413-2435, 2016 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27647349

RESUMO

Combined immunodeficiency (CID) refers to inborn errors of human T cells that also affect B cells because of the T cell deficit or an additional B cell-intrinsic deficit. In this study, we report six patients from three unrelated families with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in RLTPR, the mouse orthologue of which is essential for CD28 signaling. The patients have cutaneous and pulmonary allergy, as well as a variety of bacterial and fungal infectious diseases, including invasive tuberculosis and mucocutaneous candidiasis. Proportions of circulating regulatory T cells and memory CD4+ T cells are reduced. Their CD4+ T cells do not respond to CD28 stimulation. Their CD4+ T cells exhibit a "Th2" cell bias ex vivo and when cultured in vitro, contrasting with the paucity of "Th1," "Th17," and T follicular helper cells. The patients also display few memory B cells and poor antibody responses. This B cell phenotype does not result solely from the T cell deficiency, as the patients' B cells fail to activate NF-κB upon B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation. Human RLTPR deficiency is a CID affecting at least the CD28-responsive pathway in T cells and the BCR-responsive pathway in B cells.


Assuntos
Alelos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Mutação/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Antígenos CD28/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dimerização , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Imunofenotipagem , Leucócitos/patologia , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B , Transdução de Sinais , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(24): 6713-8, 2016 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27247391

RESUMO

Principal component analysis (PCA), homozygosity rate estimations, and linkage studies in humans are classically conducted through genome-wide single-nucleotide variant arrays (GWSA). We compared whole-exome sequencing (WES) and GWSA for this purpose. We analyzed 110 subjects originating from different regions of the world, including North Africa and the Middle East, which are poorly covered by public databases and have high consanguinity rates. We tested and applied a number of quality control (QC) filters. Compared with GWSA, we found that WES provided an accurate prediction of population substructure using variants with a minor allele frequency > 2% (correlation = 0.89 with the PCA coordinates obtained by GWSA). WES also yielded highly reliable estimates of homozygosity rates using runs of homozygosity with a 1,000-kb window (correlation = 0.94 with the estimates provided by GWSA). Finally, homozygosity mapping analyses in 15 families including a single offspring with high homozygosity rates showed that WES provided 51% less genome-wide linkage information than GWSA overall but 97% more information for the coding regions. At the genome-wide scale, 76.3% of linked regions were found by both GWSA and WES, 17.7% were found by GWSA only, and 6.0% were found by WES only. For coding regions, the corresponding percentages were 83.5%, 7.4%, and 9.1%, respectively. With appropriate QC filters, WES can be used for PCA and adjustment for population substructure, estimating homozygosity rates in individuals, and powerful linkage analyses, particularly in coding regions.


Assuntos
Consanguinidade , Ligação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Homozigoto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oriente Médio , América do Norte
4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 138(3): 748-753, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27038909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) are common allergic comorbidities with a strong genetic component in which epigenetic mechanisms might be involved. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify novel risk loci for asthma and AR while accounting for parent-of-origin effect. METHODS: We performed a series of genetic analyses, taking into account the parent-of-origin effect in families ascertained through asthma: (1) genome-wide linkage scan of asthma and AR in 615 European families, (2) association analysis with 1233 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the significant linkage region in 162 French Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma families with replication in 154 Canadian Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean asthma study families, and (3) association analysis of disease and significant SNPs with DNA methylation (DNAm) at CpG sites in 40 Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean asthma study families. RESULTS: We detected a significant paternal linkage of the 4q35 region to asthma and allergic rhinitis comorbidity (AAR; P = 7.2 × 10(-5)). Association analysis in this region showed strong evidence for the effect of the paternally inherited G allele of rs10009104 on AAR (P = 1.1 × 10(-5), reaching the multiple-testing corrected threshold). This paternally inherited allele was also significantly associated with DNAm levels at the cg02303933 site (P = 1.7 × 10(-4)). Differential DNAm at this site was found to mediate the identified SNP-AAR association. CONCLUSION: By integrating genetic and epigenetic data, we identified that a differentially methylated CpG site within the melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) gene mediates the effect of a paternally transmitted genetic variant on the comorbidity of asthma and AR. This study provides a novel insight into the role of epigenetic mechanisms in patients with allergic respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Herança Paterna , Receptor MT1 de Melatonina/genética , Rinite Alérgica/genética , Alelos , Asma/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Metilação de DNA , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(17): 5473-8, 2015 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25827230

RESUMO

We compared whole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in six unrelated individuals. In the regions targeted by WES capture (81.5% of the consensus coding genome), the mean numbers of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and small insertions/deletions (indels) detected per sample were 84,192 and 13,325, respectively, for WES, and 84,968 and 12,702, respectively, for WGS. For both SNVs and indels, the distributions of coverage depth, genotype quality, and minor read ratio were more uniform for WGS than for WES. After filtering, a mean of 74,398 (95.3%) high-quality (HQ) SNVs and 9,033 (70.6%) HQ indels were called by both platforms. A mean of 105 coding HQ SNVs and 32 indels was identified exclusively by WES whereas 692 HQ SNVs and 105 indels were identified exclusively by WGS. We Sanger-sequenced a random selection of these exclusive variants. For SNVs, the proportion of false-positive variants was higher for WES (78%) than for WGS (17%). The estimated mean number of real coding SNVs (656 variants, ∼3% of all coding HQ SNVs) identified by WGS and missed by WES was greater than the number of SNVs identified by WES and missed by WGS (26 variants). For indels, the proportions of false-positive variants were similar for WES (44%) and WGS (46%). Finally, WES was not reliable for the detection of copy-number variations, almost all of which extended beyond the targeted regions. Although currently more expensive, WGS is more powerful than WES for detecting potential disease-causing mutations within WES regions, particularly those due to SNVs.


Assuntos
Exoma , Genoma Humano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Lancet Glob Health ; 2(7): e422-30, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25103396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, was identified as a neglected emerging infectious disease by WHO in 1998. Although Buruli ulcer is the third most common mycobacterial disease worldwide, understanding of the disease is incomplete. We analysed a large cohort of laboratory-confirmed cases of Buruli ulcer from Pobè, Benin, to provide a comprehensive description of the clinical presentation of the disease, its variation with age and sex, and its effect on the occurrence of permanent functional sequelae. METHODS: Between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2011, we prospectively collected clinical and laboratory data from all patients with Buruli ulcer diagnosed at the Centre de Dépistage et de Traitement de l'Ulcère de Buruli in Pobè, Benin. We followed up patients to assess the frequency of permanent functional sequelae. All analyses were done on cases that were laboratory confirmed. FINDINGS: 1227 cases of laboratory-confirmed Buruli ulcer were included in the analysis. Typically, patients with Buruli ulcer were children (median age at diagnosis 12 years) presenting with a unique (1172 [96%]) large (≥15 cm, 444 [36%]) ulcerative (805 [66%]) lesion of the lower limb (733 [60%]). Atypical clinical presentation of Buruli ulcer included Buruli ulcer osteomyelitis with no identifiable present or past Buruli ulcer skin lesions, which was recorded in at least 14 patients. The sex ratio of Buruli ulcer widely varied with age, with male patients accounting for 57% (n=427) of patients aged 15 years and younger, but only 33% (n=158) of those older than 15 years (odds ratio [OR] 2·59, 95% CI 2·04-3·30). Clinical presentation of Buruli ulcer was significantly dependent on age and sex. 54 (9%) male patients had Buruli ulcer osteomyelitis, whereas only 28 (4%) of female patients did (OR 2·21, 95% CI 1·39-3·59). 1 year after treatment, 229 (22% of 1043 with follow-up information) patients presented with permanent functional sequelae. Presentation with oedema, osteomyelitis, or large (≥15 cm in diameter), or multifocal lesions was significantly associated with occurrence of permanent functional sequelae (OR 7·64, 95% CI 5·29-11·31) and operationally defines severe Buruli ulcer. INTERPRETATION: Our findings have important clinical implications for daily practice, including enhanced surveillance for early detection of osteomyelitis in boys; systematic search for M ulcerans in osteomyelitis cases of non-specific aspect in areas endemic for Buruli ulcer; and specific disability prevention for patients presenting with osteomyelitis, oedema, or multifocal or large lesions. Our findings also suggest a crucial underestimation of the burden of Buruli ulcer in Africa and raise key questions about the contribution of environmental and physiopathological factors to the recorded heterogeneity of the clinical presentation of Buruli ulcer. FUNDING: Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR), Fondation Raoul Follereau, Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale (FRM), and Institut des Maladies Génétiques (IMAGINE).


Assuntos
Úlcera de Buruli/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Benin/epidemiologia , Úlcera de Buruli/sangue , Úlcera de Buruli/diagnóstico , Causalidade , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Edema/sangue , Edema/diagnóstico , Edema/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Osteomielite/sangue , Osteomielite/diagnóstico , Osteomielite/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 59(9): 122017 Apr, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25048846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium ulcerans is known to cause Buruli ulcer (BU), a necrotizing skin disease leading to extensive cutaneous and subcutaneous destruction and functional limitations. However, M. ulcerans infections are not limited to skin, and osteomyelitis, still poorly described in the literature, occurs in numerous young patients in Africa. METHODS: In a retrospective matched case-control study conducted in a highly endemic area in Benin, we analyzed demographic, clinical, biological, and radiological features in all patients with M. ulcerans infections with bone involvement, identified from a cohort of 1257 patients with polymerase chain reaction-proved M. ulcerans infections. RESULTS: The 81 patients studied had a median age of 11 years (interquartile range, 7-16 years) and were predominantly male (male-female ratio, 2:1). Osteomyelitis was observed beneath active BU lesions (60.5%) or at a distance from active or apparently healed BU lesions (14.8%) but also in patients without a history of BU skin lesions (24.7%). These lesions had an insidious course, with nonspecific clinical findings leading to delayed diagnosis. A comparison with findings in 243 age- and sex-matched patients with BU without osteomyelitis showed that case patients were less likely to have received BCG immunization than controls (33.3% vs 52.7%; P = .01). They were also at higher risk of longer hospital stay (118 vs 69 days; P = .001), surgery (92.6% vs 63.0%; P = .001), and long-term crippling sequelae (55.6% vs 15.2%; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted the difficulties associated with diagnosis of M. ulcerans osteomyelitis, with one-fourth of patients having no apparent history of BU skin lesions, including during the current course of illness. Delays in treatment contributed to the high proportion (55.6%) of patients with crippling sequelae.


Assuntos
Úlcera de Buruli/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium ulcerans/genética , Osteomielite/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Benin/epidemiologia , Úlcera de Buruli/microbiologia , Úlcera de Buruli/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mycobacterium ulcerans/isolamento & purificação , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Osteomielite/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
N Engl J Med ; 369(18): 1704-1714, 2013 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24131138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deep dermatophytosis is a severe and sometimes life-threatening fungal infection caused by dermatophytes. It is characterized by extensive dermal and subcutaneous tissue invasion and by frequent dissemination to the lymph nodes and, occasionally, the central nervous system. The condition is different from common superficial dermatophyte infection and has been reported in patients with no known immunodeficiency. Patients are mostly from North African, consanguineous, multiplex families, which strongly suggests a mendelian genetic cause. METHODS: We studied the clinical features of deep dermatophytosis in 17 patients with no known immunodeficiency from eight unrelated Tunisian, Algerian, and Moroccan families. Because CARD9 (caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9) deficiency has been reported in an Iranian family with invasive fungal infections, we also sequenced CARD9 in the patients. RESULTS: Four patients died, at 28, 29, 37, and 39 years of age, with clinically active deep dermatophytosis. No other severe infections, fungal or otherwise, were reported in the surviving patients, who ranged in age from 37 to 75 years. The 15 Algerian and Tunisian patients, from seven unrelated families, had a homozygous Q289X CARD9 allele, due to a founder effect. The 2 Moroccan siblings were homozygous for the R101C CARD9 allele. Both alleles are rare deleterious variants. The familial segregation of these alleles was consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance and complete clinical penetrance. CONCLUSIONS: All the patients with deep dermatophytosis had autosomal recessive CARD9 deficiency. Deep dermatophytosis appears to be an important clinical manifestation of CARD9 deficiency. (Funded by Agence Nationale pour la Recherche and others.).


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/deficiência , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/genética , Tinha/genética , Adulto , África do Norte , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/metabolismo , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Genes Recessivos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Linhagem , Tinha/patologia
11.
Blood ; 122(14): 2390-401, 2013 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23963039

RESUMO

We report a molecular study of the two known patients with autosomal recessive, partial interferon-γ receptor (IFN-γR)2 deficiency (homozygous for mutations R114C and G227R), and three novel, unrelated children, homozygous for S124F (P1) and G141R (P2 and P3). IFN-γR2 levels on the surface of the three latter patients' cells are slightly lower than those on control cells. The patients' cells also display impaired, but not abolished, response to IFN-γ. Moreover, the R114C, S124F, G141R and G227R IFNGR2 hypomorphic alleles all encode misfolded proteins with abnormal N-glycosylation. The mutants are largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, although a small proportion reach and function at the cell surface. Strikingly, the IFN-γ response of the patients' cells is enhanced by chemical modifiers of N-glycosylation, as previously shown for patients with gain-of-glysosylation T168N and misfolding 382-387dup null mutations. All four in-frame IFNGR2 hypomorphic mutant alleles encoding surface-expressed receptors are thus deleterious by a mechanism involving abnormal N-glycosylation and misfolding of the IFN-γR2 protein. The diagnosis of partial IFN-γR2 deficiency is clinically useful, as affected patients should be treated with IFN-γ, [corrected] unlike patients with complete IFN-γR2 deficiency. Moreover, inhibitors of glycosylation might be beneficial in patients with complete or partial IFN-γR2 deficiency due to misfolding or gain-of-glycosylation receptors.


Assuntos
Deficiências na Proteostase/genética , Receptores de Interferon/deficiência , Receptores de Interferon/genética , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Sequência de Bases , Western Blotting , Criança , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Glicosilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Infecções por Mycobacterium/genética , Linhagem , Transfecção
12.
Blood ; 118(19): 5108-18, 2011 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21908431

RESUMO

Inherited deficiency of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules impairs antigen presentation to CD4(+) T cells and results in combined immunodeficiency (CID). Autosomal-recessive mutations in the RFXANK gene account for two-thirds of all cases of MHC class II deficiency. We describe here the genetic, clinical, and immunologic features of 35 patients from 30 unrelated kindreds from North Africa sharing the same RFXANK founder mutation, a 26-bp deletion called I5E6-25_I5E6 + 1), and date the founder event responsible for this mutation in this population to approximately 2250 years ago (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1750-3025 years). Ten of the 23 patients who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) were cured, with the recovery of almost normal immune functions. Five of the patients from this cohort who did not undergo HSCT had a poor prognosis and eventually died (at ages of 1-17 years). However, 7 patients who did not undergo HSCT (at ages of 6-32 years) are still alive on Ig treatment and antibiotic prophylaxis. RFXANK deficiency is a severe, often fatal CID for which HSCT is the only curative treatment. However, some patients may survive for relatively long periods if multiple prophylactic measures are implemented.


Assuntos
Efeito Fundador , Genes MHC da Classe II , Mutação , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , África do Norte , Apresentação do Antígeno/genética , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Expressão Gênica , Genes Recessivos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Masculino , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Deleção de Sequência , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/complicações , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Hum Hered ; 69(2): 104-19, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19996608

RESUMO

Linkage analysis is often followed by association mapping to localize disease variants. In this paper, we evaluate approaches to determine how much of the observed linkage evidence, namely the identity-by-descent (IBD) sharing at the linkage peak, is explained by associated SNPs. We study several methods: Homozygote Sharing Tests (HST), Genotype Identity-by-Descent Sharing Test (GIST), and a permutation approach. We also propose a new approach, HSTMLB, combining HST and the Maximum Likelihood Binomial (MLB) linkage statistic. These methods can identify SNPs partially explaining the linkage peak, but only HST and HSTMLB can identify SNPs that do not fully explain the linkage evidence and be applied to multiple-SNPs. We contrast these methods with the association tests implemented in the software LAMP. In our simulations, GIST is more powerful at finding SNPs that partially explain the linkage peak, while HST and HSTMLB are equally powerful at identifying SNPs that do not fully explain the linkage peak. When applied to the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium data, HST and HSTMLB identify marker pairs that may fully explain the linkage peak on chromosome 6. In conclusion, HST and HSTMLB provide simple and flexible tools to identify SNPs that explain the IBD sharing at the linkage peak.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Homozigoto , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Genéticos , Núcleo Familiar , Irmãos , Software
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