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1.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 198-203, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evidence that health interventions work is not enough to ensure implementation into policy and practice. The complexity of public health systems requires more diverse actions. This paper proposes a conceptual model to enhance understanding of interlinking factors that influence the evidence implementation process. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to explore factors that influence the process of evidence implementation in complex public health systems, including research findings and observations from 32 case studies of injury prevention interventions underway in 24 countries and results from evidence research networks. Concepts and themes identified through a critical review were organised, ordered and interlinked to build the model. RESULTS: An Evidence Implementation Model for Public Health Systems and four concepts or themes: Evidence implementation target; Actors involved in implementation; Knowledge transfer; and Barriers and facilitators to evidence implementation were developed to provide a simplified, yet broad framework that highlights multiple factors and back and forth inter-linkages within and between the concepts that influence the uptake of evidence into public health systems policy and practice. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the factors discussed within and amongst the four concepts of this model should ultimately help to positively influence the uptake of evidence into real world public health systems. This model has relevance for decision makers, researchers, knowledge brokers, and implementers.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Tomada de Decisões , Medicina Baseada em Evidências
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29065497

RESUMO

Despite sound scientific knowledge and evidence that any exposure to asbestos fibers in all of its forms, are carcinogenic to humans, its presence, use and trade is still substantial, including in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. Banning the production and use of all forms of asbestos, as recommended by the International Labour Organization (ILO) and WHO, has been proven as the most efficient evidence-based strategy to eliminate Asbestos Related Diseases (ARDs). To effectively move elimination of ARDs forward, attaining a greater understanding of key stakeholders perspectives was identified as an important action. The WHO Regional Office for Europe, the European Centre for Environment and Health, undertook semi-structured interviews, and follow-up discussions with diverse representatives dealing professionally with asbestos. The interview questionnaire was developed based on the current ARDs WHO Report, the Evidence Implementation Model for Public Health and categories of the theory of diffusion. Data were attained on three main questions within the interview questionnaire: (1) Identifying barriers to implementation of WHO evidence-based asbestos recommendations; (2) Describing roles of key stakeholders; and, (3) Proposing possible solutions. The results demonstrated use of sound and convincing scientific evidence along with economic evidence and facilitators can be used to achieve evidence-based policy development, and comprehensive diverse actions.


Assuntos
Asbestos/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Pneumopatias/induzido quimicamente , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Organização Mundial da Saúde
3.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 25(2): 120-128, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28662322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to present the Child Safety Reference Frameworks (CSRF), a policy advice tool that places evidence-based child safety interventions, applicable at the sub-national level, into a framework resembling the Haddon Matrix. METHOD: The CSRF is based on work done in previous EU funded projects, which we have adapted to the field of child safety. The CSRF were populated following a literature review. RESULTS: Four CSRF were developed for four domains of child safety: road, water and home safety, and intentional injury prevention. CONCLUSION: The CSRF can be used as a reference, assessment and comparative tool by child safety practitioners and policy makers working at the sub-national level.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes , Bem-Estar da Criança , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , União Europeia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Política Pública
4.
Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 512-518, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28206588

RESUMO

Background: Injury to children in Europe, resulting in both death and disability, constitutes a significant burden on individuals, families and society. Inequalities between high and low-income countries are growing. The World Health Organisation Health 2020 strategy calls for inter-sectoral collaboration to address injury in Europe and advocates the whole of government and whole of society approaches to wicked problems. In this study we explore which sectors (e.g. health, transport, education) are relevant for four domains of child safety (intentional injury, water, road and home safety). We used the organigraph methodology, originally developed to demonstrate how organizations work, to describe the governance of child safety interventions. Members of the European Child Safety Alliance, working in the field of child safety in 24 European countries, drew organigraphs of evidence-based interventions. They included the different actors involved and the processes between them. We analyzed the organigraphs by counting the actors presented and categorizing them into sectors using a pre-defined analysis framework. We received 44 organigraphs from participants in 24 countries. Twenty-seven sectors were identified across the four domains. Nine of the 27 identified sectors were classified as 'core sectors' (education, health, home affairs, justice, media, recreation, research, social/welfare services and consumers). This study reveals the multi-sectoral nature of child safety in practice. It provides information for stakeholders working in child safety to help them implement inter-sectoral child safety interventions taking a whole-of-government and whole-of-society approach to health governance.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle
5.
Inj Prev ; 23(3): 197-204, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27913596

RESUMO

The efficiency and effectiveness of child safety interventions are determined by the quality of the implementation process. This multinational European study aimed to identify facilitators and barriers for the three phases of implementation: adoption, implementation and monitoring (AIM process). Twenty-seven participants from across the WHO European Region were invited to provide case studies of child safety interventions from their country. Cases were selected by the authors to ensure broad coverage of injury issues, age groups and governance level of implementation (eg, national, regional or local). Each participant presented their case and provided a written account according to a standardised template. Presentations and question and answer sessions were recorded. The presentation slides, written accounts and the notes taken during the workshops were analysed using thematic content analysis to elicit facilitators and barriers. Twenty-six cases (from 26 different countries) were presented and analysed. Facilitators and barriers were identified within eight general themes, applicable across the AIM process: management and collaboration; resources; leadership; nature of the intervention; political, social and cultural environment; visibility; nature of the injury problem and analysis and interpretation. The importance of the quality of the implementation process for intervention effectiveness, coupled with limited resources for child safety makes it more difficult to achieve successful actions. The findings of this study, divided by phase of the AIM process, provide practitioners with practical suggestions, where proactive planning might help increase the likelihood of effective implementation.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Equipamentos de Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Europa (Continente) , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Política Organizacional , Formulação de Políticas , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
Eur J Public Health ; 22(1): 66-71, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21186188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality and morbidity rates, traditionally used indicators for child injury, are limited in their ability to explain differences in child injury between countries, are inadequate in capturing actions to address the problem of child injury and do not adequately identify progress made within countries. There is a need for a broader set of indicators to help better understand the success of countries with low rates of child injury, provide guidance and benchmarks for policy makers looking to make investments to reduce their rates of fatal and non-fatal child injury and allow monitoring of progress towards achieving these goals. This article describes an assessment of national leadership, infrastructure and capacity in the context of child injury prevention in 18 countries in Europe and explores the potential of these to be used as additional indicators to support child injury prevention practice. METHODS: Partners in 18 countries coordinated data collection on 21 items relating to leadership, infrastructure and capacity. Responses were coded into an overall score and scores for each of the three areas and were compared with child injury mortality rankings using Spearman's rank correlation. RESULTS: Overall score and scores for leadership and capacity were significantly negatively correlated to child injury mortality ranking. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this preliminary work suggest that these three policy areas may provide important guidance for the types of commitments that are needed in the policy arena to support advances in child safety and their assessment a way to measure progress.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional , Liderança , Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Inj Prev ; 16(3): 204-7, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20570988

RESUMO

There is considerable confusion about the nature of indicators, their use in the injury field and surprisingly little discussion about these important tools. To date discussions of injury indicators have focused on the content and presentation of health outcome measures and on the dearth of data on exposure measures. Whereas these are valuable measures and assessing the optimal use of available routinely collected data in forming indicators is important, they do not provide sufficient information to support comprehensive prevention efforts, nor do they harness the full potential of indicators as tools to support prevention efforts. This paper provides an overview of the characteristics and uses of indicators for the field of injury prevention in order to make the case for action indicators and provide a framework for their appropriate use.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/normas , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração
9.
Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot ; 16(2): 89-96, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19941204

RESUMO

The focus on evidence-based practice is critical to addressing the issue of injuries, yet advances in the science of injury prevention have not always led to advances in practice. Effective approaches are not always adopted, or when adopted and transferred from one setting to another, they do not always achieve expected results. These challenges were the basis of two breakout sessions at the second European Injury Control and Safety Promotion Conference in Paris, France (October 2008). In summarising the key issues raised during those sessions, this article describes what is meant by evidence-based practice, discusses why evidence-based practice tends not to occur and considers approaches that may facilitate the adoption and implementation of evidence-based strategies. To address the challenge, specific action is required, both on the part of the research community and those responsible for developing and implementing injury prevention policies and programmes.


Assuntos
Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Comunicação , Difusão de Inovações , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Pesquisa
10.
Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot ; 12(3): 183-9, 2005 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16335436

RESUMO

Injury is the leading cause of death for children 0- 19 years of age in Europe, accounting for 3.1 deaths per 10 000 children per year. The youngest children of the ages 0-4 years require the most protection in this age group, with 2.5 injury-related deaths per 10 000 children in Europe annually. As parents are the primary caregivers of children, it is necessary to learn more about parents' perceptions, attitudes and behaviours towards child safety. This study presents the findings of a 14-country study in Europe on this theme. A quantitative survey of parents of children aged 5 years or under was performed in 14 EU member states in order to enable better targeting of prevention efforts aimed at educating parents. The total sample size was 2088. The results show that 95% of parents reported that they personally take measures to avoid accidental injury to their children. Their top concern with regard to safety of their children was children being hit by a car. The most common response, when asked why some parents find it difficult to protect their children from accidental injury, was not being able to watch their children constantly. Lack of awareness or knowledge about the causes of accidents was the second response. Two-thirds of parents would like to see more help from the government to prevent childhood injuries. Three-quarters of parents agreed that child injuries can be avoided. It was concluded that parents want to be better informed about the causes of child accidents and about actions they and society can take to reduce injury-related risks to children.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Pais/psicologia , Segurança , Prevenção de Acidentes , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot ; 12(2): 123-7, 2005 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16156538

RESUMO

The European Child Safety Alliance is an initiative of the European Consumer Safety Association with a network of child injury prevention organizations within 25 Member States in Europe. The Alliance, launched in 2001, focuses on strategies that assist in the reduction of injury related deaths and disability amongst children 0 to 18 years of age in the European Union Members States. The Alliance work is done in partnership with stakeholders from various disciplines involved in child injury prevention in order to promote a coordinated and consistent approach across Europe.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança , Política de Saúde , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Segurança , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Benchmarking , Criança , Mortalidade da Criança , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , União Europeia , Diretrizes para o Planejamento em Saúde , Humanos , Informática em Saúde Pública , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Inj Control Saf Promot ; 9(1): 1-8, 2002 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12462158

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: Children have a right to safety, but this is still not optimally implemented throughout Europe. Furthermore, no joint commitment to change has been undertaken by the European Parliament, European Commission, or collectively by the EU Member States. This paper summarizes a White Book presented to governments entitled 'Priorities for Child Safety in the European Union,' requesting concerted action. METHODS: The report is based on statistics provided by the World Health Organization as well as by research centers in the European Union Member States. Original research was contracted to the Mori Social Research Institute in 2001 in order to obtain an update on parents' and leading government officials' views on child safety. RESULTS: The leading causes of child injury deaths in the EU (road accidents, 48%, other unintentional 16%, intentional 13%, drowning 11%, fires 5%, falls 5%, and poisoning 2%) are the same in all Member States, but it is the distribution of injuries within each category that determines the unique profile of each. Adopting a number of best practices that have been identified for each injury area can reduce these injury deaths. Survey results show that the parents of children in Europe are concerned regarding child injuries, while government officials are still not making strong commitments to advance safety for children. A review of EU standards and legislation related to child safety shows that these are still incomplete and require changes. CONCLUSIONS: A joint commitment to reduce child accidental injury deaths in the EU is advocated, with a clear set of recommendations to act upon.


Assuntos
Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , União Europeia/estatística & dados numéricos , Diretrizes para o Planejamento em Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prioridades em Saúde/normas , Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança/normas , Acidentes/economia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , União Europeia/economia , Prioridades em Saúde/economia , Humanos , Lactente , Segurança/economia
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