Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 319
Filtrar
1.
Cancer ; 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To report on a retrospective case-series analysis of weekly cisplatin (wCDDP) as a single agent or combined with imatinib (wCDDP/I) in patients with advanced chordoma treated within the Italian Rare Cancer Network. METHODS: Adult patients with a diagnosis of advanced, brachyury-positive chordoma, treated from April 2007 to October 2020 with wCDDP or wCDDP/I were retrospectively identified. Imatinib was withheld at the same time as wCDDP. Response according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. RESULTS: Thirty-three consecutive patients were identified (wCDDP as front-line n = 8 [24.2%]; wCDDP as a further line n = 25 [75.8%]; prior imatinib n = 25 [75.8%]; evidence of progression before starting wCDDP n = 33). Of 32 patients evaluable for response (wCDDP, n = 22 [68.8%]; wCDDP/I, n = 10 [31.3%]), best response was stable disease (SD) in 27 patients (84.3%) and progression in 5 patients (15.6%). At a median follow-up of 54 months, the median OS (m-OS) was 30.3 months (interquartile range [IQR], 18.1-56.6), the m-PFS was 8.0 months (IQR, 5.1-17.0), the 6-month PFS rate was 65.2%, and the 12-month PFS rate was 30.3%. Of 22 patients who received wCDDP, the best response was SD in 18 patients (81.8%) and progression in 4 patients (18.2%), and the m-PFS was 8.0 months (IQR, 5.1-17.0 months). Of 10 patients who received treatment with wCDDP/I, the best response was SD in 9 patients (90%) and progression in 1 patient (10%), and the m-PFS was 9.3 months (IQR, 4.9-26.5 months). CONCLUSIONS: This series suggests that wCDDP, both as a single agent and combined with imatinib, has antitumor activity in chordoma. Although no dimensional responses were observed, 65% and 30% of previously progressive patients were progression-free at 6 and 12 months, respectively. A prospective study is warranted.

2.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 169: 103567, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896250

RESUMO

The development of innovative technologies and the advances in the genetics and genomics, have offered new opportunities for personalized treatment in oncology. Although the selection of the patient based on the molecular characteristics of the neoplasm has the potential to revolutionize the therapeutic scenario of oncology, this approach is extremely challenging. The access, homogeneity, and economic sustainability of the required genomic tests should be warranted in the clinical practice, as well as the specific scientific and clinical expertise for the choice of medical therapies. All these elements make essential the collaboration of different specialists within the Molecular Tumor Boards (MTBs). In this position paper, based on experts' opinion, the AIOM-SIAPEC/IAP-SIBioC-SIC-SIF-SIGU-SIRM Italian Scientific Societies critically discuss the available molecular profiling technologies, the proposed criteria for the selection of patients candidate for evaluation by the MTB, the criteria for the selection and analysis of biological samples, and the regulatory and pharmaco-economic issues.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Sociedades Científicas , Genômica , Humanos , Itália , Oncologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética
3.
Front Oncol ; 11: 789885, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34966687

RESUMO

Patients with metastatic prostate cancer frequently develop bone metastases that elicit significant skeletal morbidity and increased mortality. The high tropism of prostate cancer cells for bone and their tendency to induce the osteoblastic-like phenotype are a result of a complex interplay between tumor cells and osteoblasts. Although the role of osteoblasts in supporting prostate cancer cell proliferation has been reported by previous studies, their precise contribution in tumor growth remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we tried to dissect the molecular signaling underlining the interactions between castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells and osteoblasts using in vitro co-culture models. Transcriptomic analysis showed that osteoblast-conditioned media (OCM) induced the overexpression of genes related to cell cycle in the CRPC cell line C4-2B but, surprisingly, reduced androgen receptor (AR) transcript levels. In-depth analysis of AR expression in C4-2B cells after OCM treatment showed an AR reduction at the mRNA (p = 0.0047), protein (p = 0.0247), and functional level (p = 0.0029) and, concomitantly, an increase of C4-2B cells in S-G2-M cell cycle phases (p = 0.0185). An extensive proteomic analysis revealed in OCM the presence of some molecules that reduced AR activation, and among these, Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) was the only one able to block AR function (0.1 ng/ml p = 0.006; 1 ng/ml p = 0.002; 10 ng/ml p = 0.0001) and, at the same time, enhance CRPC proliferation (1 ng/ml p = 0.009; 10 ng/ml p = 0.033). Although the increase of C4-2B cell growth induced by MMP-1 did not reach the proliferation levels observed after OCM treatment, the addition of Vorapaxar, an MMP-1 receptor inhibitor (Protease-activated receptor-1, PAR-1), significantly reduced C4-2B cell cycle (0.1 µM p = 0.014; 1 µM p = 0.0087). Overall, our results provide a novel AR-independent mechanism of CRPC proliferation and suggest that MMP-1/PAR-1 could be one of the potential pathways involved in this process.

4.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(12): 1669-1680, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The medium-term and long-term impact of COVID-19 in patients with cancer is not yet known. In this study, we aimed to describe the prevalence of COVID-19 sequelae and their impact on the survival of patients with cancer. We also aimed to describe patterns of resumption and modifications of systemic anti-cancer therapy following recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: OnCovid is an active European registry study enrolling consecutive patients aged 18 years or older with a history of solid or haematological malignancy and who had a diagnosis of RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. For this retrospective study, patients were enrolled from 35 institutions across Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK. Patients who were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection between Feb 27, 2020, and Feb 14, 2021, and entered into the registry at the point of data lock (March 1, 2021), were eligible for analysis. The present analysis was focused on COVID-19 survivors who underwent clinical reassessment at each participating institution. We documented prevalence of COVID-19 sequelae and described factors associated with their development and their association with post-COVID-19 survival, which was defined as the interval from post-COVID-19 reassessment to the patients' death or last follow-up. We also evaluated resumption of systemic anti-cancer therapy in patients treated within 4 weeks of COVID-19 diagnosis. The OnCovid study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04393974. FINDINGS: 2795 patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection between Feb 27, 2020, and Feb 14, 2021, were entered into the study by the time of the data lock on March 1, 2021. After the exclusion of ineligible patients, the final study population consisted of 2634 patients. 1557 COVID-19 survivors underwent a formal clinical reassessment after a median of 22·1 months (IQR 8·4-57·8) from cancer diagnosis and 44 days (28-329) from COVID-19 diagnosis. 234 (15·0%) patients reported COVID-19 sequelae, including respiratory symptoms (116 [49·6%]) and residual fatigue (96 [41·0%]). Sequelae were more common in men (vs women; p=0·041), patients aged 65 years or older (vs other age groups; p=0·048), patients with two or more comorbidities (vs one or none; p=0·0006), and patients with a history of smoking (vs no smoking history; p=0·0004). Sequelae were associated with hospitalisation for COVID-19 (p<0·0001), complicated COVID-19 (p<0·0001), and COVID-19 therapy (p=0·0002). With a median post-COVID-19 follow-up of 128 days (95% CI 113-148), COVID-19 sequelae were associated with an increased risk of death (hazard ratio [HR] 1·80 [95% CI 1·18-2·75]) after adjusting for time to post-COVID-19 reassessment, sex, age, comorbidity burden, tumour characteristics, anticancer therapy, and COVID-19 severity. Among 466 patients on systemic anti-cancer therapy, 70 (15·0%) permanently discontinued therapy, and 178 (38·2%) resumed treatment with a dose or regimen adjustment. Permanent treatment discontinuations were independently associated with an increased risk of death (HR 3·53 [95% CI 1·45-8·59]), but dose or regimen adjustments were not (0·84 [0·35-2·02]). INTERPRETATION: Sequelae post-COVID-19 affect up to 15% of patients with cancer and adversely affect survival and oncological outcomes after recovery. Adjustments to systemic anti-cancer therapy can be safely pursued in treatment-eligible patients. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre and the Cancer Treatment and Research Trust.

5.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211053416, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777582

RESUMO

Background: Cancer patients are at higher risk of COVID-19 complications and mortality than the rest of the population. Breast cancer patients seem to have better prognosis when infected by SARS-CoV-2 than other cancer patients. Methods: We report a subanalysis of the OnCovid study providing more detailed information in the breast cancer population. Results: We included 495 breast cancer patients with a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mean age was 62.6 years; 31.5% presented more than one comorbidity. The most frequent breast cancer subtype was luminal-like (n = 245, 49.5%) and 177 (35.8%) had metastatic disease. A total of 332 (67.1%) patients were receiving active treatment, with radical intent in 232 (47.6%) of them. Hospitalization rate was 58.2% and all-cause mortality rate was 20.3%. One hundred twenty-nine (26.1%) patients developed one COVID-19 complication, being acute respiratory failure the most common (n = 74, 15.0%). In the multivariable analysis, age older than 70 years, presence of COVID-19 complications, and metastatic disease were factors correlated with worse outcomes, while ongoing anticancer therapy at time of COVID-19 diagnosis appeared to be a protective factor. No particular oncological treatment was related to higher risk of complications. In the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 73 (18.3%) patients had some kind of modification on their oncologic treatment. At the first oncological reassessment (median time: 46.9 days ± 36.7), 255 (51.6%) patients reported to be fully recovered from the infection. There were 39 patients (7.9%) with long-term SARS-CoV-2-related complications. Conclusion: In the context of COVID-19, our data confirm that breast cancer patients appear to have lower complications and mortality rate than expected in other cancer populations. Most breast cancer patients can be safely treated for their neoplasm during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Oncological treatment has no impact on the risk of SARS-CoV-2 complications, and, especially in the curative setting, the treatment should be modified as little as possible.

6.
JAMA Oncol ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817562

RESUMO

Importance: Whether the severity and mortality of COVID-19 in patients with cancer have improved in terms of disease management and capacity is yet to be defined. Objective: To test whether severity and mortality from COVID-19 among patients with cancer have improved during the course of the pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: OnCovid is a European registry that collects data on consecutive patients with solid or hematologic cancer and COVID-19. This multicenter case series study included real-world data from 35 institutions across 6 countries (UK, Italy, Spain, France, Belgium, and Germany). This update included patients diagnosed between February 27, 2020, and February, 14, 2021. Inclusion criteria were confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and a history of solid or hematologic cancer. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Deaths were differentiated at 14 days and 3 months as the 2 landmark end points. Patient characteristics and outcomes were compared by stratifying patients across 5 phases (February to March 2020, April to June 2020, July to September 2020, October to December 2020, and January to February 2021) and across 2 major outbreaks (February to June 2020 and July 2020 to February 2021). Results: At data cutoff, 2795 consecutive patients were included, with 2634 patients eligible for analysis (median [IQR] age, 68 [18-77] years ; 52.8% men). Eligible patients demonstrated significant time-dependent improvement in 14-day case-fatality rate (CFR) with estimates of 29.8% (95% CI, 0.26-0.33) for February to March 2020; 20.3% (95% CI, 0.17-0.23) for April to June 2020; 12.5% (95% CI, 0.06-22.90) for July to September 2020; 17.2% (95% CI, 0.15-0.21) for October to December 2020; and 14.5% (95% CI, 0.09-0.21) for January to February 2021 (all P < .001) across the predefined phases. Compared with the second major outbreak, patients diagnosed in the first outbreak were more likely to be 65 years or older (974 of 1626 [60.3%] vs 564 of 1008 [56.1%]; P = .03), have at least 2 comorbidities (793 of 1626 [48.8%] vs 427 of 1008 [42.4%]; P = .001), and have advanced tumors (708 of 1626 [46.4%] vs 536 of 1008 [56.1%]; P < .001). Complications of COVID-19 were more likely to be seen (738 of 1626 [45.4%] vs 342 of 1008 [33.9%]; P < .001) and require hospitalization (969 of 1626 [59.8%] vs 418 of 1008 [42.1%]; P < .001) and anti-COVID-19 therapy (1004 of 1626 [61.7%] vs 501 of 1008 [49.7%]; P < .001) during the first major outbreak. The 14-day CFRs for the first and second major outbreaks were 25.6% (95% CI, 0.23-0.28) vs 16.2% (95% CI, 0.13-0.19; P < .001), respectively. After adjusting for country, sex, age, comorbidities, tumor stage and status, anti-COVID-19 and anticancer therapy, and COVID-19 complications, patients diagnosed in the first outbreak had an increased risk of death at 14 days (hazard ratio [HR], 1.85; 95% CI, 1.47-2.32) and 3 months (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08-1.51) compared with those diagnosed in the second outbreak. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this registry-based study suggest that mortality in patients with cancer diagnosed with COVID-19 has improved in Europe; this improvement may be associated with earlier diagnosis, improved management, and dynamic changes in community transmission over time.

7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615721

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The effect of high-dose imatinib (800 mg/day) on survival in the adjuvant treatment of patients with resected KIT exon 9-mutated gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) is not established. Here, the association of dose and other clinicopathologic variables with survival was evaluated in a large multi-institutional European cohort. METHODS: Data from 185 patients were retrospectively collected in 23 European GIST reference centers. Propensity score matching (PSM) and inverse-probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) were used to account for confounders. Univariate and multivariate unweighted and weighted Cox proportional hazard regression models were estimated for relapse-free survival (RFS), modified-RFS (mRFS) and imatinib failure-free survival (IFFS). Univariate Cox models were estimated for overall survival. RESULTS: Of the 185 patients, 131 (70.8%) received a starting dose of 400 mg/d and the remaining 54 (29.2%) a dose of 800 mg/d. Baseline characteristics were partially unbalanced, suggesting a potential selection bias. PSM and IPTW analyses showed no advantage of imatinib 800 mg/d. In the weighted multivariate Cox models, high-dose imatinib was not associated with the survival outcomes [RFS: hazard ratio (HR), 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.79-1.94; mRFS: HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 0.92-3.10; IFFS: HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.79-2.28]. The variables consistently associated with worse survival outcomes were high mitotic index and nongastric tumor location. CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective series of patients with KIT exon 9-mutated GIST treated with adjuvant imatinib, a daily dose of 800 mg versus 400 mg did not show better results in terms of survival outcomes. Prospective evaluation of the more appropriate adjuvant treatment in this setting is warranted.

8.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211049779, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616493

RESUMO

Background: Although the gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) genotype is not currently included in risk-stratification systems, a growing body of evidence shows that the pathogenic variant (PV) type and codon location hold a strong prognostic influence on recurrence-free survival (RFS). This information has particular relevance in the adjuvant setting, where an accurate prognostication could help to better identify high-risk tumors and guide clinical decision-making. Materials and Methods: Between January 2005 and December 2020, 96 patients with completely resected GISTs harboring a KIT proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT) exon 11 PV were included in the study. We analyzed the type and codon location of the PV according to clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcome; the metastatic sites in relapsed patients were also investigated. Results: Tumors harboring a KIT exon 11 deletion or deletion/insertion involving the 557 and/or 558 codons, showed a more aggressive clinical behavior compared with tumors carrying deletion/deletion/insertion in other codons, or tumors with duplication/insertion/single-nucleotide variant (SNV) (7-year RFS: 50% versus 73.1% versus 88.2%, respectively; p < 0.001). Notably, among 18 relapsed patients with 557 and/or 558 deletion or deletion/insertion, 14 patients (77.8%) harbored deletions simultaneously involving 557 and 558 codons, while only 4 patients (22.2%) harbored deletions involving only 1 of the 557/558 codons. Thus, when 557 or 558 deletions occurred separately, the tumor showed a prognostic behavior similar to the GIST carrying deletions outside the 557/558 position. Remarkably, patients with GISTs stratified as intermediate risk, but carrying the 557/558 deletion, showed a similar outcome to the high-risk patients with tumors harboring deletions in codons other than 557/558, or duplication/insertion/SNV. Conclusion: Our data support the inclusion of the PV type and codon location in routine risk prediction models, and suggest that intermediate-risk patients whose GISTs harbor 557/558 deletions may also need to be treated with adjuvant imatinib like the high-risk patients.

9.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 484, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) is a rare soft tissue sarcoma with a high recurrence rate and a low risk of distant metastasis. It occurs mainly in the extremities of elderly men. Head and neck MFS is extremely rare. Surgery is the cornerstone of treatment. The role of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CHT) on MFS is still debated. CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old Caucasian man presented to our sarcoma referral center (SRC) with a history of MFS of the neck excised with microscopic positive surgical margins in a non-referral center. Staging imaging exams did not reveal distant metastasis. After a multidisciplinary discussion, preoperative RT was administered with a total dose of 50 Gy followed by wide surgical excision. Histological examination was negative for viable tumor cells. No relapse occurred during the 24-month postoperative follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The case described suggests the importance of planned combined treatments with both RT and surgery for high-grade soft tissue sarcoma. RT seems to be promising within this specific histotype. Close follow-up is advisable in all cases. Further studies are needed to confirm if the observed efficacy of combined treatments results in a prolonged time of disease-free survival and overall survival.


Assuntos
Fibrossarcoma , Sarcoma , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles , Idoso , Fibrossarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrossarcoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/cirurgia
10.
Chemotherapy ; 66(5-6): 161-168, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common distressing symptom for patients living with chronic or acute diseases, including liver disorders and cancer (Cancer-Related Fatigue, CRF). Its etiology is multifactorial, and some hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis are summarized, with possible shared mechanisms both in cancer and in chronic liver diseases. A deal of work has investigated the role of a multifunctional molecule in improving symptoms and outcomes in different liver dysfunctions and associated symptoms, including chronic fatigue: S-adenosylmethionine (SAM; AdoMet). The aim of this work is actually to consider its role also in oncologic settings. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 2006 and December 2009, at the University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, 145 patients affected by colorectal cancer in adjuvant (n = 91) or metastatic (n = 54; n = 40 with liver metastases) setting and treated with oxaliplatin-based regimen (FOLFOX for adjuvant and bevacizumab + XELOX for metastatic ones), 76 of which with the supplementation of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet; 400 mg b.i.d.) (57% of adjuvant patients and 44% of metastatic ones) and 69 without AdoMet supplementation, were evaluated for fatigue prevalence using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illnesses Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) questionnaire, at 3 and 6 months after the beginning of oncologic treatment. Notably, the number of patients with liver metastases was well balanced between the group of patients treated with AdoMet and those who were not. RESULTS: Among patients receiving oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy, both in adjuvant and in metastatic settings, after just 3 months from the beginning of chemotherapy, mean scores from questionnaire domains like FACIT-F subscale (7.9 vs. 3.1, p = 0.006), FACIT physical (6.25 vs. 3.32, p = 0.020), FACIT emotional (4.65 vs. 2.19, p = 0.045), and FACIT-F total score (16.5 vs. 8.27, p = 0.021) were higher in those receiving supplementation of AdoMet, resulting in reduced fatigue; a significant difference was maintained even after 6 months of treatment. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Mechanisms and strategies for managing CRF are not fully understood. This work aimed at investigating the possible role of S-adenosylmethionine supplementation in improving fatigue scores in a specific setting of cancer patients, using a FACIT-F questionnaire, a well-validated quality of life instrument widely used for the assessment of CRF in clinical trials.

11.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 165: 103436, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371157

RESUMO

The personalized medicine is in a rapidly evolving scenario. The identification of actionable mutations is revolutionizing the therapeutic landscape of tumors. The morphological and histological tumor features are enriched by the extensive genomic profiling, and the first tumor-agnostic drugs have been approved regardless of tumor histology, guided by predictive and druggable genetic alterations. This new paradigm of "mutational oncology", presents a great potential to change the oncologic therapeutic scenario, but also some critical aspects need to be underlined. A process governance is mandatory to ensure the genomic testing accuracy and homogeneity, the economic sustainability, and the regulatory issues, ultimately granting the possibility of translating this model in the "real world". In this position paper, based on experts' opinion, the AIOM-SIAPEC-IAP-SIBIOC-SIF Italian Scientific Societies revised the new agnostic biomarkers, the diagnostic technologies available, the current availability of agnostic drugs and their present indication.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Sociedades Científicas , Humanos , Itália , Oncologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Medicina de Precisão
12.
Curr Treat Options Oncol ; 22(10): 87, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424422

RESUMO

OPINION STATEMENT: Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been traditionally deprived from highly effective systemic therapy options in the past decades. The multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib, approved in 2008, remained the only treatment option for advanced HCC for over a decade. A number of molecularly targeted therapies such as lenvatinib, regorafenib, cabozantinib, and ramucirumab have significantly widened treatment options in patients with advanced HCC. However, emergence of resistance and long-term toxicity from treatment are barriers to long-term survivorship. Immunotherapy is at the focus of intense research efforts in HCC. Whilst targeting of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte 4 (CTLA-4) is associated with radiologically measurable disease-modulating effects in HCC, monotherapies fell short of demonstrating evidence of significant survival extension in advanced disease. Atezolizumab and bevacizumab were the first immunotherapy regimen to demonstrate clear superiority in improving the survival of patients with unresectable HCC compared to sorafenib, paving the way for immunotherapy combinations. As the treatment landscape of HCC rapidly evolves, with immunotherapy integrating within early- and intermediate-stage disease treatment algorithms, lack of level 1 evidence on sequencing of therapeutic strategies and lack of head-to-head comparisons across immunotherapy combinations will affect prescribing of immunotherapy in routine practice. In the absence of predictive biomarkers, choice of immunotherapy over kinase inhibitors will continue to remain an empirical exercise, guided by balancing anti-tumour efficacy with toxicity considerations in the individual patient.

13.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of bone metastases in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) negatively affects patients' survival. Data from clinical trials has highlighted a significant benefit of cabozantinib in bone metastatic RCC patients. Here, we evaluated the antitumor effect of cabozantinib in coculture models of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and osteoblasts (OBs) to investigate whether and how its antiproliferative activity is influenced by OBs. METHODS: Bone/RCC models were generated, coculturing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Caki-1 and 786-O cells with human primary OBs in a "cell-cell contact" system. RCC proliferation and the OB molecular profile were evaluated after the cabozantinib treatment. RESULTS: The Caki-1 cell proliferation increased in the presence of OBs (p < 0.0001), while the 786-O cell growth did not change in the coculture with the OBs. The cabozantinib treatment reduced the proliferation of both the Caki-1 (p < 0.0001) and 786-O (p = 0.03) cells cocultured with OBs. Intriguingly, the inhibitory potency of cabozantinib was higher when Caki-1 cells grew in presence of OBs compared to a monoculture (p < 0.001), and this was similar in 786-O cells alone or cocultured with OBs. Moreover, the OB pretreatment with cabozantinib "indirectly" inhibited Caki-1 cell proliferation (p = 0.040) without affecting 786-O cell growth. Finally, we found that cabozantinib was able to modulate the OB gene and molecular profile inhibiting specific proliferative signals that, in turn, could affect RCC cell growth. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the "direct" effect of cabozantinib on OBs "indirectly" increased its antitumor activity in metastatic RCC Caki-1 cells but not in the primary 786-O model.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic relevance of early immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients affected by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) upon immunotherapy is not fully understood. METHODS: The Leading to Treatment Discontinuation cohort included 24 patients experiencing severe irAEs after one of two administrations of single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting for metastatic NSCLC between November 2015 and June 2019. The control cohort was composed of 526 patients treated with single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting with no severe irAE reported. The primary end points were median progression-free survival, overall survival, objective response rate, risk of progression of disease and risk of death. The correlation of clinic pathological features with early severe irAEs represented the secondary end point. RESULTS: Median PFS was 9.3 and 8.4 months, median OS was 12.0 months and 14.2 months at a median follow-up of 18.1 and 22.6 months in the LTD cohort and in the control cohort, respectively. The ORR was 40% (95% CI 17.2-78.8) in the LTD cohort and 32.7% (95% CI 27.8-38.2) in the control cohort. The risk of disease progression was higher in the LTD cohort (HR 2.52 [95% 1.10-5.78], P = .0288). CONCLUSIONS: We found no survival benefit in LTD cohort compared to the control cohort. However, early and severe irAEs might underly an immune anti-tumor activation. We identified a significant association with first-line immune checkpoints inhibitors treatment and good PS. Further studies on risk prediction and management of serious and early irAEs in NSCLC patients are needed.

15.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232938

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immuno-oncology demonstrated substantial efficacy in cancer treatment. Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) can virtually involve every organ, with different incidence depending on the different immune-checkpoint inhibitor. irAEs consequences can range from quality of life worsening and therapy discontinuation to death, if not recognized promptly. However, patients interrupting therapy due to irAEs in absence of progressive disease can benefit from immuno-oncology over time after discontinuation. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present the case of a man affected by metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) that experienced a long-term response to programmed cell death-1 inhibitor, nivolumab, after interruption due to immune-related pnenumonia. CONCLUSIONS: IrAEs can be associated to efficacy and very long-term response in mRCC patients treated with immuno-oncology.

17.
Eur J Cancer ; 150: 190-202, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite high contagiousness and rapid spread, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to heterogeneous outcomes across affected nations. Within Europe (EU), the United Kingdom (UK) is the most severely affected country, with a death toll in excess of 100,000 as of January 2021. We aimed to compare the national impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the risk of death in UK patients with cancer versus those in continental EU. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the OnCovid study database, a European registry of patients with cancer consecutively diagnosed with COVID-19 in 27 centres from 27th February to 10th September 2020. We analysed case fatality rates and risk of death at 30 days and 6 months stratified by region of origin (UK versus EU). We compared patient characteristics at baseline including oncological and COVID-19-specific therapy across UK and EU cohorts and evaluated the association of these factors with the risk of adverse outcomes in multivariable Cox regression models. FINDINGS: Compared with EU (n = 924), UK patients (n = 468) were characterised by higher case fatality rates (40.38% versus 26.5%, p < 0.0001) and higher risk of death at 30 days (hazard ratio [HR], 1.64 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.36-1.99]) and 6 months after COVID-19 diagnosis (47.64% versus 33.33%; p < 0.0001; HR, 1.59 [95% CI, 1.33-1.88]). UK patients were more often men, were of older age and have more comorbidities than EU counterparts (p < 0.01). Receipt of anticancer therapy was lower in UK than in EU patients (p < 0.001). Despite equal proportions of complicated COVID-19, rates of intensive care admission and use of mechanical ventilation, UK patients with cancer were less likely to receive anti-COVID-19 therapies including corticosteroids, antivirals and interleukin-6 antagonists (p < 0.0001). Multivariable analyses adjusted for imbalanced prognostic factors confirmed the UK cohort to be characterised by worse risk of death at 30 days and 6 months, independent of the patient's age, gender, tumour stage and status; number of comorbidities; COVID-19 severity and receipt of anticancer and anti-COVID-19 therapy. Rates of permanent cessation of anticancer therapy after COVID-19 were similar in the UK and EU cohorts. INTERPRETATION: UK patients with cancer have been more severely impacted by the unfolding of the COVID-19 pandemic despite societal risk mitigation factors and rapid deferral of anticancer therapy. The increased frailty of UK patients with cancer highlights high-risk groups that should be prioritised for anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Continued evaluation of long-term outcomes is warranted.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Idoso , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/terapia , Comorbidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801399

RESUMO

The Italian Sarcoma Group performed this retrospective analysis of patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma, pretreated with ≥1 anthracycline-based treatment, and treated with trabectedin every three weeks. Primary endpoint was to describe real-life use of trabectedin across Italy. Secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR) and safety. Overall, 512 patients from 20 Italian centers were evaluated. Leiomyosarcoma (37.7%)/liposarcoma (30.3%) were the most prevalent histological types (abbreviated as L-sarcoma). Patients received a median of four trabectedin cycles (range: 1-40), mostly as a second-line treatment (~60% of patients). The ORR was 13.7% superior (p < 0.0001) in patients with L-sarcoma compared with patients with non-L-sarcoma (16.6% vs. 9.0%). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.1 months, whereas median overall survival (OS) was 21.6 months. Significantly better PFS and OS were observed in patients with L-sarcoma, those with objective responses and/or disease stabilization, treated in an early line and treated with reduced dose. Bone marrow toxicity (61.4%) and transaminase increases (21.9%) were the most common grade 3/4 adverse events. The results of this real-life study suggest that trabectedin is an active treatment, which is mostly given as a second-line treatment to patients with a good performance status and high-grade, metastatic L-sarcoma (clinical trial information: NCT02793050).

19.
Future Oncol ; 17(22): 2923-2939, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855868

RESUMO

Objective: Compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of selinexor versus placebo in patients with dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Materials & methods: HRQoL was assessed at baseline and day 1 of each cycle using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer 30-item core quality of life questionnaire. Results were reported from baseline to day 169 (where exposure to treatment was maximized while maintaining adequate sample size). Results: Pain scores worsened for placebo versus selinexor across all postbaseline visits, although differences in HRQoL at some visits were not significant. Other domains did not exhibit significant differences between arms; however, scores in both arms deteriorated over time. Conclusion: Patients treated with selinexor reported lower rates and slower worsening of pain compared with patients who received placebo.

20.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673554

RESUMO

In previous studies on localized GISTs, KIT exon 11 deletions and mutations involving codons 557/558 showed an adverse prognostic influence on recurrence-free survival. In the metastatic setting, there are limited data on how mutation type and codon location might contribute to progression-free survival (PFS) variability to first-line imatinib treatment. We analyzed the type and gene location of KIT and PDGFRA mutations for 206 patients from a GIST System database prospectively collected at an Italian reference center between January 2005 and September 2020. By describing the mutational landscape, we focused on clinicopathological characteristics according to the critical mutations and investigated the predictive role of type and gene location of the KIT exon 11 mutations in metastatic patients treated with first-line imatinib. Our data showed a predictive impact of KIT exon 11 pathogenic variant on PFS to imatinib treatment: patients with deletion or insertion/deletion (delins) in 557/558 codons had a shorter PFS (median PFS: 24 months) compared to the patients with a deletion in other codons, or duplication/insertion/SNV (median PFS: 43 and 49 months, respectively) (p < 0.001). These results reached an independent value in the multivariate model, which showed that the absence of exon 11 deletions or delins 557/558, the female gender, primitive tumor diameter (≤5 cm) and polymorphonuclear leucocytosis (>7.5 109/L) were significant prognostic factors for longer PFS. Analysis of the predictive role of PDGFRA PVs showed no significant results. Our results also confirm the aggressive biology of 557/558 deletions/delins in the metastatic setting and allow for prediction at the baseline which GIST patients would develop resistance to first-line imatinib treatment earlier.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...