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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519288

RESUMO

We analyzed by bidimensional electrophoresis the acid-insoluble fraction of saliva from three classes of angioedema patients and a healthy control group, highlighting significant variations of several normalized spot volumes. Characterization of the corresponding proteins was performed by in-gel tryptic digestion of the spots, followed by high-resolution HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of tryptic mixtures. By this strategy, 16 differentially-expressed proteins among two or more groups were identified. We found higher concentration of proteins involved in immune response (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and annexin A1), and of moonlighting proteins acting as plasminogen receptors (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, α-enolase, and annexin A2) in patients affected by the idiopathic non-histaminergic or hereditary angioedema with unknown origin with respect to healthy controls. These data provide new information on the molecular basis of these less characterized types of angioedema. Graphical Abstract Graphical Abstract.

2.
J Clin Med ; 8(12)2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816910

RESUMO

In the grey zone of testosterone levels between 8 and 12 nmol/L, the usefulness of therapy is controversial; as such, markers of tissue action of androgens may be helpful in adjusting clinical decisions. To better understand the effect of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis on male accessory secretion, we performed a proteomic quantitative analysis of seminal plasma in patients with secondary hypogonadism, before and after testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). Ten male patients with postsurgical hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism were enrolled in this study, and five of these patients were evaluated after testosterone treatment. Ten men with proven fertility were selected as a control group. An aliquot of seminal plasma from each individual was subjected to an in-solution digestion protocol and analyzed using an Ultimate 3000 RSLC-nano HPLC apparatus coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer. The label-free quantitative analysis was performed via Precursor Ions Area Detector Node. Eleven proteins were identified as decreased in hypogonadic patients versus controls, which are primarily included in hydrolase activity and protein binding activity. The comparison of the proteome before and after TRT comes about within the discovery of six increased proteins. This is the primary application of quantitative proteomics pointed to uncover a cluster of proteins reflecting an impairment not only of spermatogenesis but of the epididymal and prostate epithelial cell secretory function in male hypogonadism. The identified proteins might represent putative clinical markers valuable within the follow-up of patients with distinctive grades of male hypogonadism.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354629

RESUMO

A large number of biomarkers have been proposed for the diagnosis of testicular cancer, representing putative molecular targets for anticancer treatments. However, no conclusive data have been provided. Proteomics represents a research field recently developed. It evaluates the large-scale analysis of the full protein components of a single cell, of a specific tissue, or of biological fluids. In the last decades, proteomics has been applied in clinical fields, thanks to modern technology and new bioinformatic tools, to identify novel molecular markers of diseases. The aim of this review is to argue the findings of recent studies in the discoveries of putative prognostic and diagnostic markers of testis cancer by proteomic techniques. We present here a panel of proteins identified by proteomics which might be used after validation for early detection and the prognostic evaluation of testicular tumors. In addition, the molecular mechanisms revealed by these proteomic studies might also guide the development of novel treatments in future.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202182

RESUMO

The multifactorial nature of Late Onset Alzheimer's Disease (LOAD), the AD form of major relevance on epidemiological and social aspects, has driven the original investigation by LC-MS and top-down proteomics approach of the protein repertoire of the brain tissue of TgCRND8 model mice fed with a diet deficient in B vitamins. The analysis of the acid-soluble fraction of brain tissue homogenates identified a list of proteins and peptides, proteoforms and PTMs. In order to disclose possible modulations, their relative quantification in wild type and AD model mice under both B vitamin deficient and control diets was performed. The levels of metallothionein III, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2 and brain acid soluble protein 1 showed statistically significant alterations depending on genotype, diet or both effects, respectively. Particularly, metallothionein III exhibited increased levels in TgCRND8 mice under B vitamin deficient diet with respect to wild type mice under both diets. Brain acid soluble protein 1 showed the opposite, revealing decreased levels in all diet groups of AD model mice with respect to wild type mice in control diet. Lower levels of brain acid soluble protein 1 were also observed in wild type mice under deficiency of B vitamins. These results, besides contributing to increase the knowledge of AD at molecular level, give new suggestions for deeply investigating metallothionein III and brain acid soluble protein 1 in AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Complexo Vitamínico B/análise , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Química Encefálica , Proteínas de Ligação a Calmodulina/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Calmodulina/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/etiologia , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/genética , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteoma/química , Proteoma/genética , Complexo Vitamínico B/metabolismo
5.
Dis Markers ; 2019: 3609789, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31191748

RESUMO

Although histologically benign, adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (AC) pediatric brain tumor is a locally aggressive disease that frequently determines symptoms and hormonal dysfunctions related to the mass effect on the surrounding structures. Another typical feature of this benign neoplasm is the presence of voluminous liquid cysts frequently associated with the solid component. Even if studies have been devoted to the proteomic characterization of the tumor intracystic fluid, poor explorations have been performed on its solid part, principally investigated by transcriptomics technologies. In the present study, seven specimens of AC whole tumor tissue have been analyzed by LC-MS for a preliminary assessment of the proteomic profile by a top-down/bottom-up integrated approach. Thymosin beta 4, ubiquitin, calmodulin, S100 proteins, prothymosin α isoform 2, alpha-defensins 1-4, and fragments largely belonging to vimentin, hemoglobin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein characterized the intact proteome. The identification of alpha-defensins, formerly characterized in AC intracystic fluid, reinforces the hypothesis of a role for inflammation in tumor pathogenesis. A total number of 1798 unique elements were identified by a bottom-up approach with a special focus on the 433 proteins commonly characterized in the 85.7% of the samples analyzed. Their gene ontology classification evidenced the involvement of the adherence system, intermediate filaments, and actin cytoskeleton in tumor pathogenesis and of elements part of the Wnt, FGF, and EGFR signaling pathways. In addition, proteins involved in calcium modulation, innate immunity, inflammation, CCKR and integrin signaling, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor pathways were also outlined. Further than confirming proteomic data previously obtained on AC intracystic fluid, these results offer a preliminary overview of the AC whole tissue protein phenotype, adding new hints towards the comprehension of this still obscure pediatric brain tumor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Craniofaringioma/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Adolescente , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Criança , Craniofaringioma/genética , Craniofaringioma/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteoma/genética
6.
Redox Biol ; 23: 101162, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876754

RESUMO

Increasing evidences support the notion that the impairment of intracellular degradative machinery is responsible for the accumulation of oxidized/misfolded proteins that ultimately results in the deposition of protein aggregates. These events are key pathological aspects of "protein misfolding diseases", including Alzheimer disease (AD). Interestingly, Down syndrome (DS) neuropathology shares many features with AD, such as the deposition of both amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Studies from our group and others demonstrated, in DS brain, the dysfunction of both proteasome and autophagy degradative systems, coupled with increased oxidative damage. Further, we observed the aberrant increase of mTOR signaling and of its down-stream pathways in both DS brain and in Ts65Dn mice. Based on these findings, we support the ability of intranasal rapamycin treatment (InRapa) to restore mTOR pathway but also to restrain oxidative stress resulting in the decreased accumulation of lipoxidized proteins. By proteomics approach, we were able to identify specific proteins that showed decreased levels of HNE-modification after InRapa treatment compared with vehicle group. Among MS-identified proteins, we found that reduced oxidation of arginase-1 (ARG-1) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) might play a key role in reducing brain damage associated with synaptic transmission failure and tau hyperphosphorylation. InRapa treatment, by reducing ARG-1 protein-bound HNE levels, rescues its enzyme activity and conceivably contribute to the recovery of arginase-regulated functions. Further, it was shown that PP2A inhibition induces tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory deficits. Our data suggest that InRapa was able to rescue PP2A activity as suggested by reduced p-tau levels. In summary, considering that mTOR pathway is a central hub of multiple intracellular signaling, we propose that InRapa treatment is able to lower the lipoxidation-mediated damage to proteins, thus representing a valuable therapeutic strategy to reduce the early development of AD pathology in DS population.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Autofagia , Biomarcadores , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Proteômica/métodos
7.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 129: 430-439, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321702

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive form of dementia characterized by increased production of amyloid-ß plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, mitochondrial dysfunction, elevated oxidative stress, reduced protein clearance, among other. Several studies showed systemic modifications of immune and inflammatory systems due, in part, to decreased levels of CD3+ lymphocytes in peripheral blood in AD. Considering that oxidative stress, both in the brain and in the periphery, can influence the activation and differentiation of T-cells, we investigated the 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) proteome of blood T-cells derived from AD patients compared to non-demented (ND) subjects by using a proteomic approach. 3-NT is a formal protein oxidation and index of nitrosative stress. We identified ten proteins showing increasing levels of 3-NT in CD3+ T-cells from AD patients compared with ND subjects. These proteins are involved in energy metabolism, cytoskeletal structure, intracellular signaling, protein folding and turnover, and antioxidant response and provide new insights into the molecular mechanism that impact reduced T-cell differentiation in AD. Our results highlight the role of peripheral oxidative stress in T-cells related to immune-senescence during AD pathology focusing on the specific targets of protein nitration that conceivably can be suitable to further therapies. Further, our data demonstrate common targets of protein nitration between the brain and the periphery, supporting their significance as disease biomarkers.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Linfócitos/química , Nitrocompostos/imunologia , Proteoma/imunologia , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/imunologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Complexo CD3/genética , Complexo CD3/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Separação Celular , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/química , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/imunologia , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrocompostos/química , Nitrocompostos/isolamento & purificação , Estresse Nitrosativo , Estresse Oxidativo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Tirosina/metabolismo
8.
J Proteomics ; 187: 212-222, 2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30086402

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammation, demyelination and neurodegeneration which is of undetermined origin. To date a single diagnostic test of multiple sclerosis does not exists and novel biomarkers are demanded for a more accurate and early diagnosis. In this study, we performed the quantitative analysis of 119 salivary peptides/proteins from 49 multiple sclerosis patients and 54 healthy controls by a mass spectrometry-based top-down proteomic approach. Statistical analysis evidenced different levels on 23 proteins: 8 proteins showed lower levels in multiple sclerosis patients with respect to controls and they were mono- and di-oxidized cystatin SN, mono- and di-oxidized cystatin S1, mono-oxidized cystatin SA and mono-phosphorylated statherin. 15 proteins showed higher levels in multiple sclerosis patients with respect to controls and they were antileukoproteinase, two proteoforms of Prolactin-Inducible Protein, P-C peptide (Fr.1-14, Fr. 26-44, and Fr. 36-44), SV1 fragment of statherin, cystatin SN Des1-4, cystatin SN P11 → L variant, and cystatin A T96 → M variant. The differences observed between the salivary proteomic profile of patients suffering from multiple sclerosis and healthy subjects is consistent with the inflammatory condition and altered immune response typical of the pathology. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD009440. SIGNIFICANCE: To date a single diagnostic test of multiple sclerosis does not exist, and diagnosis is based on multiple tests which mainly include the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. However, the need for lumbar puncture makes the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid impractical for monitoring disease activity and response to treatment. The possible use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid for oral and systemic diseases has been largely investigated, but only marginally in multiple sclerosis compared to other body fluids. Our study demonstrates that the salivary proteome of multiple sclerosis patients differs considerably compared to that of sex and age matched healthy individuals and suggests that some differences might be associated with the different disease-modifying therapy used to treat multiple sclerosis patients.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Proteoma/análise , Proteômica/métodos , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteoma/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Saliva/metabolismo , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo
9.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1864(10): 3309-3321, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031227

RESUMO

PET scan analysis demonstrated the early reduction of cerebral glucose metabolism in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients that can make neurons vulnerable to damage via the alteration of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). Defective HBP leads to flawed protein O-GlcNAcylation coupled, by a mutual inverse relationship, with increased protein phosphorylation on Ser/Thr residues. Altered O-GlcNAcylation of Tau and APP have been reported in AD and is closely related with pathology onset and progression. In addition, type 2 diabetes patients show an altered O-GlcNAcylation/phosphorylation that might represent a link between metabolic defects and AD progression. Our study aimed to decipher the specific protein targets of altered O-GlcNAcylation in brain of 12-month-old 3×Tg-AD mice compared with age-matched non-Tg mice. Hence, we analysed the global O-GlcNAc levels, the levels and activity of OGT and OGA, the enzymes controlling its cycling and protein specific O-GlcNAc levels using a bi-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) approach. Our data demonstrate the alteration of OGT and OGA activation coupled with the decrease of total O-GlcNAcylation levels. Data from proteomics analysis led to the identification of several proteins with reduced O-GlcNAcylation levels, which belong to key pathways involved in the progression of AD such as neuronal structure, protein degradation and glucose metabolism. In parallel, we analysed the O-GlcNAcylation/phosphorylation ratio of IRS1 and AKT, whose alterations may contribute to insulin resistance and reduced glucose uptake. Our findings may contribute to better understand the role of altered protein O-GlcNAcylation profile in AD, by possibly identifying novel mechanisms of disease progression related to glucose hypometabolism.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , beta-N-Acetil-Hexosaminidases/metabolismo
10.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 476: 1-7, 2018 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704537

RESUMO

Spermatogenesis is a highly complicated biological process that occurs in the epithelium of the seminiferous tubules. It is regulated by a complex network of endocrine and paracrine factors and by juxtacrine testicular cross-talk. Sertoli cells (SC) play a key role in spermatogenesis due to their production of trophic, differentiation and immune-modulating factors, but many of the molecular pathways of SC action remain controversial and unclear. Over the last two decades, research has focused on extracellular vesicles as an important mechanism of intercellular communication. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in SC and the modulation of their content in SC after FSH and testosterone stimulation. Highly purified porcine pre-pubertal Sertoli cells were isolated according to previously established methods. After 48 h of culture with FSH or FSH + testosterone stimulation, we identified sertolian EVs containing specific mRNAs. Proteomic analysis of EVs content identified 29 proteins under non-stimulatory conditions, most of which were related to receptor binding activity. FSH stimulation induced increases in inhibin-alpha, inhibin-beta, plakoglobin, haptoglobin, D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase in sertolian EVs. Testosterone stimulation enhanced the abundance of inhibin-alpha, inhibin-beta, tissue-type plasminogen activator, epidermal growth factor-like protein 8, elongating factor 1-gamma and D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. These results are likely to help determine the unknown molecular secretion of Sertoli cells.


Assuntos
Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/farmacologia , Proteômica/métodos , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo , Testosterona/farmacologia , Animais , Separação Celular , Vesículas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/ultraestrutura , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Células de Sertoli/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos
11.
Protein Pept Lett ; 25(5): 472-477, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29651938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious etiologies contribute to 15% of male factor infertility. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is commonly identified in semen culture of infertile men and it is associated with significantly poorer semen quality. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to identify new seminal biomarkers for the male tract infection by E. faecalis, using proteomic profiling, in order to understand the effect of E. faecalis on the physiopathology of male reproduction. METHODS: We included in the study ten patients seeking medical care for primary infertility with prostate-vesicular-epidydimitis and with microbiological analysis on semen and/or prostatic secretions positive for E. faecalis. Ten fertile men have been enrolled as a control group in the protocol. An aliquot of each seminal plasma was subjected to an in-solution digestion protocol and analyzed using an Ultimate 3000 RSLCnano HPLC apparatus coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer. RESULTS: Eight proteins have not been identified in the group of controls and have been observed in a remarkable proportion of patients, mainly involved in immune system activity (CD177, Swiprosin-1 and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase). Arylsulfatase has been identified in the group of controls and was absent in all patients with infection. Three proteins (TIMP-1, WFDC domain protein 2 and Carboxypeptidase E) have been observed significantly different in patients versus controls, mainly related with inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first application of MS-based proteomics aimed to reveal an array of proteins in the seminal plasma and reflecting the effect of the infection by E. faecalis on semen composition.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecalis , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/metabolismo , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Sêmen/metabolismo , Adulto , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sêmen/microbiologia
12.
J Proteome Res ; 17(1): 455-469, 2018 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29083190

RESUMO

Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and Sardinian alcohol-non preferring (sNP) rats have been selectively bred for opposite alcohol preference and consumption. Aiming to verify possible differences at the proteomics level between sP and sNP rats, we investigated the salivary proteome by a a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry top-down-bottom-up integrated approach. For this purpose, submandibular saliva was collected from alcohol-naive sP and sNP rats under isoprenaline stimulation. A total of 200 peptides and proteins were detected and quantified in the two rat lines, 149 of which were characterized in their naturally occurring structure. The data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006997. Surprisingly, sP rats exhibited marked quantitative and qualitative differences with respect to sNP rats, namely higher levels of proteoforms originating from submandibular gland protein C, and from submandibular rat protein 2, as well as those of several unidentified peptides and proteins. sP rats expressed some proteins not detectable in sNP rats such as the glutamine and glutamic acid-rich protein (GRP)-CB. The isoform GRP-B, detectable in both rat lines, was more abundant in sNP rats. The submandibular saliva of sNP rats was also characterized by very high levels of GRP-B proteolytic peptides and rat salivary protein 1. Whether these differences could contribute to the opposite alcohol preference and consumption of sP and sNP rats is currently unknown and requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Proteoma/análise , Proteômica/métodos , Saliva/química , Animais , Itália , Ratos , Glândula Submandibular
13.
J Proteome Res ; 16(11): 4196-4207, 2017 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29019242

RESUMO

Cystatins are a complex family of cysteine peptidase inhibitors. In the present study, various proteoforms of cystatin A, cystatin B, cystatin S, cystatin SN, and cystatin SA were detected in the acid-soluble fraction of human saliva and characterized by a top-down HPLC-ESI-MS approach. Proteoforms of cystatin D were also detected and characterized by an integrated top-down and bottom-up strategy. The proteoforms derive from coding sequence polymorphisms and post-translational modifications, in particular, phosphorylation, N-terminal processing, and oxidation. This study increases the current knowledge of salivary cystatin proteoforms and provides the basis to evaluate possible qualitative/quantitative variations of these proteoforms in different pathological states and reveal new potential salivary biomarkers of disease. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD007170.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo Genético , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Cistatinas Salivares/análise , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Fosforilação , Saliva/química , Cistatinas Salivares/metabolismo
14.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 11: 158, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28626390

RESUMO

From the VGF precursor protein originate several low molecular weight peptides, whose distribution in the brain and blood circulation is not entirely known. Among the VGF peptides, those containing the N-terminus portion were altered in the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) and hypothalamus of schizophrenia patients. "Hence, we aimed to better investigate the involvement of the VGF peptides in schizophrenia by studying their localization in the brain regions relevant for the disease, and revealing their possible modulations in response to certain neuronal alterations occurring in schizophrenia". We produced antibodies against different VGF peptides encompassing the N-terminus, but also C-terminus-, TLQP-, GGGE- peptide sequences, and the so named NERP-3 and -4. These antibodies were used to carry out specific ELISA and immunolocalization studies while mass spectrometry (MS) analysis was also performed to recognize the intact brain VGF fragments. We used a schizophrenia rat model, in which alterations in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response occurred after PCP treatment. In normal rats, all the VGF peptides studied were distributed in the brain areas examined including hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, accumbens and amygdaloid nuclei and also in the plasma. By liquid chromatography-high resolution mass, we identified different intact VGF peptide fragments, including those encompassing the N-terminus and the NERPs. PCP treatment caused behavioral changes that closely mimic schizophrenia, estimated by us as a disruption of PPI of the acoustic startle response. The PCP treatment also induced selective changes in the VGF peptide levels within certain brain areas. Indeed, an increase in VGF C-terminus and TLQP peptides was revealed in the prefrontal cortex (p < 0.01) where they were localized within parvoalbumin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) containing neurons, respectively. Conversely, in the nucleus accumbens, PCP treatment produced a down-regulation in the levels of VGF C-terminus-, N-terminus- and GGGE- peptides (p < 0.01), expressed in GABAergic- (C-terminus/GGGE) and somatostatin- (N-terminus) neurons. These results confirm that VGF peptides are widely distributed in the brain and modulated in specific areas involved in schizophrenia.

15.
Clin Proteomics ; 14: 7, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28174513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological inflammatory disease characterized by the presence of functional endometrial glands and stroma outside of the uterine cavity. It affects 7-10% of women of reproductive age and up to 50% of women with infertility. The current gold standard for the diagnosis combines laparoscopic evaluation and biopsy of the visualized lesions. However, laparoscopy requires general anesthesia and developed surgical skills and it has a high procedural cost. In addition, it is associated with the risk, although rare, of potential intraoperative or postoperative complications. To date, several noninvasive biomarkers have been proposed; however, no definite diagnostic biomarker is yet available. The aim of this study was to characterize the CM proteome in patients with endometriosis using high resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics, implemented by bioinformatic tools for quantitative analysis, in order to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of endometriosis. METHODS: Cervical mucus samples were collected from patients affected by endometriosis and fertile controls. An aliquot of the soluble acidic fraction of each cervical mucus sample, corresponding to 0.5 mg of total protein, was left to digest with sequencing grade modified porcine trypsin. The peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS on a high resolution Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer and data were evaluated using bioinformatic tools. RESULTS: We aimed at the first total profiling of the cervical mucus proteome in endometriosis. From the list of identified proteins, we detected a number of differentially expressed proteins, including some functionally significant proteins. Six proteins were quantitatively increased in endometriosis, almost all being involved in the inflammatory pattern. Nine proteins were quantitatively reduced in endometriosis, including some proteins related with local innate immunity (CRISP-3 and Pglyrp1) and protection against oxidative stress (HSPB1). Fifteen proteins were not detected in endometriosis samples including certain proteins involved in antimicrobial activity (SLURP1 and KLK13) and related to seminal plasma liquefaction and male fertility (KLK13). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first application of high resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics aimed in detecting an array of proteins in CM to be proposed for the noninvasive diagnosis of endometriosis. This chronic disease presents in CM an inflammatory protein pattern.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29410650

RESUMO

The estimated number of testicular olfactory receptors (ORs) in mammals range between 20 and 66. Previous data reported the role of hOR17-4 and mOR23 in sperm-oocyte chemiotaxis. Proteomic analysis was performed to understand which are the ORs expressed in seminal plasma. Seminal samples by four fertile men were analyzed by an Ultimate 3000Nano/Micro-HPLC apparatus coupled with an LTQ-Orbitrap XL hybrid mass spectrometer. Western blot analysis confirmed the expression of three identified ORs. The expression of ORs in sperm cells, testis, and epididymis was evaluated by confocal microscopy analysis. In seminal plasma eight different ORs were identified by proteomics and three ORs have been confirmed by western blot. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that OR4S1, OR4C13, and OR1I1 are expressed on the surface of sperm cells. In testicular tissue, OR4S1 and OR1I1 are expressed in spermatocytes and spermatids and OR4C13 is expressed throughout all the tubules. In patients with spermatocyte maturation arrest OR4S1 and OR1I1 expression was reduced and a weak positivity for OR4C13 was detected in the spermatogonia. OR4S1, OR4C13, and OR1I1 had intense and diffuse staining in the epididymis. This study initiated a new methodology for screening OR repertoire in sperms, testis and epididymis. Our results open new insights into OR involvement in sperm maturation and migration.

17.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0164689, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27737014

RESUMO

VGF mRNA is widely expressed in areas of the nervous system known to degenerate in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), including cerebral cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. Despite certain VGF alterations are reported in animal models, little information is available with respect to the ALS patients. We addressed VGF peptide changes in fibroblast cell cultures and in plasma obtained from ALS patients, in parallel with spinal cord and plasma samples from the G93A-SOD1 mouse model. Antisera specific for the C-terminal end of the human and mouse VGF proteins, respectively, were used in immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while gel chromatography and HPLC/ESI-MS/MS were used to identify the VGF peptides present. Immunoreactive VGF C-terminus peptides were reduced in both fibroblast and plasma samples from ALS patients in an advanced stage of the disease. In the G93A-SOD1 mice, the same VGF peptides were also decreased in plasma in the late-symptomatic stage, while showing an earlier down-regulation in the spinal cord. In immunohistochemistry, a large number of gray matter structures were VGF C-terminus immunoreactive in control mice (including nerve terminals, axons and a few perikarya identified as motoneurons), with a striking reduction already in the pre-symptomatic stage. Through gel chromatography and spectrometry analysis, we identified one form likely to be the VGF precursor as well as peptides containing the NAPP- sequence in all tissues studied, while in the mice and fibroblasts, we revealed also AQEE- and TLQP- peptides. Taken together, selective VGF fragment depletion may participate in disease onset and/or progression of ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/sangue , Neuropeptídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/análise , Neuropeptídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
18.
J Proteomics ; 146: 48-57, 2016 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27321913

RESUMO

The acid-insoluble salivary proteome obtained by addition of TFA to whole human saliva from adults, preterm and at-term newborns has been analysed by 2-DE in order to evidence differences among the three groups, and integrate data previously obtained on the acid-soluble fraction. 2-DE spots differentially expressed among the three groups were submitted to in-gel tryptic digestion and the peptide mixtures analysed by high resolution HPLC­ESI­MS/MS. By this strategy, we identified 3 over-expressed proteins in at-term newborns with respect to preterm newborns and adults (BPI fold-containing family A member 1, annexin A1, and keratin type 1 cytoskeletal 13), and several over-expressed proteins in adults (fatty acid-binding protein, S100 A6, S100 A7, S100 A9, prolactin-inducible protein, Ig kappa chain, cystatin SN, cystatin S/SA and α-amylase 1). Four spots, already detected but not characterized by other authors in human saliva 2-DE, were attributed to different protein species of S100 A9 (long-type and long-type monophosphorylated, short-type and short-type monophosphorylated) by MS/MS analysis of tryptic peptides and sequential staining of 2-DE gels with Pro-Q Diamond, for specific detection of phosphoproteins, and total protein SYPRO Ruby stain. SIGNIFICANCE: Differential protein expression analysis of the acid insoluble fraction of saliva from preterm, at-term newborns and adults has been performed in this study by coupling 2-DE analysis and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry in order to complete the information previously obtained by top-down LC­MS only on the acid-soluble proteome. Several proteins identified in the acid insoluble fraction of both preterm newborn and adult saliva are not of glandular origin, being only prolactin-inducible protein, salivary cystatins, α-amylase and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor exclusive of salivary glands. Three proteins resulted increased in at-term newborns with respect to preterm newborns and adults: BPI fold-containing family A member 1, two proteoforms of annexin A1 and keratin type 1 cytoskeletal 13, while several proteins were significantly increased in adults.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anexina A1/análise , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Glicoproteínas/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Queratina-1/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/análise , Proteoma/análise , Saliva/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Urol ; 196(3): 911-8, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27113968

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Among the different types of kidney stones, matrix stones are uncommon urinary calculi composed of a soft, pliable, amorphous substance with little crystalline content. To gain insight into the pathogenesis we investigated the protein component by analyzing the proteomic profiles of surgically removed matrix stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 5 stones were harvested from 4 patients who underwent surgery for medical reasons at 3 clinical centers during a 7-year period. Matrix stone proteome characterization was performed by mass spectrometry based techniques using an integrated top-down/bottom-up proteomic platform. RESULTS: We identified 142 nonredundant proteins and peptides across all samples. Neutrophil defensin 1, and proteins S100-A8 and S100-A9 were the main components of these renal calculi. CONCLUSIONS: The abundance of identified inflammatory molecules points to an inflammatory process as the event that initializes soft calculi formation rather than as a consequence of such formation. The post-translational oxidative changes in S100-A8 and A9, and the presence of thymosin ß-4, granulins and ubiquitin also suggest the intervention of host defenses through a superimposed, vigorous counter inflammatory process. The post-translational changes seen in the proteins and peptides, and the known self-assembling capability of S100-A8 and S100-A9 probably explain the gelatinous consistency of these stones.


Assuntos
Calgranulina A/metabolismo , Calgranulina B/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Cálculos Urinários/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Sep Sci ; 39(10): 1987-97, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26991339

RESUMO

In the present study, we show that the heterogeneous mixture of glycoforms of the basic salivary proline-rich protein 3M, encoded by PRB3-M locus, is a major component of the acidic soluble fraction of human whole saliva in the first years of life. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis of the intact proteoforms before and after N-deglycosylation with Peptide-N-Glycosidase F and tandem mass spectrometry sequencing of peptides obtained after Endoproteinase GluC digestion allowed the structural characterization of the peptide backbone and identification of N- and O-glycosylation sites. The heterogeneous mixture of the proteoforms derives from the combination of 8 different neutral and sialylated glycans O-linked to Threonine 50, and 33 different glycans N-linked to Asparagine residues at positions 66, 87, 108, 129, 150, 171, 192, and 213.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos/química , Proteínas Salivares Ricas em Prolina/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glicosilação , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
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