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1.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The spread of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among active workers is poor known. The aim of our study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) among a convenience sample of workers and to identify high-risk job sectors during the first pandemic way. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among workers tested for SARS-CoV-2 between 28 March and 7 August 2020, recorded by a private healthcare center located in North-West Italy. Association among seroprevalence and demographic and occupational variables was evaluated using chi square test and the seroprevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: We collected the results for 23568 serological tests from a sample of 22708 workers from about 1000 companies. Median age was 45 years and about 60% of subjects were male. The overall seroprevalence was 4.97% [95%CI 4.69-5.25]. No statistical difference was found among gender while seroprevalence was associated with subjects' age, geographical location, and occupational sector. Significantly higher values of positivity were observed for the logistics sector (31.3%), weaving factory (12.6%), nursing homes (9.8%), and chemical industry (6.9%) workers. However, we observed some clusters of cases in single companies independently from the sector.Then, a detailed focus on 940 food workers shown a seroprevalence of 5.21% [95%CI 3.79-6.63] and subjects who self-reported COVID-19 symptoms and who worked during lockdown had a higher probability of being infected (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Data obtained might be useful for future public health decision; more than occupation sector, it seems that failure on prevention system in single companies increase the SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

2.
Clin Nutr ; 40(9): 5079-5088, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a worldwide shift towards increased consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) with concurrent rising prevalence of obesity. We examined the relationship between the consumption of UPF and weight gain and risk of obesity. METHODS: This prospective cohort included 348 748 men and women aged 25-70 years. Participants were recruited between 1992 and 2000 from 9 European countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Two body weight measures were available, at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5 years. Foods and drinks were assessed at baseline by dietary questionnaires and classified according to their degree of processing using NOVA classification. Multilevel mixed linear regression was used to estimate the association between UPF consumption and body weight change (kg/5 years). To estimate the relative risk of becoming overweight or obese after 5 years we used Poisson regression stratified according to baseline body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment, higher UPF consumption (per 1 SD increment) was positively associated with weight gain (0·12 kg/5 years, 95% CI 0·09 to 0·15). Comparing highest vs. lowest quintile of UPF consumption was associated with a 15% greater risk (95% CI 1·11, 1·19) of becoming overweight or obese in normal weight participants, and with a 16% greater risk (95% CI 1·09, 1·23) of becoming obese in participants who were overweight at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: These results are supportive of public health campaigns to substitute UPF for less processed alternatives for obesity prevention and weight management.

3.
PLoS Med ; 18(7): e1003699, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314418

RESUMO

Modern medicine makes it possible for many people to live with multiple chronic diseases for decades, but this has enormous social, financial, and environmental consequences. Preclinical, epidemiological, and clinical trial data have shown that many of the most common chronic diseases are largely preventable with nutritional and lifestyle interventions that are targeting well-characterized signaling pathways and the symbiotic relationship with our microbiome. Most of the research priorities and spending for health are focused on finding new molecular targets for the development of biotech and pharmaceutical products. Very little is invested in mechanism-based preventive science, medicine, and education. We believe that overly enthusiastic expectations regarding the benefits of pharmacological research for disease treatment have the potential to impact and distort not only medical research and practice but also environmental health and sustainable economic growth. Transitioning from a primarily disease-centered medical system to a balanced preventive and personalized treatment healthcare system is key to reduce social disparities in health and achieve financially sustainable, universal health coverage for all. In this Perspective article, we discuss a range of science-based strategies, policies, and structural reforms to design an entire new disease prevention-centered science, educational, and healthcare system that maximizes both human and environmental health.

4.
J Nutr ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutritional epidemiology research using self-reported dietary intake is prone to measurement error. Objective methods are being explored to overcome this limitation. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine 1) the association between plasma markers related to inflammation and derive marker scores for dietary patterns [Mediterranean dietary score (MDS), energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DIITM), Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI)] and 2) the associations of these marker scores with mortality. METHODS: Weighted marker scores were derived from the cross-sectional association between 30 plasma markers and each dietary score (assessed using food-frequency questionnaires) using linear regression for 770 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (aged 50-82 y). Prospective associations between marker scores and mortality (n = 249 deaths) were assessed using Cox regression (median follow-up: 14.4 y). RESULTS: The MDS, E-DII, and AHEI were associated (P < 0.05) with 9, 14, and 11 plasma markers, respectively. Healthier diets (higher MDS and AHEI, and lower anti-inflammatory, E-DII) were associated with lower concentrations of kynurenines, neopterin, IFN-γ, cytokines, and C-reactive protein. Five of 6 markers common to the 3 dietary scores were components of the kynurenine pathway. The 3 dietary-based marker scores were highly correlated (Spearman ρ: -0.74, -0.82, and 0.93). Inverse associations (for 1-SD increment) were observed with all-cause mortality for the MDS marker score (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.72-0.98) and the AHEI marker score (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.66-0.89), whereas a positive association was observed with the E-DII marker score (HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01-1.39). The same magnitude of effect was not observed for the respective dietary patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Markers involved in inflammation-related processes are associated with dietary quality, including a substantial overlap between markers associated with the MDS, the E-DII, and the AHEI, especially kynurenines. Unfavorable marker scores, reflecting poorer-quality diets, were associated with increased mortality.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13738, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215757

RESUMO

We investigated longitudinal associations of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and light-intensity physical activity (LPA) with plasma concentrations of 138 metabolites after colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. Self-reported physical activity data and blood samples were obtained at 6 weeks, and 6, 12 and 24 months post-treatment in stage I-III CRC survivors (n = 252). Metabolite concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry (BIOCRATES AbsoluteIDQp180 kit). Linear mixed models were used to evaluate confounder-adjusted longitudinal associations. Inter-individual (between-participant differences) and intra-individual associations (within-participant changes over time) were assessed as percentage difference in metabolite concentration per 5 h/week of MVPA or LPA. At 6 weeks post-treatment, participants reported a median of 6.5 h/week of MVPA (interquartile range:2.3,13.5) and 7.5 h/week of LPA (2.0,15.8). Inter-individual associations were observed with more MVPA being related (FDR-adjusted q-value < 0.05) to higher concentrations of arginine, citrulline and histidine, eight lysophosphatidylcholines, nine diacylphosphatidylcholines, 13 acyl-alkylphosphatidylcholines, two sphingomyelins, and acylcarnitine C10:1. No intra-individual associations were found. LPA was not associated with any metabolite. More MVPA was associated with higher concentrations of several lipids and three amino acids, which have been linked to anti-inflammatory processes and improved metabolic health. Mechanistic studies are needed to investigate whether these metabolites may affect prognosis.

6.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253844

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Metabolomics may identify biological pathways predisposing children to the risk of overweight and obesity. In this study, we have investigated the cord blood metabolic signatures of rapid growth in infancy and overweight in early childhood in four European birth cohorts. METHODS: Untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomic profiles were measured in cord blood from 399 newborns from four European cohorts (ENVIRONAGE, Rhea, INMA and Piccolipiu). Rapid growth in the first year of life and overweight in childhood was defined with reference to WHO growth charts. Metabolome-wide association scans for rapid growth and overweight on over 4500 metabolic features were performed using multiple adjusted logistic mixed-effect models and controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) at 5%. In addition, we performed a look-up analysis of 43 pre-annotated metabolites, previously associated with birthweight or rapid growth. RESULTS: In the Metabolome-Wide Association Study analysis, we identified three and eight metabolites associated with rapid growth and overweight, respectively, after FDR correction. Higher levels of cholestenone, a cholesterol derivative produced by microbial catabolism, were predictive of rapid growth (p = 1.6 × 10-3). Lower levels of the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) valine (p = 8.6 × 10-6) were predictive of overweight in childhood. The area under the receiver operator curve for multivariate prediction models including these metabolites and traditional risk factors was 0.77 for rapid growth and 0.82 for overweight, compared with 0.69 and 0.69, respectively, for models using traditional risk factors alone. Among the 43 pre-annotated metabolites, seven and five metabolites were nominally associated (P < 0.05) with rapid growth and overweight, respectively. The BCAA leucine, remained associated (1.6 × 10-3) with overweight after FDR correction. CONCLUSION: The metabolites identified here may assist in the identification of children at risk of developing obesity and improve understanding of mechanisms involved in postnatal growth. Cholestenone and BCAAs are suggestive of a role of the gut microbiome and nutrient signalling respectively in child growth trajectories.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a key feature of aging. We aimed to i) investigate the association of 34 blood markers potentially involved in inflammatory processes with age and mortality, ii) develop a signature of 'inflammaging'. METHODS: Thirty-four blood markers relating to inflammation, B vitamin status and the kynurenine pathway were measured in 976 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study at baseline (median age=59 years) and follow-up (median age=70 years). Associations with age and mortality were assessed using linear and Cox regression, respectively. A parsimonious signature of inflammaging was developed and its association with mortality was compared with two marker scores calculated across all markers associated with age and mortality, respectively. RESULTS: The majority of markers (30/34) were associated with age, with stronger associations observed for neopterin, cystatin C, IL-6, TNF-α, several markers of the kynurenine pathway and derived indices KTR (kynurenine/tryptophan ratio), PAr index (ratio of 4-pyridoxic acid and the sum of pyridoxal 5´-phosphate and pyridoxal), and HK:XA (3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio). Many markers (17/34) showed an association with mortality, in particular IL-6, neopterin, CRP, quinolinic acid, PAr index, and KTR. The inflammaging signature included ten markers and was strongly associated of mortality (HR per SD=1.40, 95%CI:1.24-1.57, P=2x10 -8), similar to scores based on all age-associated (HR=1.38, 95%CI:1.23-1.55, P=4x10 -8) and mortality-associated markers (HR=1.43, 95%CI:1.28-1.60, P=1x10 -10), respectively. Strong evidence of replication of the inflammaging signature association with mortality was found in the Hordaland Health Study. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the key role of the kynurenine pathway and vitamin B6 catabolism in aging, along with other well-established inflammation-related markers. A signature of inflammaging based on ten markers was strongly associated with mortality.

9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2830, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990564

RESUMO

Coffee and tea are extensively consumed beverages worldwide which have received considerable attention regarding health. Intake of these beverages is consistently linked to, among others, reduced risk of diabetes and liver diseases; however, the mechanisms of action remain elusive. Epigenetics is suggested as a mechanism mediating the effects of dietary and lifestyle factors on disease onset. Here we report the results from epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) on coffee and tea consumption in 15,789 participants of European and African-American ancestries from 15 cohorts. EWAS meta-analysis of coffee consumption reveals 11 CpGs surpassing the epigenome-wide significance threshold (P-value <1.1×10-7), which annotated to the AHRR, F2RL3, FLJ43663, HDAC4, GFI1 and PHGDH genes. Among them, cg14476101 is significantly associated with expression of the PHGDH and risk of fatty liver disease. Knockdown of PHGDH expression in liver cells shows a correlation with expression levels of genes associated with circulating lipids, suggesting a role of PHGDH in hepatic-lipid metabolism. EWAS meta-analysis on tea consumption reveals no significant association, only two CpGs annotated to CACNA1A and PRDM16 genes show suggestive association (P-value <5.0×10-6). These findings indicate that coffee-associated changes in DNA methylation levels may explain the mechanism of action of coffee consumption in conferring risk of diseases.


Assuntos
Café/efeitos adversos , Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma , Chá/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/genética , Fatores de Risco
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Evidence regarding the association of dietary exposures with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is not consistent with a few exceptions. Therefore, we conducted a diet-wide association study (DWAS) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the associations between several dietary exposures with CRC risk. METHODS: The association of 92 food and nutrient intakes with CRC risk was assessed in 386,792 participants, 5069 of whom developed incident CRC. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the false discovery rate, and emerging associations were examined in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). Multiplicative gene-nutrient interactions were also tested in EPIC based on known CRC-associated loci. RESULTS: In EPIC, alcohol, liquor/spirits, wine, beer/cider, soft drinks, and pork were positively associated with CRC, whereas milk, cheese, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, vitamin B6, beta carotene, fruit, fiber, nonwhite bread, banana, and total protein intakes were inversely associated. Of these 20 associations, 13 were replicated in the NLCS, for which a meta-analysis was performed, namely alcohol (summary hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD increment in intake: 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.09), liquor/spirits (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06), wine (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07), beer/cider (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.08), milk (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), cheese (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), calcium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), phosphorus (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), magnesium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.98), potassium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), riboflavin (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97), beta carotene (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), and total protein (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97). None of the gene-nutrient interactions were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association for alcohol and an inverse association for dairy products and calcium with CRC risk, and also suggest a lower risk at higher dietary intakes of phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, beta carotene, and total protein.

11.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 75(9): 917-924, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927002

RESUMO

This paper derives from a document commissioned in 2019 by the Italian Minister of Health, and outlines a general strategy for primary prevention of non-communicable diseases in Italy, with a special focus on cobenefits of climate change mitigation. Given that action against climate change is primarily taken via energy choices, limiting the use of fossil fuels and promoting renewable sources, an effective strategy is one in which interventions are designed to prevent diseases and jointly mitigate climate change, the so-called cobenefits. For policies capable of producing relevant co-benefits we focus on three categories of interventions, urban planning, diet and transport that are of special importance. For example, policies promoting active transport (cycling, walking) have the triple effect of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, preventing diseases related to atmospheric pollution, and increasing physical activity, thus preventing obesity and diabetes.In particular, we propose that for 2025 the following goals are achieved: reduce the prevalence of smokers by 30%, with particular emphasis on young people; reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity by 20%; reduce the proportion of calories obtained from ultraprocessed foods by 20%; reduce the consumption of alcohol by 10%; reduce the consumption of salt by 30%; reduce the consumption of sugary drinks by 20%; reduce the average consumption of meat by 20%; increase the weekly hours of exercise by 10%. The aim is to complement individual health promotion with structural policies (such as urban planning, taxation and incentives) which render the former more effective and result in a reduction in inequality. We strongly encourage the inclusion of primary prevention in all policies, in light of the described cobenefits. Italy's role as the cohost of the 2020 (now 2021) UN climate negotiations (COP26) presents the opportunity for international leadership in addressing health as an integral component of the response to climate change.

12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 651089, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912532

RESUMO

The response of the scientific community to the COVID-19 pandemic has been unprecedented in size, speed and discovery output. Within months of virus emergence, the SARS-CoV-2 genomics, replication, evolution and dissemination dynamics as well as natural history, infection risk and prognostic factors and biology of the disease have been gradually deciphered. More than 250 articles on COVID-19 published in Frontiers in Public Health have contributed to these insights. We discuss here some of the key research themes and challenges that have been addressed. We provide our perspective on current research issues with surveillance data quality and limitations of epidemiological methods. We warn against the potential misuse or misleading interpretation of public data of variable quality and the use of inadequate study designs for the evaluation of effect of non-pharmaceutical interventions. We conclude by interrogating possible public health strategies for pandemic control as well as discuss the ethical responsibilities and democratic accountability of researchers in their role as experts and policy advisors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3100, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542415

RESUMO

Individuals experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood have a higher rate of inflammation-related diseases decades later. Little is known about the mechanisms linking early life experiences to the functioning of the immune system in adulthood. To address this, we explore the relationship across social-to-biological layers of early life social exposures on levels of adulthood inflammation and the mediating role of gene regulatory mechanisms, epigenetic and transcriptomic profiling from blood, in 2,329 individuals from two European cohort studies. Consistently across both studies, we find transcriptional activity explains a substantive proportion (78% and 26%) of the estimated effect of early life disadvantaged social exposures on levels of adulthood inflammation. Furthermore, we show that mechanisms other than cis DNA methylation may regulate those transcriptional fingerprints. These results further our understanding of social-to-biological transitions by pinpointing the role of gene regulation that cannot fully be explained by differential cis DNA methylation.

15.
Cancer Res ; 81(13): 3738-3748, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574093

RESUMO

Increasing evidence points to a role for inflammation in lung carcinogenesis. A small number of circulating inflammatory proteins have been identified as showing elevated levels prior to lung cancer diagnosis, indicating the potential for prospective circulating protein concentration as a marker of early carcinogenesis. To identify novel markers of lung cancer risk, we measured a panel of 92 circulating inflammatory proteins in 648 prediagnostic blood samples from two prospective cohorts in Italy and Norway (women only). To preserve the comparability of results and protect against confounding factors, the main statistical analyses were conducted in women from both studies, with replication sought in men (Italian participants). Univariate and penalized regression models revealed for the first time higher blood levels of CDCP1 protein in cases that went on to develop lung cancer compared with controls, irrespective of time to diagnosis, smoking habits, and gender. This association was validated in an additional 450 samples. Associations were stronger for future cases of adenocarcinoma where CDCP1 showed better explanatory performance. Integrative analyses combining gene expression and protein levels of CDCP1 measured in the same individuals suggested a link between CDCP1 and the expression of transcripts of LRRN3 and SEM1. Enrichment analyses indicated a potential role for CDCP1 in pathways related to cell adhesion and mobility, such as the WNT/ß-catenin pathway. Overall, this study identifies lung cancer-related dysregulation of CDCP1 expression years before diagnosis. SIGNIFICANCE: Prospective proteomics analyses reveal an association between increased levels of circulating CDCP1 and lung carcinogenesis irrespective of smoking and years before diagnosis, and integrating gene expression indicates potential underlying mechanisms.See related commentary by Itzstein et al., p. 3441.

16.
Mol Oncol ; 15(3): 764-769, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964631

RESUMO

Intervening on risk factors for noncommunicable diseases (including cancer) in industrialized countries could achieve a reduction of between 30% and 40% of premature deaths. In the meantime, the need to intervene against the threat of climate change has become obvious. CO2 emissions must be reduced by 45% by the year 2030 and to zero by 2050 according to recent agreements. We propose an approach in which interventions are designed to prevent diseases and jointly mitigate climate change, the so-called cobenefits. The present article describes some examples of how climate change mitigation and cancer prevention could go hand in hand: tobacco control, food production, and transportation (air pollution). Many others can be identified. The advantage of the proposed approach is that both long-term (climate) and short-term (health) benefits can be accrued with appropriate intersectoral policies.

17.
Environ Res ; 194: 110579, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285152

RESUMO

Studies reporting on associations between short-term exposure to outdoor fine (PM2.5), and ultrafine particles (UFP) and blood pressure and lung function have been inconsistent. Few studies have characterized exposure by personal monitoring, which especially for UFP may have resulted in substantial exposure measurement error. We investigated the association between 24-h average personal UFP, PM2.5, and soot exposure and dose and the health parameters blood pressure and lung function. We further assessed the short-term associations between outdoor concentrations measured at a central monitoring site and near the residences and these health outcomes. We performed three 24-h personal exposure measurements for UFP, PM2.5, and soot in 132 healthy adults from Basel (Switzerland), Amsterdam and Utrecht (the Netherlands), and Turin (Italy). Monitoring of each subject was conducted in different seasons in a one-year study period. Subject's activity levels and associated ventilation rates were measured using actigraphy to calculate the inhaled dose. After each 24-h monitoring session, blood pressure and lung function were measured. Contemporaneously with personal measurements, UFP, PM2.5 and soot were measured outdoor at the subject's residential address and at a central site in the research area. Associations between short-term personal and outdoor exposure and dose to UFP, PM2.5, and soot and health outcomes were tested using linear mixed effect models. The 24-h mean personal, residential and central site outdoor UFP exposures were not associated with blood pressure or lung function. UFP mean exposures in the 2-h prior to the health test was also not associated with blood pressure and lung function. Personal, central site and residential PM2.5 exposure were positively associated with systolic blood pressure (about 1.4 mmHg increase per Interquartile range). Personal soot exposure and dose were positively associated with diastolic blood pressure (1.2 and 0.9 mmHg increase per Interquartile range). No consistent associations between PM2.5 or soot exposure and lung function were observed. Short-term personal, residential outdoor or central site exposure to UFP was not associated with blood pressure or lung function. Short-term personal PM2.5 and soot exposures were associated with blood pressure, but not lung function.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Itália , Pulmão/química , Países Baixos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Suíça
18.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(5): 741-749, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211845

RESUMO

The aging process is characterized by the presence of high interindividual variation between individuals of the same chronical age prompting a search for biomarkers that capture this heterogeneity. Epigenetic clocks measure changes in DNA methylation levels at specific CpG sites that are highly correlated with calendar age. The discrepancy resulting from the regression of DNA methylation age on calendar age is hypothesized to represent a measure of biological aging with a positive/negative residual signifying age acceleration (AA)/deceleration, respectively. The present study examines the associations of 4 epigenetic clocks-Horvath, Hannum, PhenoAge, GrimAge-with a wide range of clinical phenotypes (walking speed, grip strength, Fried frailty, polypharmacy, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA), Sustained Attention Reaction Time, 2-choice reaction time), and with all-cause mortality at up to 10-year follow-up, in a sample of 490 participants in the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). HorvathAA and HannumAA were not predictive of health; PhenoAgeAA was associated with 4/9 outcomes (walking speed, frailty MOCA, MMSE) in minimally adjusted models, but not when adjusted for other social and lifestyle factors. GrimAgeAA by contrast was associated with 8/9 outcomes (all except grip strength) in minimally adjusted models, and remained a significant predictor of walking speed, .polypharmacy, frailty, and mortality in fully adjusted models. Results indicate that the GrimAge clock represents a step-improvement in the predictive utility of the epigenetic clocks for identifying age-related decline in an array of clinical phenotypes promising to advance precision medicine.

19.
Eur Respir J ; 57(3)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung function is an important predictor of health and a marker of physical functioning at older ages. This study aimed to quantify the years of lung function lost according to disadvantaged socioeconomic conditions across the life-course. METHODS: This multicohort study used harmonised individual-level data from six European cohorts with information on life-course socioeconomic disadvantage and lung function assessed by forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). 70 496 participants (51% female) aged 18-93 years were included. Socioeconomic disadvantage was measured in early life (low paternal occupational position), early adulthood (low educational level) and adulthood (low occupational position). Risk factors for poor lung function (e.g. smoking, obesity, sedentary behaviour, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases) were included as potential mediators. The years of lung function lost due to socioeconomic disadvantage were computed at each life stage. RESULTS: Socioeconomic disadvantage during the life-course was associated with a lower FEV1. By the age of 45 years, individuals experiencing disadvantaged socioeconomic conditions had lost 4-5 years of healthy lung function versus their more advantaged counterparts (low educational level -4.36 (95% CI -7.33--2.37) for males and -5.14 (-10.32--2.71) for females; low occupational position -5.62 (-7.98--4.90) for males and -4.32 (-13.31--2.27) for females), after accounting for the risk factors for lung function. By the ages of 65 years and 85 years, the years of lung function lost due to socioeconomic disadvantage decreased by 2-4 years, depending on the socioeconomic indicator. Sensitivity analysis using FVC yielded similar results to those using FEV1. CONCLUSION: Life-course socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with lower lung function and predicts a significant number of years of lung function loss in adulthood and at older ages.

20.
Environ Int ; 146: 106272, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238229

RESUMO

The outbreak of COVID-19 raised numerous questions on the interactions between the occurrence of new infections, the environment, climate and health. The European Union requested the H2020 HERA project which aims at setting priorities in research on environment, climate and health, to identify relevant research needs regarding Covid-19. The emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 appears to be related to urbanization, habitat destruction, live animal trade, intensive livestock farming and global travel. The contribution of climate and air pollution requires additional studies. Importantly, the severity of COVID-19 depends on the interactions between the viral infection, ageing and chronic diseases such as metabolic, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and obesity which are themselves influenced by environmental stressors. The mechanisms of these interactions deserve additional scrutiny. Both the pandemic and the social response to the disease have elicited an array of behavioural and societal changes that may remain long after the pandemic and that may have long term health effects including on mental health. Recovery plans are currently being discussed or implemented and the environmental and health impacts of those plans are not clearly foreseen. Clearly, COVID-19 will have a long-lasting impact on the environmental health field and will open new research perspectives and policy needs.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Animais , Clima , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
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