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1.
J Electrocardiol ; 58: 10-17, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678715

RESUMO

Cardiac memory (CM) refers to transient T wave changes that appear after cessation of a period of abnormal ventricular activation, such as right ventricular (RV) pacing. ECG criteria for differentiating post-pacing CM from ischemia-induced T wave changes were previously published only for apical, but not for septal RV pacing. AIM: To find ECG criteria for discriminating post-septal pacing CM from ischemic T wave inversions. METHODS: ECGs were analyzed in 2 groups: CM (n = 23) and ischemia (n = 26). CM was induced by 2 weeks of DDD pacing with a short AV delay. Ischemic patients were grouped by culprit vessel: left anterior descending (LAD), circumflex (Cx), right coronary artery (RCA). RESULTS: CM was visible on the ECG after 1 week of ventricular pacing, started to disappear in <1 week after pacing cessation and was completely reversible within 4 weeks of pacing cessation. T wave axis differed between CM (75.8 ±â€¯18.5°) and Cx (-25.2 ±â€¯25.5°, p < 0.01) and RCA (-18.3 ±â€¯18.9°, p < 0.01) groups, but not compared to LAD group (96.4 ±â€¯65.0°, p = 0.17). The combination of (1) positive T wave in aVF; and (2) (i) T wave amplitude in aVF ≥ the absolute value of the most negative precordial T wave, or (ii) positive T wave in V5 and positive or isoelectric T wave in lead I identified CM from all ischemia with a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 92%. CONCLUSION: ECG criteria can discriminate post-septal RV pacing CM from ischemic changes with high sensitivity and specificity.

3.
Circulation ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707833

RESUMO

We describe the incidence, timing, and characteristics of stent thrombosis and its consequences in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in the AUGUSTUS trial1 who received a coronary stent during their qualifying admission (acute coronary syndrome [ACS] or elective percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) and the randomized treatment effects of low-dose aspirin (compared with placebo) and apixaban (compared with vitamin K antagonist [VKA]) on the risk of stent thrombosis. We included patients who received a stent during their qualifying admission. We excluded patients with medically-managed ACS (n=1097) or an unknown qualifying index event (n=19). The protocol was approved by appropriate ethics committees; patients provided written informed consent prior to participation.

4.
Circulation ; 2019 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736342

RESUMO

Background: While disease modifying therapies exist for heart failure (HF) with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), few options are available for patients in the higher range of LVEF (>40%). Sacubitril/valsartan has been compared with a renin-angiotensin- system (RAS) inhibitor alone in two similarly designed clinical trials of patients with reduced and preserved LVEF, permitting examination of its effects across the full spectrum of LVEF. Methods: We combined data from PARADIGM-HF (LVEF eligibility≤40%; n=8,399) and PARAGON-HF (LVEF eligibility≥45%; n=4,796) in a prespecified pooled analysis. We divided randomized patients into LVEF categories:≤22.5% (n=1269), >22.5% to 32.5% (n=3987), >32.5% to 42.5% (n=3143), > 42.5% to 52.5% (n=1427), > 52.5% to 62.5% (n=2166), >62.5% (n=1202). We assessed time to first cardiovascular death and HF hospitalization, its components, and total heart failure hospitlizations, all-cause mortality and non-cardiovascular mortality. Incidence rates and treatment effects were examined across categories of LVEF. Results: Among 13,195 randomized patients, we observed lower rates of cardiovascular death and HF hospitalization, but similar rates of non-cardiovascular death, among patients in the highest vs. lowest groups. Overall sacubitril/valsartan was superior to RAS inhibition for first cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.78, 0.90), cardiovascular death (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.76, 0.92), heart failure hospitalization (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77, 0.91), and all-cause mortality (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81, 0.96). The effect of sacubitril/valsartan was modified by LVEF (treatment-by-continuous LVEF interaction p=0.02), and benefit appeared to be present for individuals with EF primarily below the normal range, although the treatment benefit for cardiovascular death diminished at a lower ejection fraction. We observed effect modification by LVEF on the efficacy of sacubitril/valsartan in both men and women with respect to composite total HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular death, although women derived benefit to higher ejection fractions. Conclusions:The therapeutic effects of sacubitril/valsartan, compared with a RAS inhibitor alone, vary by LVEF, with treatment benefits, particularly for heart failure hospitalization, that appear to extend to patients with heart failure and mildly reduced ejection fraction. These therapeutic benefits appeared to extend to a higher LVEF range in women compared with men. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov PARAGON-HF Unique Identifier: NCT01920711. PARADIGM-HF Unique Identifier: NCT01035255.

6.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; : 2048872619853959, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557050

RESUMO

AIMS: The Stent for Life initiative aims at the reduction of mortality in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction by enhancing timely access to primary percutaneous coronary intervention. To assess the associated health and socioeconomic impact, the Stent for Life economic project was launched and applied to four model regions: Romania, Portugal, the Basque Country in Spain, and the Kemerovo region in the Russian Federation. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Stent for Life economic model is based on a decision tree that incorporates primary percutaneous coronary intervention rates and mortality. Healthcare costs and indirect costs caused by loss of productivity were estimated. A baseline scenario simulating the status quo was compared to the Stent for Life scenario which integrated changes initiated by the Stent for Life programme. In the four model regions, primary percutaneous coronary intervention numbers rose substantially between 29-303%, while ST-elevation myocardial infarction mortality was reduced between 3-10%. Healthcare costs increased by 8% to 70%. Indirect cost savings ranged from 2-7%. Net societal costs were reduced in all model regions by 2-4%. CONCLUSION: The joint effort of the Stent for Life initiative and their local partners successfully saves lives. Moreover, the increase in healthcare costs was outweighed by indirect cost savings, leading to a net cost reduction in all four model regions. These findings demonstrate that systematic investments to improve the access of ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients to guideline-coherent therapy is beneficial, not only for the individual, but also for the society at large.

7.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(9): 1406-1412, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474328

RESUMO

Whether patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and thyroid disease are clinically distinct from those with AF and no thyroid disease is unknown. Furthermore, the effectiveness of anticoagulation for prevention of AF-related thromboembolic events in patients with thyroid disease has not been adequately studied. Patients enrolled in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation, which compared apixaban with warfarin in patients with AF (n = 18,201), were categorized by thyroid disease history at randomization (hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and no thyroid disease). Adjusted hazard ratios derived from Cox models were used to compare outcomes by thyroid disease history. Associations between randomized treatment and outcomes by thyroid disease history were examined using Cox models with interaction terms. A total of 18,021/18,201 (99%) patients had available thyroid disease history at randomization: 1,656 (9%) had hypothyroidism, 321 (2%) had hyperthyroidism, and 16,044 (89%) had no thyroid disease. When compared with those without a history of thyroid disease, patients with hypo- or hyperthyroidism were more likely to be female (60.4% vs 32.1%; 52.0% vs 32.1%; both p <0.0001). Patients with hypothyroidism were older (73 vs 70 years, p <0.0001) and more likely to have had previous falls (8.7% vs 4.3%, p <0.0001). There was no difference in clinical outcomes by thyroid disease history. The benefit of apixaban compared with warfarin was similar regardless of thyroid disease history (interaction p >0.10). In conclusion, despite differences in baseline characteristics of patients with and without thyroid disease, their clinical outcomes were similar. The benefit of apixban compared with warfarin was preserved regardless of thyroid disease history.

8.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 32(11): 1451-1461.e3, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether left ventricular (LV) longitudinal peak systolic segmental strain (LPSS) has sufficient reproducibility to be used in clinical practice (e.g., in patient follow-up) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility of combined acquisition and measurements of LPSS across the spectrum of LV ejection fraction (LVEF). METHODS: In this prospective study, 72 subjects (mean age, 63 ± 14 years; 65% men) were included in four equal groups: group 1, LVEF ≥ 50%, healthy; group 2, LVEF ≥ 50%, presence of cardiovascular disease and/or risk factors; group 3, LVEF 30%-49%; and group 4, LVEF ≤ 29%. Two observers performed four sets of image acquisitions and measurements (three during the same session, one after a median of 1 day) to account for intraobserver, interobserver, and test-retest reproducibility of combined acquisition and measurements. LPSS was measured in each of the 17 LV segments. RESULTS: On average, the intraobserver and test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients and mean absolute differences of repeated acquisition and measurement of LPSS were similar across groups. However, interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients and mean absolute differences decreased in group 4 compared with groups 1 to 3. The intraobserver, test-retest, and interobserver coefficients of variation of all LV segments became worse as LVEF decreased, especially in group 4, in which LPSS was not reproducible in most segments. Reproducibility of LPSS in basal LV segments was worse compared with apical segments. The average measurement uncertainty (defined as the 95% limits of agreement of repeated acquisition and measurements) of LPSS in a test-retest scenario was ±8.9%, ±11.8%, ±10.7%, and ±9.0% in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical applicability of LPSS is hindered by suboptimal reproducibility, even if a single observer repeats both acquisition and measurements. Changes in LPSS during patient follow-up should be interpreted with caution.

9.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435004

RESUMO

Interaction between arterial stiffness and hypertension plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, assessment of arterial stiffness may provide a tool for estimating cardiovascular risk and monitoring therapy in hypertensive patients. Radiofrequency-based vascular ultrasound allows accurate noninvasive assessment of local mechanical properties of large arteries, but for its use in clinical practice, reference values according to age and sex are mandatory for each vascular site. To provide reference values for common carotid artery stiffness as assessed by an echo-tracking imaging system Hitachi-Aloka, we pooled measurements collected in 1847 healthy subjects aged 3-74 years (1008 males and 839 females) recruited in 14 European centers in the E-tracking International Collaboration (ETIC). Statistical models were developed to describe relationships of different stiffness indices with age and to calculate median values and Z-scores corresponding to ± 1 and ± 2 standard deviations. In our apparently healthy population, age accounted for 53% of variability in the elastic modulus (epsilon), 39% in arterial compliance, 47% in stiffness index (ß), and 56% in local pulse wave velocity; on average, blood pressure accounted for a further 7.5% of variability. Dependence on age was not linear; changes in mean values increased at older ages, especially for epsilon and ß. There was an interaction between age and gender for arterial compliance, which was higher in males. We present nomograms and a software that can be used for the automated calculation of Z-scores for local carotid stiffness in individual patients. These tools can be used to establish prognostic indicators or surrogate targets for treatment monitoring.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408147

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study sought to evaluate the correlation between indices of non-invasive myocardial work (MW) and left ventricle (LV) size, traditional and advanced parameters of LV systolic and diastolic function by 2D echocardiography (2DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 226 (85 men, mean age: 45 ± 13 years) healthy subjects were enrolled at 22 collaborating institutions of the Normal Reference Ranges for Echocardiography (NORRE) study. Global work index (GWI), global constructive work (GCW), global work waste (GWW), and global work efficiency (GWE) were estimated from LV pressure-strain loops using custom software. Peak LV pressure was estimated non-invasively from brachial artery cuff pressure. LV size, parameters of systolic and diastolic function and ventricular-arterial coupling were measured by echocardiography. As advanced indices of myocardial performance, global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS), and global radial strain (GRS) were obtained. On multivariable analysis, GWI was significantly correlated with GLS (standardized beta-coefficient = -0.23, P < 0.001), ejection fraction (EF) (standardized beta-coefficient = 0.15, P = 0.02), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (standardized beta-coefficient = 0.56, P < 0.001) and GRS (standardized beta-coefficient = 0.19, P = 0.004), while GCW was correlated with GLS (standardized beta-coefficient = -0.55, P < 0.001), SBP (standardized beta-coefficient = 0.71, P < 0.001), GRS (standardized beta-coefficient = 0.11, P = 0.02), and GCS (standardized beta-coefficient = -0.10, P = 0.01). GWE was directly correlated with EF and inversely correlated with Tei index (standardized beta-coefficient = 0.18, P = 0.009 and standardized beta-coefficient = -0.20, P = 0.004, respectively), the opposite occurred for GWW (standardized beta-coefficient =--0.14, P = 0.03 and standardized beta-coefficient = 0.17, P = 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSION: The non-invasive MW indices show a good correlation with traditional 2DE parameters of myocardial systolic function and myocardial strain.

11.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691, ago., 30 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1015771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 x 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. (AU)


Assuntos
Bactérias , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aspirina
12.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 403-412, Aug., 2019. tabela, grafico
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1022748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528).CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem
13.
Am J Ther ; 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beta-blockers are one of the most important classes of cardiovascular agents and have been considered a cornerstone therapy in heart diseases, such as heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF). Among different beta-blockers, metoprolol is a selective beta1-adrenergic antagonist, which has been extensively used since the 1970s. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: Although current guidelines include recommendations for the use of controlled-release metoprolol succinate in specific HF and AF indications, and despite extensive clinical experience with metoprolol, comparative evidence on the use of metoprolol succinate compared with other beta-blockers in these indications is limited. DATA SOURCES: We systematically reviewed the data from head-to-head studies directly comparing this compound with other beta-blockers in the treatment of HF or AF. Only clinical trials and observational studies were considered; no other limits were applied. The quality and relevance of retrieved articles were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 18 articles of the 353 articles identified were selected for inclusion; 12 HF articles and 6 for AF. Additional references were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles. The studies show that oral prophylaxis with an appropriate dose of metoprolol may reduce new incidents of AF in high-risk patients. Furthermore, metoprolol succinate is associated with significant mortality and morbidity benefits in the treatment of HF. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the introduction of newer beta-blockers with differing clinical characteristics since its introduction, metoprolol succinate remains a useful drug in both HF and AF.

14.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691.e2, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Pantoprazol/administração & dosagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/induzido quimicamente , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/microbiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pantoprazol/efeitos adversos , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Int J Cardiol ; 293: 39-44, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178223

RESUMO

Abnormalities of myocardial energy metabolism appear as a common background of the two major cardiac disorders: ischemic heart disease (IHD) and heart failure (HF). Myocardial ischemia has been recently conceived as a multifaceted syndrome that can be precipitated by a number of mechanisms including metabolic abnormalities. HF is a progressive disorder characterised by a complex interaction of haemodynamic, neurohormonal and metabolic disturbances. HF may further promote metabolic changes, generating a vicious cycle. Thus, targeting cardiac metabolism in IHD patients may prevent the deterioration of left ventricular function, stopping the progression to HF. For these reasons, several studies have explored the potential benefits of trimetazidine (TMZ), an inhibitor of free fatty acids oxidation that shifts cardiac and muscle metabolism to glucose utilization. Because of its mechanism of action, TMZ has been found to provide a cardioprotective effect in patients with angina, diabetes mellitus, and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and those undergoing revascularization procedures, without relevant side effects. In addition, the lack of interference with heart rate, arterial pressure, and most of frequent comorbidities, makes TMZ an attractive option for patients and clinicians as well. The impact of TMZ on long term mortality and morbidity in ischemic syndromes and in heart failure need to be conclusively confirmed in properly designed RCT.

16.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 403-412.e5, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528). CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Pantoprazol/administração & dosagem , Úlcera Péptica/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Úlcera Péptica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Péptica/epidemiologia , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Am J Ther ; 26(3): e364-e374, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inherited (hereditary) thrombophilia is a genetic disorder that affects coagulation, being responsible for more than 60% of idiopathic (spontaneous or unprovoked) thromboembolic events. Association of inherited thrombophilia with pregnancy increases the risk of thromboembolic disease, and it may be related to many complications, such as preeclampsia, recurrent miscarriage intrauterine growth restriction, early detachment of placenta, and prematurity. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: Interpretation of a positive test for thrombophilia in pregnant women is difficult because they have many natural changes in the coagulation system. Genetic diagnosis of thrombophilia, after a thrombotic event or during a pregnancy complication, has a major importance, not only to define its etiology but also to determine the duration of anticoagulant treatment and risk stratification for prophylaxis treatment. DATA SOURCES: Literature search was performed using electronic database (PubMed) between April 1981 and November 2018. We used different keywords and MeSH terms to generate the most relevant results related to the inherited thrombophilia and its impact on pregnancy. RESULTS: Screening for inherited thrombophilia in young women is recommended in case of personal history of venous thromboembolism, first-degree relatives with a history of high-risk thrombophilia, or personal history of second-trimester miscarriage. Decision to recommend thromboprophylaxis with anticoagulant treatment in pregnant women with inherited thrombophilia is determined by history of venous thromboembolism, type and associated risk of inherited thrombophilia, and presence of additional risk factors. Low-molecular-weight heparins are the preferred agents for prophylaxis in pregnancy, while the doses vary depending on thrombophilia type, personal history, and associated risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Association between 2 procoagulant conditions, inherited thrombophilia and pregnancy, has an important impact for the mother and fetus. This review will summarize the impact of each inherited prothrombotic factor on cardiovascular and pregnancy outcomes and will discuss the role of anticoagulation treatment for women diagnosed with inherited thrombophilia.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Trombofilia/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Aborto Habitual/etiologia , Aborto Habitual/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Período Periparto/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Trombofilia/sangue , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
18.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 48(1): 27-34, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972712

RESUMO

We explored associations between INR measures and clinical outcomes in patients with AF using warfarin, and whether INR history predicted future INR measurements. We included patients in ARISTOTLE who were randomized to and received warfarin. Among patients who had events, we included those with ≥ 3 INR values in the 180 days prior to the event, with the most recent ≤ 60 days prior to the event, who were on warfarin at the time of event (n = 545). Non-event patients were included in the control group if they had ≥ 180 days of warfarin exposure with ≥ 3 INR measurements (n = 7259). The median (25th, 75th) number of INR values per patient was 29 (21, 38) over a median follow-up of 1.8 years. A total of 87% had at least one INR value < 1.5; 49% had at least one value > 4.0. The last INRs before events (median 14 [24, 7] days) were < 3.0 for at least 75% of patients with major bleeding and > 2.0 for half of patients with ischemic stroke. Historic time in therapeutic range (TTR) was weakly associated with future TTR (R2 = 0.212). Historic TTR ≥ 80% had limited predictive ability to discriminate future TTR ≥ 80% (C index 0.61). In patients with AF receiving warfarin, most bleeding events may not have been preventable despite careful INR control. Our findings suggest that INRs collected through routine management are not sufficiently predictive to provide reassurance about future time in therapeutic range or to prevent subsequent outcomes, and might be over-interpreted in clinical practice.

19.
Clin Cardiol ; 42(5): 568-571, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal anticoagulation strategy for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and bioprosthetic valve (BPV) replacement or native valve repair remains uncertain. HYPOTHESIS: We evaluated the safety and efficacy of apixaban vs warfarin in patients with AF and a history of BPV replacement or native valve repair. METHODS: Using data from Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) (n = 18 201), a randomized trial comparing apixaban with warfarin in patients with AF, we analyzed the subgroup of patients (n = 251) with prior valve surgery. We contacted sites by telephone to obtain additional data about prior valve surgery. Full data were available for 156 patients. The primary efficacy endpoint was stroke/systemic embolism. The primary safety endpoint was major bleeding. Treatment groups were compared using a Cox regression model. RESULTS: In ARISTOTLE, 104 (0.6%) patients had a history of BPV replacement (n = 73 [aortic], n = 26 [mitral], n = 5 [mitral and aortic]) and 52 (0.3%) had a history of valve repair (n = 50 [mitral], n = 2 [aortic]). Among patients with BPVs, 55 were randomized to apixaban and 49 to warfarin. Among those with a history of native valve repair, 32 were randomized to apixaban and 20 to warfarin. Overall clinical event rates were low, with no significant differences between apixaban and warfarin for any outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AF and a history of BPV replacement or repair, the safety and efficacy of apixaban compared with warfarin was consistent with results from ARISTOTLE. These data suggest that apixaban may be reasonable for patients with BPVs or prior valve repair, though future larger randomized trials are needed. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT00412984.

20.
N Engl J Med ; 380(16): 1509-1524, 2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appropriate antithrombotic regimens for patients with atrial fibrillation who have an acute coronary syndrome or have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are unclear. METHODS: In an international trial with a two-by-two factorial design, we randomly assigned patients with atrial fibrillation who had an acute coronary syndrome or had undergone PCI and were planning to take a P2Y12 inhibitor to receive apixaban or a vitamin K antagonist and to receive aspirin or matching placebo for 6 months. The primary outcome was major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. Secondary outcomes included death or hospitalization and a composite of ischemic events. RESULTS: Enrollment included 4614 patients from 33 countries. There were no significant interactions between the two randomization factors on the primary or secondary outcomes. Major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding was noted in 10.5% of the patients receiving apixaban, as compared with 14.7% of those receiving a vitamin K antagonist (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 0.81; P<0.001 for both noninferiority and superiority), and in 16.1% of the patients receiving aspirin, as compared with 9.0% of those receiving placebo (hazard ratio, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.59 to 2.24; P<0.001). Patients in the apixaban group had a lower incidence of death or hospitalization than those in the vitamin K antagonist group (23.5% vs. 27.4%; hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.93; P = 0.002) and a similar incidence of ischemic events. Patients in the aspirin group had an incidence of death or hospitalization and of ischemic events that was similar to that in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with atrial fibrillation and a recent acute coronary syndrome or PCI treated with a P2Y12 inhibitor, an antithrombotic regimen that included apixaban, without aspirin, resulted in less bleeding and fewer hospitalizations without significant differences in the incidence of ischemic events than regimens that included a vitamin K antagonist, aspirin, or both. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer; AUGUSTUS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02415400.).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos
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