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1.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X20928011, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515672

RESUMO

The cerebral cortex has a number of conserved morphological and functional characteristics across brain regions and species. Among them, the laminar differences in microvascular density and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase staining suggest potential laminar variability in the baseline O2 metabolism and/or laminar variability in both O2 demand and hemodynamic response. Here, we investigate the laminar profile of stimulus-induced intravascular partial pressure of O2 (pO2) transients to stimulus-induced neuronal activation in fully awake mice using two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy. Our results demonstrate that stimulus-induced changes in intravascular pO2 are conserved across cortical layers I-IV, suggesting a tightly controlled neurovascular response to provide adequate O2 supply across cortical depth. In addition, we observed a larger change in venular O2 saturation (ΔsO2) compared to arterioles, a gradual increase in venular ΔsO2 response towards the cortical surface, and absence of the intravascular "initial dip" previously reported under anesthesia. This study paves the way for quantification of layer-specific cerebral O2 metabolic responses, facilitating investigation of brain energetics in health and disease and informed interpretation of laminar blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging signals.

2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 1709-1719, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210561

RESUMO

Purpose: We recently developed a new fluorescence-based technique called "diffuse in vivo flow cytometry" (DiFC) for enumerating rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) directly in the bloodstream. Non-specific tissue autofluorescence is a persistent problem, as it creates a background which may obscure signals from weakly-labeled CTCs. Here we investigated the use of upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) as a contrast agent for DiFC, which in principle could significantly reduce the autofluorescence background and allow more sensitive detection of rare CTCs. Methods: We built a new UCNP-compatible DiFC instrument (U-DiFC), which uses a 980 nm laser and detects upconverted luminescence in the 520, 545 and 660 nm emission bands. We used NaYF4:Yb,Er UCNPs and several covalent and non-covalent surface modification strategies to improve their biocompatibility and cell uptake. We tested U-DiFC with multiple myeloma (MM) and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells in tissue-mimicking optical flow phantoms and in nude mice. Results: U-DiFC significantly reduced the background autofluorescence signals and motion artifacts from breathing in mice. Upconverted luminescence from NaYF4:Yb,Er microparticles (UµNP) and cells co-incubated with UCNPs were readily detectable with U-DiFC in phantoms, and from UCNPs in circulation in mice. However, we were unable to achieve reliable labeling of CTCs with UCNPs. Our data suggest that most (or all) of the measured U-DIFC signal in vitro and in vivo likely arose from unbound UCNPs or due to the uptake by non-CTC blood cells. Conclusion: UCNPs have a number of properties that make them attractive contrast agents for high-sensitivity detection of CTCs in the bloodstream with U-DiFC and other intravital imaging methods. More work is needed to achieve reliable and specific labeling of CTCs with UCNPs and verify long-term retention and viability of cells.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Meios de Contraste/química , Nanopartículas/química , Animais , Contagem de Células , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Luminescência , Camundongos Nus , Imagens de Fantasmas , Dióxido de Silício/química
3.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 318(4): R799-R812, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130021

RESUMO

Sensing changes in blood oxygen content ([Formula: see text]) is an important physiological role of the kidney; however, the mechanism(s) by which the kidneys sense and respond to changes in [Formula: see text] are incompletely understood. Accurate measurements of kidney tissue oxygen tension ([Formula: see text]) may increase our understanding of renal oxygen-sensing mechanisms and could inform decisions regarding the optimal fluid for intravascular volume resuscitation to maintain renal perfusion. In some clinical settings, starch solution may be nephrotoxic, possibly due to inadequacy of tissue oxygen delivery. We hypothesized that hemodilution with starch colloid solutions would reduce [Formula: see text] to a more severe degree than other diluents. Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 77) were randomized to undergo hemodilution with either colloid (6% hydroxyethyl starch or 5% albumin), crystalloid (0.9% saline), or a sham procedure (control) (n = 13-18 rats/group). Data were analyzed by ANOVA with significance assigned at P < 0.05. After hemodilution, mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased marginally in all groups, while hemoglobin (Hb) and [Formula: see text] decreased in proportion to the degree of hemodilution. Cardiac output was maintained in all groups after hemodilution. [Formula: see text] decreased in proportion to the reduction in Hb in all treatment groups. At comparably reduced Hb, and maintained arterial oxygen values, hemodilution with starch resulted in larger decreases in [Formula: see text] relative to animals hemodiluted with albumin or saline (P < 0.008). Renal medullary erythropoietin (EPO) mRNA levels increased more prominently, relative to other hypoxia-regulated molecules (GLUT-1, GAPDH, and VEGF). Our data demonstrate that the kidney acts as a biosensor of reduced [Formula: see text] following hemodilution and that [Formula: see text] may provide a quantitative signal for renal cellular responsiveness to acute anemia. Evidence of a more severe reduction in [Formula: see text] following hemodilution with starch colloid solution suggests that tissue hypoxia may contribute to starch induced renal toxicity.

4.
Nature ; 578(7794): 278-283, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025033

RESUMO

The biology of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) has predominantly been studied under transplantation conditions1,2. It has been particularly challenging to study dynamic HSC behaviour, given that the visualization of HSCs in the native niche in live animals has not, to our knowledge, been achieved. Here we describe a dual genetic strategy in mice that restricts reporter labelling to a subset of the most quiescent long-term HSCs (LT-HSCs) and that is compatible with current intravital imaging approaches in the calvarial bone marrow3-5. We show that this subset of LT-HSCs resides close to both sinusoidal blood vessels and the endosteal surface. By contrast, multipotent progenitor cells (MPPs) show greater variation in distance from the endosteum and are more likely to be associated with transition zone vessels. LT-HSCs are not found in bone marrow niches with the deepest hypoxia and instead are found in hypoxic environments similar to those of MPPs. In vivo time-lapse imaging revealed that LT-HSCs at steady-state show limited motility. Activated LT-HSCs show heterogeneous responses, with some cells becoming highly motile and a fraction of HSCs expanding clonally within spatially restricted domains. These domains have defined characteristics, as HSC expansion is found almost exclusively in a subset of bone marrow cavities with bone-remodelling activity. By contrast, cavities with low bone-resorbing activity do not harbour expanding HSCs. These findings point to previously unknown heterogeneity within the bone marrow microenvironment, imposed by the stages of bone turnover. Our approach enables the direct visualization of HSC behaviours and dissection of heterogeneity in HSC niches.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Imagem Molecular , Animais , Remodelação Óssea , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Proteína do Locus do Complexo MDS1 e EVI1/genética , Proteína do Locus do Complexo MDS1 e EVI1/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Crânio/citologia , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/metabolismo
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 573, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996677

RESUMO

Hypoxia in solid tumors is thought to be an important factor in resistance to therapy, but the extreme microscopic heterogeneity of the partial pressures of oxygen (pO2) between the capillaries makes it difficult to characterize the scope of this phenomenon without invasive sampling of oxygen distributions throughout the tissue. Here we develop a non-invasive method to track spatial oxygen distributions in tumors during fractionated radiotherapy, using oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence, oxygen probe Oxyphor PtG4 and the radiotherapy-induced Cherenkov light to excite and image the phosphorescence lifetimes within the tissue. Mice bearing MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and FaDu head neck cancer xenografts show different pO2 responses during each of the 5 fractions (5 Gy per fraction), delivered from a clinical linear accelerator. This study demonstrates subsurface in vivo mapping of tumor pO2 distributions with submillimeter spatial resolution, thus providing a methodology to track response of tumors to fractionated radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Oxigênio/química , Radioterapia/métodos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos , Animais , Engenharia Biomédica/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Hipóxia , Metaloporfirinas , Camundongos , Pressão Parcial , Aceleradores de Partículas
6.
Nanoscale ; 12(4): 2657-2672, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939953

RESUMO

Lanthanide-based upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) are known for their remarkable ability to convert near-infrared energy into higher energy light, offering an attractive platform for construction of biological imaging probes. Here we focus on in vivo high-resolution microscopy - an application for which the opportunity to carry out excitation at low photon fluxes in non-linear regime makes UCNPs stand out among all multiphoton probes. To create biocompatible nanoparticles we employed Janus-type dendrimers as surface ligands, featuring multiple carboxylates on one 'face' of the molecule, polyethylene glycol (PEG) residues on another and Eriochrome Cyanine R dye as the core. The UCNP/Janus-dendrimers showed outstanding performance as vascular markers, allowing for depth-resolved mapping of individual capillaries in the mouse brain down to a remarkable depth of ∼1000 µm under continuous wave (CW) excitation with powers not exceeding 20 mW. Using a posteriori deconvolution, high-resolution images could be obtained even at high scanning speeds in spite of the blurring caused by the long luminescence lifetimes of the lanthanide ions. Secondly, the new UCNP/dendrimers allowed us to evaluate the feasibility of quantitative analyte imaging in vivo using a popular ratiometric UCNP-to-ligand excitation energy transfer (EET) scheme. Our results show that the ratio of UCNP emission bands, which for quantitative sensing should respond selectively to the analyte of interest, is also strongly affected by optical heterogeneities of the medium. On the other hand, the luminescence decay times of UCNPs, which are independent of the medium properties, are modulated via EET only insignificantly. As such, quantitative analyte sensing in biological tissues with UCNP-based probes still remains a challenge.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(1): 318-324, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854990

RESUMO

Expanding the anti-Stokes shift for triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion (TTA-UC) systems with high quantum yields without compromising power density thresholds (Ith) remains a critical challenge in photonics. Our studies reveal that such expansion is possible by using a highly endothermic TTA-UC pair with an enthalpy difference of +80 meV even in a polymer matrix 1000 times more viscous than toluene. Carrying out efficient endothermic triplet-triplet energy transfer (TET) requires suppression of the reverse annihilator-to-sensitizer TET, which was achieved by using sensitizers with high molar extinction coefficients and long triplet state lifetimes as well as optimized annihilator concentrations. Under these conditions, the sensitizer-to-annihilator forward TET becomes effectively entropy driven, yielding upconversion quantum yields comparable to those achieved with the exothermic TTA-UC pair but with larger anti-Stokes shifts and even lower Ith, a previously unattained achievement.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(37): 33548-33558, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436082

RESUMO

Tissue oxygenation is one of the key determining factors in bone repair and bone tissue engineering. Adequate tissue oxygenation is essential for survival and differentiation of the bone-forming cells and ultimately the success of bone tissue regeneration. Two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy (2PLM) has been successfully applied in the past to image oxygen distributions in tissue with high spatial resolution. However, delivery of phosphorescent probes into avascular compartments, such as those formed during early bone defect healing, poses significant problems. Here, we report a multifunctional oxygen-reporting fibrous matrix fabricated through encapsulation of a hydrophilic oxygen-sensitive, two-photon excitable phosphorescent probe, PtP-C343, in the core of fibers during coaxial electrospinning. The oxygen-sensitive fibers support bone marrow stromal cell growth and differentiation and at the same time enable real-time high-resolution probing of partial pressures of oxygen via 2PLM. The hydrophilicity of the probe facilitates its gradual release into the nearby microenvironment, allowing fibers to act as a vehicle for probe delivery into the healing tissue. In conjunction with a cranial defect window chamber model, which permits simultaneous imaging of the bone and neovasculature in vivo via two-photon laser scanning microscopy, the oxygen-reporting fibers provide a useful tool for minimally invasive, high-resolution, real-time 3D mapping of tissue oxygenation during bone defect healing, facilitating studies aimed at understanding the healing process and advancing design of tissue-engineered constructs for enhanced bone repair and regeneration.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Oximetria , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Crânio , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Oximetria/instrumentação , Oximetria/métodos , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Crânio/lesões , Crânio/metabolismo , Crânio/patologia
9.
Elife ; 82019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305237

RESUMO

Our understanding of how capillary blood flow and oxygen distribute across cortical layers to meet the local metabolic demand is incomplete. We addressed this question by using two-photon imaging of resting-state microvascular oxygen partial pressure (PO2) and flow in the whisker barrel cortex in awake mice. Our measurements in layers I-V show that the capillary red-blood-cell flux and oxygenation heterogeneity, and the intracapillary resistance to oxygen delivery, all decrease with depth, reaching a minimum around layer IV, while the depth-dependent oxygen extraction fraction is increased in layer IV, where oxygen demand is presumably the highest. Our findings suggest that more homogeneous distribution of the physiological observables relevant to oxygen transport to tissue is an important part of the microvascular network adaptation to local brain metabolism. These results will inform the biophysical models of layer-specific cerebral oxygen delivery and consumption and improve our understanding of the diseases that affect cerebral microcirculation.


Assuntos
Capilares/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Camundongos , Pressão Parcial
10.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 18(9): 2142-2149, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011734

RESUMO

Silica nanoparticles (NPs) are versatile nanomaterials, which are safe with respect to biomedical applications, and therefore are highly investigated. The advantages of NPs include their ease of preparation, inexpensive starting materials and the possibility of functionalization or loading with various doping agents. However, the solubility of the doping agent(s) imposes constraints on the choice of the reaction system and hence limits the range of molecules that can be included in the interior of NPs. To overcome this problem, herein, we improved the current state of the art synthetic strategy based on Pluronic F127 by enabling the synthesis in the presence of large amounts of organic solvents. The new method enables the preparation of nanoparticles doped with large amounts of water-insoluble doping agents. To illustrate the applicability of the technology, we successfully incorporated a range of phosphorescent metalloporphyrins into the interior of NPs. The resulting phosphorescent nanoparticles may exhibit potential for biological oxygen sensing.

11.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 78, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low availability of oxygen in tumors contributes to the hostility of the tumor microenvironment toward the immune system. However, the dynamic relationship between local oxygen levels and the immune surveillance of tumors by tumor infiltrating T-lymphocytes (TIL) remains unclear. This situation reflects a methodological difficulty in visualizing oxygen gradients in living tissue in a manner that is suitable for spatiotemporal quantification and contextual correlation with individual cell dynamics tracked by typical fluorescence reporter systems. METHODS: Here, we devise a regimen for intravital oxygen and cell dynamics co-imaging, termed 'Fast' Scanning Two-photon Phosphorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FaST-PLIM). Using FaST-PLIM, we image the cellular motility of T-lymphocytes in relation to the microscopic distribution of oxygen in mouse models of hematological and solid tumors, namely in bone marrow with or without B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and in lungs with sarcoma tumors. RESULTS: Both in bone marrow leukemia and solid tumor models, TILs encountered regions of varying oxygen concentrations, including regions of hypoxia (defined as pO2 below 5 mmHg), especially in advanced-stage ALL and within solid tumor cores. T cell motility was sustained and weakly correlated with local pO2 above 5 mmHg but it was very slow in pO2 below this level. In solid tumors, this relationship was reflected in slow migration of TIL in tumor cores compared to that in tumor margins. Remarkably, breathing 100% oxygen alleviated tumor core hypoxia and rapidly invigorated the motility of otherwise stalled tumor core TILs. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a versatile and highly contextual FaST-PLIM method for phosphorescence lifetime-based oxygen imaging in living animal tumor immunology models. The initial results of this method application to ALL and solid lung tumor models highlight the importance of oxygen supply for the maintenance of intratumoral T cell migration, define a 5 mmHg local oxygen concentration threshold for TIL motility, and demonstrate efficacy of supplementary oxygen breathing in TIL motility enhancement coincident with reduction of tumor hypoxia.

12.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 18(9): 2180-2190, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816403

RESUMO

The one-photon (1P) and two-photon (2P) absorption properties of three quadrupolar dyes, featuring thiophene as a donor and acceptors of varying strengths, are determined by a combination of experimental and computational methods employing the density functional theory (DFT). The emission shifts in different solvents are well reproduced by time-dependent DFT calculations with the linear response and state specific approaches in the framework of the polarizable continuum model. The calculations show that the energies of both 1P- and 2P-active states decrease with an increase of the strength of the acceptor. The 2P absorption cross-sections predicted by the response theory are accounted for by considering just one intermediate state (S1) in the sum-over-states formulation. For the chromophore featuring the stronger acceptor, the energetic positions of the 1P- and 2P-active states prevent the exploitation of the theoretically predicted very high 2P activity due to the competing 1P absorption into the S1 state.

13.
Cell Metab ; 29(3): 736-744.e7, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686745

RESUMO

Quantitative imaging of oxygen distributions in tissue can provide invaluable information about metabolism in normal and diseased states. Two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy (2PLM) has been developed to perform measurements of oxygen in vivo with micron-scale resolution in 3D; however, the method's potential has not yet been fully realized due to the limitations of current phosphorescent probe technology. Here, we report a new sensor, Oxyphor 2P, that enables oxygen microscopy twice as deep (up to 600 µm below the tissue surface) and with ∼60 times higher speed than previously possible. Oxyphor 2P allows longitudinal oxygen measurements without having to inject the probe directly into the imaged region. As proof of principle, we monitored oxygen dynamics for days following micro-stroke induced by occlusion of a single capillary in the mouse brain. Oxyphor 2P opens up new possibilities for studies of tissue metabolic states using 2PLM in a wide range of biomedical research areas.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Capilares/diagnóstico por imagem , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fótons
14.
J Biomed Opt ; 23(12): 1-9, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516039

RESUMO

Impaired oxygen delivery and/or consumption in the retinal tissue underlies the pathophysiology of many retinal diseases. However, the essential tools for measuring oxygen concentration in retinal capillaries and studying oxygen transport to retinal tissue are still lacking. We show that two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy can be used to map absolute partial pressures of oxygen (pO2) in the retinal capillary plexus. Measurements were performed at various retinal depths in anesthetized mice under systemic normoxic and hyperoxic conditions. We used a newly developed two-photon phosphorescent oxygen probe, based on a two-photon absorbing platinum tetraphthalimidoporphyrin, and commercially available optics without correction for optical aberrations of the eye. The transverse and axial distances within the tissue volume were calibrated using a model of the eye's optical system. We believe this is the first demonstration of in vivo depth-resolved imaging of pO2 in retinal capillaries. Application of this method has the potential to advance our understanding of oxygen delivery on the microvascular scale and help elucidate mechanisms underlying various retinal diseases.


Assuntos
Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica/métodos , Oxigênio , Vasos Retinianos , Animais , Feminino , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxigênio/sangue , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pressão Parcial , Vasos Retinianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Retinianos/metabolismo
15.
Neurophotonics ; 5(3): 035003, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137881

RESUMO

We present a dual-modality imaging system combining laser speckle contrast imaging and oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence to simultaneously map cortical blood flow and oxygen tension ( pO2 ) in mice. Phosphorescence signal localization is achieved through the use of a digital micromirror device (DMD) that allows for selective excitation of arbitrary regions of interest. By targeting both excitation maxima of the oxygen-sensitive Oxyphor PtG4, we are able to examine the effects of excitation wavelength on the measured phosphorescence lifetime. We demonstrate the ability to measure the differences in pO2 between arteries and veins and large changes during a hyperoxic challenge. We dynamically monitor blood flow and pO2 during DMD-targeted photothrombotic occlusion of an arteriole and highlight the presence of an ischemia-induced depolarization. Chronic tracking of the ischemic lesion over eight days revealed a rapid recovery, with the targeted vessel fully reperfusing and pO2 returning to baseline values within five days. This system has broad applications for studying the acute and chronic pathophysiology of ischemic stroke and other vascular diseases of the brain.

16.
Nat Protoc ; 13(6): 1377-1402, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29844521

RESUMO

Cerebrovascular dysfunction has an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple brain disorders. Measurement of hemodynamic responses in vivo can be challenging, particularly as techniques are often not described in sufficient detail and vary between laboratories. We present a set of standardized in vivo protocols that describe high-resolution two-photon microscopy and intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging to evaluate capillary and arteriolar responses to a stimulus, regional hemodynamic responses, and oxygen delivery to the brain. The protocol also describes how to measure intrinsic NADH fluorescence to understand how blood O2 supply meets the metabolic demands of activated brain tissue, and to perform resting-state absolute oxygen partial pressure (pO2) measurements of brain tissue. These methods can detect cerebrovascular changes at far higher resolution than MRI techniques, although the optical nature of these techniques limits their achievable imaging depths. Each individual procedure requires 1-2 h to complete, with two to three procedures typically performed per animal at a time. These protocols are broadly applicable in studies of cerebrovascular function in healthy and diseased brain in any of the existing mouse models of neurological and vascular disorders. All these procedures can be accomplished by a competent graduate student or experienced technician, except the two-photon measurement of absolute pO2 level, which is better suited to a more experienced, postdoctoral-level researcher.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/patologia , Hemodinâmica , Hipóxia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipóxia/patologia , Microscopia Intravital/métodos , Animais , Microscopia Intravital/normas , Camundongos
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(16): 4170-4175, 2018 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29610310

RESUMO

The succession from aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria to obligate anaerobes in the infant gut along with the differences between the compositions of the mucosally adherent vs. luminal microbiota suggests that the gut microbes consume oxygen, which diffuses into the lumen from the intestinal tissue, maintaining the lumen in a deeply anaerobic state. Remarkably, measurements of luminal oxygen levels show nearly identical pO2 (partial pressure of oxygen) profiles in conventional and germ-free mice, pointing to the existence of oxygen consumption mechanisms other than microbial respiration. In vitro experiments confirmed that the luminal contents of germ-free mice are able to chemically consume oxygen (e.g., via lipid oxidation reactions), although at rates significantly lower than those observed in the case of conventionally housed mice. For conventional mice, we also show that the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiota adherent to the gut mucosa and in the lumen throughout the length of the gut correlates with oxygen levels. At the same time, an increase in the biomass of the gut microbiota provides an explanation for the reduction of luminal oxygen in the distal vs. proximal gut. These results demonstrate how oxygen from the mammalian host is used by the gut microbiota, while both the microbes and the oxidative chemical reactions regulate luminal oxygen levels, shaping the composition of the microbial community throughout different regions of the gut.


Assuntos
Anaerobiose , Bactérias Anaeróbias/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias Anaeróbias/isolamento & purificação , Sistemas Computacionais , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Vida Livre de Germes , Lipídeos/química , Medições Luminescentes , Metaloporfirinas/análise , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/análise , Consumo de Oxigênio , Proteínas/química
18.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 2(4): 254-264, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30899599

RESUMO

Low signal-to-noise ratios and limited imaging depths restrict the ability of optical-imaging modalities to detect and accurately quantify molecular emissions from tissue. Here, by using a scanning external X-ray beam from a clinical linear accelerator to induce Cherenkov excitation of luminescence in tissue, we demonstrate in vivo mapping of the oxygenation of tumours at depths of several millimetres, with submillimetre resolution and nanomolar sensitivity. This was achieved by scanning thin sheets of the X-ray beam orthogonally to the emission-detection plane, and by detecting the signal via a time-gated CCD camera synchronized to the radiation pulse. We also show with experiments using phantoms and with simulations that the performance of Cherenkov-excited luminescence scanned imaging (CELSI) is limited by beam size, scan geometry, probe concentration, radiation dose and tissue depth. CELSI might provide the highest sensitivity and resolution in the optical imaging of molecular tracers in vivo.

19.
Chem ; 2(4): 550-560, 2017 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28966989

RESUMO

Silicon nanocrystals of the average diameter of 5 nm, functionalized with 4,7-di(2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole chromophores (TBT) and dodecyl chains, exhibit near-infrared emission upon one-photon (1P) excitation at 515 nm and two-photon (2P) excitation at 960 nm. By using TBT chromophores as an antenna we were able to enhance both 1P and 2P absorption cross-sections of the silicon nanocrystals to more efficiently excite their long-lived luminescence. These results chart a path to two-photon-excitable imaging probes with long-lived oxygen-independent luminescence - a rare combination of properties that should allow for a substantial increase in imaging contrast.

20.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(33): 6243-6255, 2017 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28766943

RESUMO

Using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and sum-overstates (SOS) formalism, we predicted significant stabilization of 2P-active g-states in a compact fully symmetric porphyrin, in which all four pyrrolic fragments are fused with phathalimide residues via the ß-carbon positions. The synthesis of a soluble, nonaggregating meso-unsubstituted tetraarylphthalimidoporphyrin (TAPIP) was then developed, and the spectroscopic measurements confirmed that a strongly 2P-active state in this porphyrin is stabilized below the B (Soret) state level. Single-crystal X-ray analysis revealed near-ideally planar geometry of the TAPIP macrocycle, while its tetra-meso-arylated analogue (meso-Ar4TAPIP) was found to be highly saddled. Consistent with these structural features, Pt meso-Ar4TAPIP phosphoresces rather weakly (ϕphos = 0.05 in DMF at 22 °C), while both Pt and Pd complexes of TAPIP are highly phosphorescent (ϕphos = 0.45 and 0.23, respectively). In addition PdTAPIP exhibits non-negligible thermally activated (E-type) delayed fluorescence (ϕfl(d) ∼ 0.012). Taken together, these photophysical properties make metal complexes of meso-unsubstituted tetaarylphthalimidoporphyrins the brightest 2P-absorbing phosphorescent chromophores known to date.

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