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Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1): 139-147, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932464


Streptococcus suis is a pathogen associated with severe diseases in pigs and humans. Human infections have a zoonotic origin in pigs. To assess circulating strains, we characterized the serotypes, sequence types, and antimicrobial susceptibility of 78 S. suis isolates from diseased farmed pigs in Italy during 2017-2019. Almost 60% of infections were caused by serotypes 1/2 and 9. All but 1 of the serotype 2 and 1/2 isolates were confined to a single cluster, and serotype 9 isolates were distributed along the phylogenetic tree. Besides sequence type (ST) 1, the serotype 2 cluster included ST7, which caused severe human infections in China in 1998 and 2005. A large proportion of serotype 9 isolates, assigned to ST123, were resistant to penicillin. The emergence of this clone threatens the successful treatment of S. suis infection. Characterizing S. suis isolates from pigs will promote earlier detection of emerging clones.

Anti-Infecciosos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus suis , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Filogenia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus suis/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
Porcine Health Manag ; 7(1): 32, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845919


BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis) is a bacterium commonly found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy pigs and an agent of polyserositis and polyarthritis. Moreover, it can carry antibiotic resistance genes (Wu et al, Vet. Microbiol. 76: 25-30, 2000). Economic losses caused by M. hyorhinis can be reduced by antibiotic therapy, however, isolation and antimicrobic susceptibility profile are rarely performed. CASE PRESENTATION: The present report describes a case of pericarditis caused by M. hyorhinis in a weaned piglet with respiratory symptoms and reduced growth performance. At post mortem examination, the main macroscopic finding was a severe fibrinous pericarditis and M. hyorhins was the only agent isolated from the pericardial fluid. In this strain, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) determination revealed resistance to various antimicrobial molecules such as erythromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin. CONCLUSION: This paper highlights the importance of including M. hyorhins in the differential diagnosis of polyserositis in swine. Moreover, due the possible presence of multidrug resistance, the determination of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern should be performed on a regular basis.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802554


Leptospirosis is a worldwide-spread zoonosis causing disease and death in dogs and in humans. A Leptospiral infection has been recorded in several wild carnivore species in Europe, but tissue pathological changes were not commonly described. The Grey wolf (Canis lupus) has been expanding its distribution range in north-eastern Italy during the last decade. A young wolf, representing the first individual handled in the region, was found road-killed and then submitted to necropsy. Pathological changes included erosive lesions of gingival mucosa, mild liver enlargement, and multifocal degenerative-necrotic areas along with hyperemic reactive lesions; multifocal interstitial nephritis and multifocal lung hemorrhages were observed. A Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) able to detect pathogenic species of Leptospira performed on a kidney sample was positive. Serological reactions for serogroup Gryppotyphosa (1:6400), Pomona (1:800), and Icterohaemorrhagiae (1:200) were evidenced by MAT. Genotyping by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) performed on detected Leptospira characterized it as belonging to Sequence Type (ST) 117, which refers to L. kirschneri, serogroup Pomona, serovar Mozdok. Regardless of the role of Leptospira infection as an eventual predisposing factor to the road killing of this wolf, to the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Leptospira-induced pathology in a wolf in Europe. Surveys on Leptospira infection in free-ranging wildlife species should be pursued in order to achieve further epidemiological knowledge on the circulation of the Leptospira strain.

Leptospira , Leptospirose , Lobos , Animais , Cães , Exposição Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Itália/epidemiologia , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Sorogrupo
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(3): 439-447, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769152


Laboratory tests provide essential support to the veterinary practitioner, and their use has grown exponentially. This growth is the result of several factors, such as the eradication of historical diseases, the occurrence of multifactorial diseases, and the obligation to control endemic and epidemic diseases. However, the introduction of novel techniques is counterbalanced by economic constraints, and the establishment of evidence- and consensus-based guidelines is essential to support the pathologist. Therefore, we developed standardized protocols, categorized by species, type of production, age, and syndrome at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie (IZSVe), a multicenter institution for animal health and food safety. We have 72 protocols in use for livestock, poultry, and pets, categorized as, for example, "bovine enteric calf", "rabbit respiratory", "broiler articular". Each protocol consists of a panel of tests, divided into 'mandatory' and 'ancillary', to be selected by the pathologist in order to reach the final diagnosis. After autopsy, the case is categorized into a specific syndrome, subsequently referred to as a syndrome-specific panel of analyses. The activity of the laboratories is monitored through a web-based dynamic reporting system developed using a business intelligence product (QlikView) connected to the laboratory information management system (IZILAB). On a daily basis, reports become available at general, laboratory, and case levels, and are updated as needed. The reporting system highlights epidemiologic variations in the field and allows verification of compliance with the protocols within the organization. The diagnostic protocols are revised annually to increase system efficiency and to address stakeholder requests.

Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Patologia Veterinária/instrumentação , Animais , Itália
Vet Microbiol ; 179(1-2): 126-30, 2015 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25835470


A 10-day-old litter of five puppies of Bracco Italiano dog breed showed weakness and diarrhea and, 2 days later, four of them died. At the same time, the bitch showed high hyperthermia (40 °C) and endometritis. The necropsy of a puppy revealed a severe lobar pneumonia accompanied with a bilateral nephrosis. No gross lesions were detected in other organs. Histopathology of the lung revealed severe multifocal fibrino-suppurative necrotizing bronchiolar-alveolitis associated with rod-shaped bacterial aggregates and diffuse interstitial lymphocytic infiltration. The kidney showed severe multifocal necrosis of the tubular epithelium and diffuse severe congestion of the parenchyma. A pure culture of hemolytic Escherichia coli carrying the Cnf-1 gene was identified, from both the puppy organs and bitch's milk. Moreover, phylo-typing assigned them to the phylogroup B2. Two weeks later, fecal samples from the bitch and the survived puppy were collected for a second microbiological analysis, identifying two hemolytic E. coli strains, Cnf positive and Cdt negative and Cnf and Cdt negative, respectively. Some E. coli pathogenic strains may cause enteric or extraintestinal disease. In dogs and cats, strains of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) produce specific virulent factors such as hemolysis and cytotoxin necrotizing factors (Cnf). In this episode, we hypothesize that the bitch's milk could be the main source of ExPEC infection causing high puppies mortality. The role of the bitch as a carrier could not be excluded: stressful conditions, such as pregnancy and delivery, would change the host-pathogen dynamics possibly increasing the release of the infectious burden.

Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Doenças do Cão/mortalidade , Cães , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/mortalidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/patologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Fenótipo , Filogenia
Vet Parasitol ; 178(3-4): 370-3, 2011 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21296503


Trichinella pseudospiralis is a non-encapsulated species infecting both mammals and birds. In Italy, this parasite was reported only in two night-birds of prey of Central Italy. In January 2010, Trichinella larvae were detected in three wild boars (Sus scrofa) of two regions of Northern Italy by enzymatic digestion. The parasites were identified as T. pseudospiralis by multiplex-PCR. The first infected wild boar was hunted in the Emilia Romagna region and the other two infected wild boars were bred outdoors in a small family farm of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region. These new epidemiological data reinforce the role of the wild boar as the main reservoir of T. pseudospiralis in Europe.

Diafragma/parasitologia , Sus scrofa , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Itália , Suínos , Triquinelose/parasitologia