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1.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(10): 2904-2911, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Low serum albumin (SA) is associated with an increased risk of long-term adverse events (AEs) among patients with chronic coronary syndromes. Its prognostic role in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is less clear. To investigate the association between low SA and in-hospital AEs in STEMI patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Multicenter retrospective cohort study of 220 STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention within 12 h from the onset of symptoms. Hypoalbuminemia was defined by serum SA <35 g/L. SA. In-hospital AEs were defined as cardiogenic shock, resuscitated cardiac arrest and death. Median SA was 38 (IQR 35.4-41.0) g/L and 37 (16.8%) patients showed hypoalbuminemia (<35 g/L) on admission. Patients with hypoalbuminemia were older, more frequently women and diabetics, prior CAD and HF. Furthermore, they showed lower hemoglobin levels and impaired renal function. At multivariable logistic regression analysis, diabetes (odds ratio [OR]:4.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71-12.28, p = 0.002) and haemoglobin (OR:0.52, 95%CI 0.37-0.72, p < 0.001) were associated with low SA. In a subgroup of 132 patients, SA inversely correlated with D-Dimer (rS -0.308, p < 0.001). Globally, twenty-eight (14.6%) AEs were recorded. Hypoalbuminemia (OR:3.43, 95%CI 1.30-9.07, p = 0.013), high-sensitive (HS)-Troponin peak above median (OR:5.41, 95%CI 1.99-14.7, p = 0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP) peak above median (OR:6.03, 95%CI 2.02-18.00, p = 0.001), and in-hospital infection (OR:3.61, 95%CI 1.21-10.80, p = 0.022) were associated with AEs. CONCLUSION: Low SA levels are associated with worse in-hospital AEs in STEMI patients, irrespective of HS-troponin and CRP plasma levels. Our findings suggest that low SA may contribute to the pro-thrombotic phenotype of these patients.


Assuntos
Hipoalbuminemia/sangue , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Albumina Sérica Humana/análise , Trombose/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipoalbuminemia/complicações , Hipoalbuminemia/diagnóstico , Hipoalbuminemia/mortalidade , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have multiple comorbidities which may affect renal function. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in COPD patients. The predictors of CKD in COPD are not well investigated. METHODS: A multicenter observational cohort study including patients affected by COPD (GOLD stages 1 and 2) was carried out. Principal endpoints were the incidence of CKD, as defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and the rapid decline of eGFR >5 mL/min/1.73 m2/year. RESULTS: We enrolled 707 outpatients. Overall, 157 (22.2%) patients had CKD at baseline. Patients with CKD were older, with higher serum uric acid (UA) levels, and lower FEV1. During a mean follow-up of 52.3 ± 30.2 months, 100 patients developed CKD, and 200 patients showed a rapid reduction of eGFR. Multivariable Cox regression analysis displayed that UA (hazard ratio (HR) 1.148, p < 0.0001) and diabetes (HR 1.050, p < 0.0001) were predictors of incident CKD. The independent predictors of rapidly declining renal function were represented by an increase of 1 mg/dL in UA (odds ratio (OR) 2.158, p < 0.0001)), an increase of 10 mL/min/1.73 m2 in baseline eGFR (OR 1.054, p < 0.0001) and the presence of diabetes (OR 1.100, p < 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that COPD patients have a significant worsening of renal function over time and that UA and diabetes were the two strongest predictors. Optimal management of these risk factors may reduce the incidence of CKD in this population thus probably improving clinical outcome.

3.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(5): 1231-1237, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) may experience venous thrombosis while data regarding arterial thrombosis are sparse. METHODS: Prospective multicenter study in 5 hospitals including 373 patients with Covid-19-related pneumonia. Demographic data, laboratory findings including coagulation tests and comorbidities were reported. During the follow-up any arterial or venous thrombotic events and death were registered. RESULTS: Among 373 patients, 75 (20%) had a thrombotic event and 75 (20%) died. Thrombotic events included 41 venous thromboembolism and 34 arterial thrombosis. Age, cardiovascular disease, intensive care unit treatment, white blood cells, D-dimer, albumin and troponin blood levels were associated with thrombotic events. In a multivariable regression logistic model, intensive care unit treatment (Odds Ratio [OR]: 6.0; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.8-12.6; p < 0.001); coronary artery disease (OR: 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-5.0; p = 0.022); and albumin levels (OR: 0.49; 95% CI 0.28-0.87; p = 0.014) were associated with ischemic events. Age, sex, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, heart failure, coronary heart disease, intensive care unit treatment, in-hospital thrombotic events, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, troponin, and albumin levels were associated with mortality. A multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that in-hospital thrombotic events (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.72; 95% CI 1.59-4.65; p < 0.001), age (HR: 1.035; 95% CI 1.014-1.057; p = 0.001), and albumin (HR: 0.447; 95% CI 0.277-0.723; p = 0.001) predicted morality. CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 patients experience an equipollent rate of venous and arterial thrombotic events, that are associated with poor survival. Early identification and appropriate treatment of Covid-19 patients at risk of thrombosis may improve prognosis.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Mortalidade/tendências , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281247

RESUMO

Background: Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) lower LDL-cholesterol and slow atherosclerosis preventing cardiovascular events. While it is known that circulating PCSK9 enhances platelet activation (PA) and that PCSK9i reduce it, the underlying mechanism is not still clarified. Methods: In a multicenter before-after study in 80 heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) patients on treatment with maximum tolerated statin dose ± ezetimibe, PA, soluble-NOX2-derived peptide (sNOX2-dp), and oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL) were measured before and after six months of PCSK9i treatment. In vitro study investigates the effects of plasma from HeFH patients before and after PCK9i on PA in washed platelets (wPLTs) from healthy subjects. Results: Compared to baseline, PCSK9i reduced the serum levels of LDL-c, ox-LDL, Thromboxane (Tx) B2, sNOX2-dp, and PCSK9 (p < 0.001). The decrease of TxB2 correlates with that of ox-LDL, while ox-LDL reduction correlated with PCSK9 and sNOX2-dp delta. In vitro study demonstrated that wPLTs resuspended in plasma from HeFH after PCSK9i treatment induced lower PA and sNOX2-dp release than those obtained using plasma before PCSK9i treatment. This reduction was vanished by adding ox-LDL. ox-LDL-induced PA was blunted by CD36, LOX1, and NOX2 inhibition. Conclusions: PCSK9i treatment reduces PA modulating NOX2 activity and in turn ox-LDL formation in HeFH patients.


Assuntos
Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , LDL-Colesterol/análise , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Itália , Lipoproteínas LDL/análise , Lipoproteínas LDL/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NADPH Oxidase 2/análise , NADPH Oxidase 2/sangue , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética
6.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(6): e00348, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092777

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with community-acquired pneumonia display enhanced levels of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) compared with controls, suggesting that low-grade endotoxemia may be implicated in vascular disturbances. It is unknown whether this occurs in patients with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) and its impact on thrombotic complications. METHODS: We measured serum levels of zonulin, a marker of gut permeability, LPS, and D-dimer in 81 patients with COVID-19 and 81 healthy subjects; the occurrence of thrombotic events in COVID-19 during the intrahospital stay was registered. RESULTS: Serum LPS and zonulin were higher in patients with COVID-19 than in control subjects and, in COVID-19, significantly correlated (R = 0.513; P < 0.001). Among the 81 patients with COVID-19, 11 (14%) experienced thrombotic events in the arterial (n = 5) and venous circulation (n = 6) during a median follow-up of 18 days (interquartile range 11-27 days). A logistic regression analysis showed that LPS (P = 0.024) and D-dimer (P = 0.041) independently predicted thrombotic events. DISCUSSION: The study reports that low-grade endotoxemia is detectable in patients with COVID-19 and is associated with thrombotic events. The coexistence of low-grade endotoxemia with enhanced levels of zonulin may suggest enhanced gut permeability as an underlying mechanism.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Endotoxemia , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Trombose , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Correlação de Dados , Endotoxemia/diagnóstico , Endotoxemia/metabolismo , Endotoxemia/virologia , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/virologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Permeabilidade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/etiologia
7.
Thorax ; 76(6): 618-620, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157671

RESUMO

Tobacco habit still represents the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Heat-not-burn cigarettes (HNBCs) are considered as an alternative to traditional combustion cigarettes (TCCs) due to the lack of combustion and the absence of combustion-related specific toxicants. The aim of this observational study was to assess the effect of HNBC on endothelial function, oxidative stress and platelet activation in chronic adult TCC smokers and HNBC users. The results showed that both HNBC and TCC display an adverse phenotype in terms of endothelial function, oxidative stress and platelet activation. Future randomised studies are strongly warranted to confirm these data.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Temperatura Alta , Estresse Oxidativo , Ativação Plaquetária/fisiologia , Fumar/metabolismo , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Vaping , Idoso , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/fisiopatologia
8.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Corticosteroids are often prescribed to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients, but the relationship with major cardiovascular events (MACEs) is unclear. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: 541 CAP patients were recruited (334 males, mean age 71.9 ± 16.2 years). High-sensitivity troponin T (hs-cTnT) was measured at admission, during the hospital stay and at discharge. MACE occurrence was registered during a long-term follow-up. KEY RESULTS: Overall, 318 patients (59%) showed hs-cTnT elevation >99th percentile (>0.014 µg/L). Age, heart failure and the increasing quintiles of hs-cTnT (hazard ratio [HR] 2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.82-2.58, P < .001) predicted MACEs. Among patients with hs-cTnT >0.014 µg/L at admission, 102 patients (31%) were on corticosteroids and showed lower hs-cTnT increase (P = .021), (NADPH) oxidase-2 (Nox2) activation (P = .005) and incidence of MACEs than untreated ones (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.41-0.97, P = .038); no effect of corticosteroids on MACEs was observed in CAP patients with normal troponin. In vitro study showed that glucocorticoids have an antioxidant effect via downregulation of Nox2 activity. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: The study provides evidence that corticosteroid use is associated with lower increase of hs-cTnT and incidence of MACEs in CAP patients.

9.
Platelets ; : 1-9, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097572

RESUMO

Platelets may be a target of bacteria and viruses, which can directly or indirectly activate them so promoting thrombosis. In accordance with this, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is complicated by ischemia-related vascular disease (myocardial infarction and stroke) in roughly 10% of patients while the incidence of venous thrombosis is uncertain. In CAP platelet biosynthesis of TxA2 is augmented and associated with myocardial infarction; however, a cause-effect relationship is still unclear as unclear is if platelet activation promotes thrombosis or functional changes of coronary tree such vasospasm. Retrospective studies suggested a potential role of aspirin in reducing mortality but the impact on vascular disease is still unknown. Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is complicated by thrombosis in roughly 20% of patients with an almost equivalent localization in arterial and venous circulation. Platelet activation seems to have a pivot role in the thrombotic process in Covid-19 as consistently evidenced by its involvement in promoting Tissue Factor up-regulation via leucocyte interaction. Until now, antiplatelet treatment has been scarcely considered for the treatment of Covid-19; interventional trials, however, are in progress to explore this issue. The aim of this review is 1) to compare the type of vascular diseases complicating CAP and Covid-19 2) to assess the different role of platelets in both diseases and 3) to discuss if antiplatelet treatment is potentially useful to improve clinical outcomes.

10.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 66: 28-36, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915139

RESUMO

Cancer patients are at an increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF) and thrombosis. However, the management of anticoagulation in patients with both diseases may be challenging, and data on these patients are lacking. We summarize the current evidence on the incidence and prevalence of cancer in AF and vice versa and provide some practical considerations on the management of oral anticoagulation in specific clinical situations. Low-molecular weight heparins are not approved for thromboprophylaxis in AF, and management of warfarin can be difficult. The use of direct oral anticoagulants may be particularly attractive for their rapid onset/offset action and lower bleeding risk.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 168: 1-5, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775771

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with oxidative stress but the underlying mechanisms promoting oxidative stress as well as its relationship with cardiovascular events is still unclear. In 375 T2DM patients who were followed-up for approximately 5 years we measured the serum levels of soluble NOX2-derived peptide (sNOX2-dp), a marker of Nox2 activation, and albumin, a powerful antioxidant protein. In the entire cohort soluble Nox2 and serum albumin were significantly correlated (r = -0.348, P < 0.0001). During the follow-up 49 cardiovascular events (CVE) were registered, of which 45 were non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI); patients with non-fatal MI had significantly higher soluble NOX2/albumin ratio compared to cardiovascular events-free patients. Cox regression analysis showed a significant association between sNox2-dp/serum albumin ratio and the incidental risk of non-fatal MI (HR 1.106, CI95% 1.020-1.198, P = 0.014). The study suggests that redox status imbalance negatively influences vascular outcomes in T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoalbuminemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana , NADPH Oxidase 2/genética , NADPH Oxidase 2/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Regulação para Cima
12.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713286

RESUMO

Whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events (CVEs) independently from metabolic syndrome (MetS) is still matter of debate. Aim of the study was to investigate the risk of CVEs in a high-risk population of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) according to the presence of MetS and NAFLD. Prospective observational multicenter study including 1,735 patients with non-valvular AF treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). NAFLD was defined by a fatty liver index ≥ 60. We categorized patients in 4 groups: 0 = neither MetS or NAFLD (38.6%), 1 = NAFLD alone (12.4%), 2 = MetS alone (19.3%), 3 = both MetS and NAFLD (29.7%). Primary endpoint was a composite of CVEs. Mean age was 75.4 ± 9.4 years, and 41.4% of patients were women. During a mean follow-up of 34.1 ± 22.8 months (4,926.8 patient-years), 155 CVEs were recorded (incidence rate of 3.1%/year): 55 occurred in Group 0 (2.92%/year), 12 in Group 1 (2.17%/year), 45 in Group 2 (4.58%/year) and 43 in Group 3 (2.85%/year). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that use of DOACs, and female sex were inversely associated with CVEs, whilst age, heart failure, previous cardiac and cerebrovascular events, and group 2 (Group 2, Hazard Ratio 1.517, 95% Confidence Interval, 1.010-2.280) were directly associated with CVEs. In patients with AF, MetS increases the risk of CVEs. Patients with NAFLD alone have lower cardiovascular risk but may experience higher liver-related complications.

13.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(2 Suppl 1): e3-e27, 2021 02.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576351

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in elderly people. Older patients with AF have several comorbidities and should be treated with complex therapeutic schemes. Arrhythmia complications are also common at an advanced age. Accordingly, AF can be considered a marker of frailty. Few indications can be found concerning the management of frail older subjects in current guidelines. The Frailty in Atrial Fibrillation Survey Study (FAST) was designed to overcome the gap of knowledge about this extremely vulnerable subset of patients. A multidisciplinary team composed by cardiologists, geriatricians and internists participated in the project. In a first phase, a survey was conducted aiming at clarifying specialty-related differences in definition and oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) management of frail individuals. In the second phase, specific chapters were prepared about AF and frailty epidemiology, the network for the management of the arrhythmia, the diagnostic strategies for AF (including a minimum data set of tools derived from the geriatric multidimensional assessment), OAT and the choice between a rate or a rhythm control strategy. For each chapter, up-to-date evidence and current guideline recommendations were presented and discussed among the 47 Italian centers participating in the project. In the last phase of FAST, the results of the survey and the final draft of the chapters were merged into the present document. A lack of homogeneity in frailty definition existed. The integration among cardiologists, geriatricians and internists can represent the most effective tool to get through these differences improving the management of frail older patients.

14.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(6): e13508, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gaps of knowledge still exist about the potential association between severe thrombocytopenia and increased risk of procedure-associated bleeding in patients with liver disease. METHODS: In this narrative review, we aimed at examining the association between procedure-related bleeding risk and platelet count in patients with cirrhosis and severe thrombocytopenia in various settings. We updated to 2020 a previously conducted literature search using MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE. The search string included clinical studies, adult patients with chronic liver disease and thrombocytopenia undergoing invasive procedures, any interventions and comparators, and haemorrhagic events of any severity as outcome. RESULTS: The literature search identified 1276 unique publications, and 15 studies met the inclusion criteria and were analysed together with those identified by the previous search. Most of the new studies included in our analysis did not assess the association between post-procedural bleeding risk and platelet count alone in patients with chronic liver disease. Furthermore, some results could have been biased by prophylactic platelet transfusions. A few studies found that severe thrombocytopenia may be predictive of bleeding following percutaneous liver biopsy, dental extractions, percutaneous ablation of liver tumours and endoscopic polypectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Currently available literature cannot support definitive conclusions about the appropriate target platelet counts to improve the risk of bleeding in cirrhotic patients who underwent invasive procedures; moreover, it showed enormous variability in the use of prophylactic platelet transfusions.

16.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(5): e14064, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) reduce thromboembolism in patients with mechanical prosthetic heart valves (MPHV). It is unclear whether a sex-based difference in MPHV patients regarding valve site, anticoagulation quality, and mortality risk does exist. METHODS: We analysed 2111 MPHV patients from the nationwide PLECTRUM study promoted by the Italian Federation of Anticoagulation Clinics (FCSA). We analysed the site of MPHV, anticoagulation quality, as assessed by the time in therapeutic range (TiTR), and mortality risk in women and men. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 56.8 ± 12.3 years. Women were older with a lower prevalence of ischemic heart disease and smoking habit and a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation at baseline. Aortic MPHV was more frequent in men (74.7% vs 43.3%, P < .001), whereas mitral (41.1% vs 17.6%, P < .001) and mitro-aortic (15.6% vs 7.7%, P < .001) MPVH in women. The association between female sex and mitral/mitro-aortic site remained at multivariable logistic regression analysis (Odds Ratio 3.623, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.947-4.455, P < .001). Regarding anticoagulation quality, women showed lower mean TiTR (63.0 ± 19.4 vs 57.5 ± 19.2, P < .001), and a higher proportion of TiTR < 60% (54.9% vs 43.3%, P < .001). During a mean follow-up of 123 months (21 665 pt-years), 152 deaths occurred (0.7%/year); 83 in the aortic (0.63%/year) and 69 in the mitral/mitro-aortic (0.81%/year) group. At multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, female sex was not associated with mortality (HR 0.953, 95%CI 0.678 1.340, P = .783). CONCLUSIONS: Female sex is independently associated with mitral/mitro-aortic MPHV. Despite a lower TiTR in women, mortality risk did not differ between the two groups.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Feminino , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Valvas Cardíacas , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
17.
HIV Med ; 22(6): 434-444, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426758

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess whether gut-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could affect platelet function in HIV-1 patients with residual viral load. METHODS: In 23 HIV-1 patients on effective antiretroviral treatment, 10 treatment-naïve HIV-1 subjects and 20 healthy subjects (HS), LPS, zonulin, markers of platelet activation and oxidative stress were evaluated. In vitro, platelets from HS were exposed to plasma from HIV-1-infected treated and untreated patients. RESULTS: Compared with HS, LPS was higher in treated and treatment-naïve subjects with HIV-1 (7.7 ± 2.9, 80.9 ± 13.7 and 75.3 ± 22.6 pg/mL, P < 0.001 vs. HS) as well as serum zonulin (1.3 ± 0.5, 6.1 ± 1.5 and 5.3 ± 1.7 ng/mL, P < 0.001 vs. HS). LPS and zonulin were correlated in HIV patients (Spearman correlation coefficient (rS) = 0.73, P < 0.0001). Levels of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) and thromboxane B2 (TxB2 ) were higher in HIV-1-treated and treatment-naïve subjects compared with HS as well as NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) activation and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) production. In vitro, sCD40L, sP-selectin and TxB2 production, NOX2 activation and p47phox phosphorylation were higher in platelets exposed to plasma from HIV-1 patients with different viral load compared with the exposure to plasma from HS. This effect was blunted in platelets pre-treated with TLR4 or TLR7 inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Low-grade endotoxaemia and persistent viraemia increase platelet function with a mechanism mediated by NOX2 in patients with HIV-1 infection.

18.
Br J Pharmacol ; 178(10): 2146-2159, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Oxidative stress and insufficient autophagy activity are associated with inflammatory processes and are common features of many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We investigated if a combination of natural activators of autophagy could modulate oxidative stress, platelet aggregation and endothelial cell survival and function in response to stress. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Ex vivo platelet aggregation and activation, H2 O2 production and autophagy were measured in platelets of subjects at high cardiovascular risk, including smokers, patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). In vitro, the effects of a mixture of natural pro-autophagy molecules and antioxidants on platelets and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were evaluated. KEY RESULT: Autophagy appeared to be inhibited, whereas aggregation was increased in platelets from AF and MetS patients and in smokers, as compared with healthy subjects. Treatment of platelets isolated from these patients with a mixture composed of trehalose, spermidine, catechin and epicatechin (Mix1) or with a mixture composed of trehalose, spermidine and nicotinamide (Mix2), significantly reduced platelet activation and oxidative stress, and increased autophagy, compared with the effect of each compound alone. Similarly, treatment of HUVECs with a combination of these compounds exhibited beneficial effects and increased endothelial cell survival, nitric oxide bioavailability and angiogenesis in response to stress in a potentiated manner. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: A combination of natural activators of autophagy could inhibit platelet activity and oxidative stress and improve endothelial cell survival and function in a potentiated manner representing a useful strategy to reduce the effect of risk factors on CVD occurrence. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed issue on Cellular metabolism and diseases. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v178.10/issuetoc.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Plaquetas , Autofagia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Ativação Plaquetária
19.
Pharmacol Res ; 165: 105418, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450384

RESUMO

Statins are effective for reducing cardiovascular disease in patients at risk or with cardiovascular disease. The benefit of statin therapy on adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) is not clear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies retrieved from MEDLINE via PubMed and Cochrane (CENTRAL) database of studies investigating the efficacy of statins in AF patients. The principal endpoint was all-cause mortality. Other endpoints were cardiovascular mortality, ischemic stroke, composite endpoints and any bleeding. We included 14 studies (2 post-hoc analysis of randomized clinical trials, 8 prospective and 4 retrospective) with 100,287 AF patients, of whom 23,228 were on statins. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality was 0.59 (95 % Confidence Interval [CI] 0.54-0.65). This association was consistent by aging, sex and prevalent cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease. and the beneficial effect was evident already after 12 months of therapy. The absolute risk reduction for all-cause mortality in patients treated with statins was 10 % (95 % CI 9-10). The pooled HR for statins against cardiovascular mortality was 0.75 (95 % CI 0.58-0.96). No association was found with other secondary endpoints. Regarding bleeding events, the pooled HR for statin use was 0.60 (95 % CI 0.48-0.76). Our meta-analysis shows that in AF patients, statin therapy was associated with a reduction in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality are reduced by 41 % and 25 %, respectively. Randomized clinical trials in AF patients are necessary, as well as clarity on AF-specific LDL cholesterol targets.

20.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 7(FI1): f11-f19, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493255

RESUMO

AIMS: To analyse the safety and efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in real-world studies including atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies including AF patients on DOACs. Primary endpoints: any, major, gastrointestinal (GI), intracranial haemorrhage (ICH), and haemorrhagic stroke (HS). Secondary endpoints: ischaemic stroke (IS), systemic embolism (SE), myocardial infarction (MI), and all-cause of death. A set of pair-wise meta-analyses using a random effect model and a random effect network meta-analysis under a Bayesian framework were performed. Prospero registration number: CRD42019137111. We included 21 studies with 605 771 AF patients. Apixaban was associated with lower major and GI bleeding compared with Rivaroxaban [hazard ratio (HR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-2.5] and Dabigatran (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.1). The latter drug performed better than Rivaroxaban (HR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.5). Dabigatran and Apixaban had a similar association with HS, but Apixaban performed better than Rivaroxaban (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0). Apixaban had a similar association with Rivaroxaban and Dabigatran for ICH, the latter drug performing better than Rivaroxaban (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7). Rankograms showed that Apixaban was likely to be the first-choice treatment in relation to any (65%) major (100%) and GI bleeding (100%) followed by Dabigatran (46%, 100%, 99%, respectively). Dabigatran and Apixaban had similar rank as first choice for ICH (44% and 55%) and HS (52% and 48%). DOACs showed similar association with IS/SE, MI, all-cause of death. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of real-world studies shows significant differences for safety among DOACs.

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