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2.
Am J Med ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is important to study the trends of e-cigarette use among various subgroups to understand which populations may be more susceptible to increased use and, therefore, are at risk for potential long-term health effects. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the 2016-2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a nationally representative U.S. telephone-based survey of adults aged 18 years or older. The 2017 dataset also includes data from participant interviews that had been conducted in the year 2018. Current e-cigarette use was defined as use of e-cigarettes every day or on some days. We analyzed data using survey weights to ensure representativeness of the data to the US population. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 936,319 individuals, of whom 28,917 were current e-cigarette users, and corresponded to 10.8 million U.S. adults. Thirty percent were aged between 18 and 34 years. Forty-nine percent were men; 63% were white, 12% black, and 17% Hispanic. The overall prevalence of current e-cigarette use increased from 4.3% in 2016 to 4.8% in 2018. E-cigarette use significantly increased among middle-aged adults (from 3.9% to 5.2%; P = .004), women (from 3.3% to 4.3%; P <.001), and former smokers (from 5.2% to 7.9%; P = .02), but decreased among current smokers (from 14.5% to 13.8%; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: In a nationally representative sample, we found important trends in e-cigarette use in a relatively short time frame. A significantly increasing prevalence of e-cigarette use was noted among middle-age adults, women, and former smokers. Our study provides important information about e-cigarette trends that can be used by clinicians when counselling patients and by regulatory agencies to develop public policies.

3.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 1-10, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32021223

RESUMO

Icosapent ethyl is a highly purified formulation of eicosapentaenoic acid, a type of omega-3 fatty acid contained in fish oil. While omega-3 fatty acids have long been thought to have cardioprotective benefits, the Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with EPA-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT) has helped to establish icosapent ethyl as an evidence-based therapy for risk reduction of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). REDUCE-IT, however, was by no means an overnight success story. Close examination of the evidence shows that the trial was a culmination of many lessons learned from previous studies. The purpose of this manuscript is to review contemporary evidence of icosapent ethyl in ASCVD risk reduction and the clinical implication of this promising therapy.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/uso terapêutico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
4.
Circulation ; 141(7): 592-599, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065772

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among women in the United States. As compared with men, women are less likely to be diagnosed appropriately, receive preventive care, or be treated aggressively for CVD. Sex differences between men and women have allowed for the identification of CVD risk factors and risk markers that are unique to women. The 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Multi-Society cholesterol guideline and 2019 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline on the primary prevention of CVD introduced the concept of risk-enhancing factors that are specific to women and are associated with an increased risk of incident atherosclerotic CVD in women. These factors, if present, would favor more intensified lifestyle interventions and consideration of initiation or intensification of statin therapy for primary prevention to mitigate the increased risk. In this primer, we highlight sex-specific CVD risk factors in women, stress the importance of eliciting a thorough obstetrical and gynecological history during cardiovascular risk assessment, and provide a framework for how to initiate appropriate preventive measures when sex-specific risk factors are present.

5.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(2): e006139, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The trend of increasing total and out-of-pocket expenditure among patients with diabetes mellitus represents a risk of financial hardship for Americans and a threat to medical and nonmedical needs. We aimed to describe the national scope and associated tradeoffs of financial hardship from medical bills among nonelderly individuals with diabetes mellitus. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used the National Health Interview Survey data from 2013 to 2017, including adults ≤64 years old with a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Among 164 696 surveyed individuals, 8967 adults ≤64 years old reported having diabetes mellitus, representing 13.1 million individuals annually across the United States. The mean age was 51.6 years (SD 10.3), and 49.1% were female. A total of 41.1% were part of families that reported having financial hardship from medical bills, with 15.6% reporting an inability to pay medical bills at all. In multivariate analyses, individuals who lacked insurance, were non-Hispanic black, had low income, or had high-comorbidity burden were at higher odds of being in families with financial hardship from medical bills. When comparing the graded categories of financial hardship, there was a stepwise increase in the prevalence of high financial distress, food insecurity, cost-related nonadherence, and foregone/delayed medical care, reaching 70.5%, 49.4%, 49.5%, and 74% among those unable to pay bills, respectively. Compared with those without diabetes mellitus, individuals with diabetes mellitus had higher odds of financial hardship from medical bills (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.27 [95% CI, 1.18-1.36]) or any of its consequences, including high financial distress (aOR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.05-1.24]), food insecurity (aOR, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.16-1.40]), cost-related medication nonadherence (aOR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.30-1.57]), and foregone/delayed medical care (aOR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.20-1.40]). CONCLUSIONS: Nonelderly patients with diabetes mellitus have a high prevalence of financial hardship from medical bills, with deleterious consequences.

6.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(8): 1158-1161, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093954

RESUMO

The 2013 American Heart Association Scientific Statement on pet ownership and cardiovascular risk suggested that dog ownership is probably associated with decreased cardiovascular risk. Several studies have been shown that pet ownership, particularly of dogs, is associated with increased physical activity levels, social support, and improved outcomes after a major cardiovascular event. We hypothesized that pet ownership is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease in the US general population. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we identified all patients with heart failure, coronary artery disease, systemic hypertension (SH), diabetes mellitus, and stroke between 1999 and 2016. Multivariable analyses were performed to adjust for demographic factors such as age, gender, marital status, education, co-morbidities, cigarette smoking, family income, working hours, sleeping duration, depression, and lipid profiles. Of 42,038 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants, 10,905 (31%) were inquired about pet ownership. Pet owners were older, less likely to be women or widowed, and more likely to be white, more educated, tobacco users, and work more than 35 hours per week than non-owners (all p values <0.05). Pet owners had higher hemoglobin, lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and a lower prevalence of DM, SH, and stroke (all p values <0.05). After adjusting for potential confounders, pet ownership (either cat or dog ownership) was independently associated with a lower prevalence of SH (odds ratio 0.67; 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 0.89; p = 0.01), but not heart failure, coronary artery disease, DM, or stroke, compared with non-owners. In conclusions, using a large national database, we found that pet ownership is associated with a decreased prevalence of SH. Further longitudinal studies are needed to draw a conclusion on the protective effect of pet ownership in patients with cardiovascular disease.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(3): e013600, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013698

RESUMO

Background Inflammation is an independent causal risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs). However, whether hsCRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) is prognostic across various levels of atherogenic lipid measures such as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in primary prevention is unknown. Methods and Results We studied 9748 ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study participants who were free of ASCVD at baseline (visit 4, 1996-1998) and had measurements of lipids, apolipoprotein B, and hsCRP. We used multivariable adjusted Cox models to estimate the risk of incident ASCVD events associated with hsCRP levels (less than/greater than or equal to median) in individuals where triple lipid measures combined (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol + non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol + apolipoprotein B) or quadruple measures combined [triple + total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol] were less than versus greater than or equal to median cut points. Mean age of participants was 62.6±5.6 years; 59% women, 22% black. There were 1574 ASCVD events over median (interquartile range) follow-up of 18.4 (12.8-19.5) years, and discordance between hsCRP and lipid measures was prevalent in 50% of the population. hsCRP greater than or equal to median (2.4 mg/L), compared with less than median, was associated with an increased risk of ASCVD in individuals with less than median levels of the triple (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.09-1.60) and quadruple (adjusted hazard ratio,1.47; 95% CI, 1.18-1.85) lipid measures. Such increased risk was consistent among individuals with low (<7.5%) or high (≥7.5%) estimated risk by the pooled cohort equation. There were no interactions by sex, diabetes mellitus, or statin use. Conclusions Our findings suggest that inflammation is independently associated with ASCVD regardless of atherogenic lipid levels and pooled cohort equation risk score in individuals without known ASCVD.

8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(1): 93-112, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918838

RESUMO

The National Cardiovascular Data Registry PINNACLE (Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence) Registry is the largest outpatient cardiovascular practice registry in the world. It tracks real-world management and quality of 4 common cardiovascular conditions: heart failure, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, and hypertension. In 2013, the PINNACLE Registry contained information on 2,898,505 patients, cared for by 4,859 providers in 431 practices. By 2017, the registry contained information on 6,040,996 patients, cared for by 8,853 providers in 724 practices. During this time period, care processes for PINNACLE patients generally improved. Among patients with heart failure, combined beta-blocker and renin-angiotensin antagonist medication rates increased from 60.7% to 72.8%. Among patients with coronary artery disease, statin medication rates increased from 66% to 80.1%. Among patients with atrial fibrillation, oral anticoagulation rates increased from 52.7% to 65.2%. In contrast, blood pressure control rates among patients with hypertension were largely stable. PINNACLE data also fueled a variety of quality measurement programs and 51 peer-reviewed publications.

9.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 18(1): 41-51, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941396

RESUMO

Introduction: The emphasis on clinical trials to inform evidence-based medicine remains paramount within the cardiovascular community. Although such high-quality evidence is often translated into national and international guidelines, there exists a large gap between guideline development and guideline implementation into daily clinical practice.Areas covered: This article outlines barriers that impede guideline adherence and possible strategies to overcome such barriers. Barriers intrinsic and extrinsic to clinicians are discussed. The structured process of guideline implementation including guideline adoption, diffusion, and dissemination is discussed. Lastly, the authors review in detail the current and potential future elements of guideline diffusion and dissemination.Expert opinion: Improving guideline adherence remains challenging as it requires understanding of and navigation through various barriers. However, further research specific to cardiovascular medicine guidelines is necessary to better understand the objective effectiveness of various strategies employed by guideline writers and medical societies to improve adherence. The cost-effectiveness of nationwide dissemination strategies in improving guideline adherence and patient outcomes is also necessary but is largely unknown.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos
10.
Circulation ; 141(9): e139-e596, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Heart Association, in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health, annually reports on the most up-to-date statistics related to heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular risk factors, including core health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, diet, and weight) and health factors (cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose control) that contribute to cardiovascular health. The Statistical Update presents the latest data on a range of major clinical heart and circulatory disease conditions (including stroke, congenital heart disease, rhythm disorders, subclinical atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, heart failure, valvular disease, venous disease, and peripheral artery disease) and the associated outcomes (including quality of care, procedures, and economic costs). METHODS: The American Heart Association, through its Statistics Committee, continuously monitors and evaluates sources of data on heart disease and stroke in the United States to provide the most current information available in the annual Statistical Update. The 2020 Statistical Update is the product of a full year's worth of effort by dedicated volunteer clinicians and scientists, committed government professionals, and American Heart Association staff members. This year's edition includes data on the monitoring and benefits of cardiovascular health in the population, metrics to assess and monitor healthy diets, an enhanced focus on social determinants of health, a focus on the global burden of cardiovascular disease, and further evidence-based approaches to changing behaviors, implementation strategies, and implications of the American Heart Association's 2020 Impact Goals. RESULTS: Each of the 26 chapters in the Statistical Update focuses on a different topic related to heart disease and stroke statistics. CONCLUSIONS: The Statistical Update represents a critical resource for the lay public, policy makers, media professionals, clinicians, healthcare administrators, researchers, health advocates, and others seeking the best available data on these factors and conditions.

11.
Am Heart J ; 221: 9-18, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statin use remains suboptimal in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We assessed if the frequency of visits with primary care providers (PCPs) is associated with higher use of evidence-based statin prescriptions and adherence among patients with ASCVD. METHODS: We identified patients with ASCVD aged ≥18 years receiving care in 130 facilities and associated community-based outpatient clinics in the entire Veterans Affairs Health Care System between October 1, 2013 and September 30, 2014. Patients were divided into frequent PCP visitors (annual PCP visits ≥ median number of PCP visits for the entire cohort) and infrequent PCP visitors (annual PCP visits < median number of patient visits). We assessed any- and high-intensity statin prescription as well as statin adherence which was defined by proportion of days covered (PDC). RESULTS: We included 1,249,061 patients with ASCVD (mean age was 71.9 years; 98.0% male). Median number of annual PCP visits was 3. Approximately 80.1% patients were on statins with 23.8% on high-intensity statins. Mean PDC was 0.715 ±â€¯0.336 with 58.3% patients with PDC ≥0.8. Frequent PCP visitors had higher frequency of statin use (82.2% vs 77.4%), high-intensity statin use (26.4% vs 20.3%), and statin adherence (mean PDC 0.73 vs 0.68; P < .01) compared to infrequent PCP visitors. After adjusting for covariates, frequent PCP visits was associated with greater odds of being on any statin, high intensity statin, and higher statin adherence. CONCLUSION: Frequent visits with PCPs is associated with a higher likelihood of any statin use, high intensity statin use, and statin adherence. Further research endeavors are needed to understand the reasons behind these associations.

12.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 22(1): 3, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927694

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review highlights selected cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention studies presented at the 2019 American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions. RECENT FINDINGS: Several important cardiovascular prevention studies were presented at the 2019 AHA Scientific Sessions. Results from the Colchicine Cardiovascular Outcomes Trial (COLCOT) showed that low-dose colchicine reduces the risk of recurrent CVD events among patients with recent myocardial infarction. A prospective analysis from the UK Biobank cohort demonstrated that the increased CVD risk associated with clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential is mitigated by a common disruptive mutation in the IL6R gene that suppresses the pro-inflammatory IL-1ß/IL-6 pathway. The Treat Stroke to Target trial demonstrated that reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to <70 mg/dL among patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack reduces the risk of recurrent CVD events as compared with a higher LDL-C target of 90-110 mg/dL. A secondary analysis focusing on American participants enrolled in the Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT) showed that these patients receive a similar benefit in terms of cardiovascular risk reduction with icosapent ethyl as compared with the entire trial population. A post hoc analysis of the Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk (FOURIER) trial demonstrated that a genetic risk score comprising 27 single-nucleotide polymorphisms is associated with cardiovascular risk among patients with established atherosclerotic CVD and patients with high genetic risk receive a relatively higher benefit from evolocumab use. Similar results were observed with alirocumab use in a post hoc analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial where a genome-wide polygenic risk score comprising 6.5 million DNA variants was used. These studies presented at 2019 AHA Scientific Sessions will help guide our approach to preventing CVD.

13.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(6): 874-879, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952841

RESUMO

Treatment guidelines recommend monitoring of lipids to assess efficacy and adherence to lipid lowering therapy. We assessed whether lipid profile monitoring is associated with intensification of cholesterol lowering therapy. Patients from the Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and at least one primary care visit between October 2013 and September 2014 were included (n = 1,061,753). Treatment intensification was defined as the initiation of a statin, an increase in the intensity or dose of statin therapy and/or the addition of ezetimibe. An association between the number of lipid panels and treatment intensification was assessed with adjusted regression models. During the study period, 87.1% of included patients had ≥1 lipid panel. Patients with ≥1 lipid panel were more likely to undergo treatment intensification compared with individuals with 0 lipid panels (9.3% vs 5.4%, respectively, p <0.001). Among individuals not on statin therapy at the index date (n = 287,636), those with ≥1 lipid panel were more likely to have a statin initiated compared those who without a lipid panel (21.5% vs 8.7%, p <0.001). On regression analysis (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval {CI}]), patients with 1 lipid panel (1.55 [1.50 to 1.59]), 2 to 3 lipid panels (1.76 [1.71 to 1.81]) and >3 lipid panels (3.02 [2.90 to 3.14]) showed greater odds of treatment intensification compared with individuals without a lipid panel. In conclusion, lipid monitoring is associated with higher rates of treatment intensification in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This has important clinical implications as higher intensity regimens with statins and in combination with select nonstatin therapies is associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes.

14.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(6): 835-839, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980142

RESUMO

The prognostic utility of coronary artery calcium (CAC) for individuals taking statins is unclear. We hypothesized that CAC remains associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events in individuals using statins at baseline or among those started on statin at follow-up. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a prospective cohort study of 6,814 participants who were enrolled between 2000 and 2002 and were free of clinical ASCVD at baseline. Four follow-up visits were conducted in 2002 to 2004, 2004 to 2006, 2005 to 2007, and 2010 to 2012. CAC was assessed at baseline and follow-up using either an electron-beam CT scanner or a multidetector CT system. Statin use at baseline and follow up was self-reported. Among 6,811 participants with complete information on statin use, mean age was 62 (SD = 10) years, 53% were women, 38% white, 12% Chinese-American, 28% African American, and 22% Hispanic. In multivariable analyses, CAC >0 was associated with a significantly higher risk of ASCVD events regardless of baseline or incident statin use. For example, hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for the association between CAC >0 and ASCVD were 2.46 (1.41, 4.28) for baseline statin users, 2.08 (1.68, 2.57) for baseline-statin nonusers, and 2.21 (1.56, 3.15) for those started on a statin at follow-up. In conclusion, current statin use does not weaken the prognostic utility of CAC. CAC is associated with incident ASCVD regardless of baseline or incident statin use.

15.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(2): 312-319, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association lipid guideline recommends statin dosing based on intensity, rather than targeting specific low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations, among general populations. The 2013 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) lipid guideline recommends statins for most adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but dose-dependent statin effects in CKD are unclear. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of US veterans with CKD Stages G3a, G3b or G4, and new, persistent statin use, from 2005 to 2015. We tested the association of intensity of statin therapy [categorized as low (expected LDL-C reduction <30%), medium (30 to <50%) or high (≥50%)] during the initial 1-year exposure period, with all-cause mortality over the subsequent 4 years. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the association between statin intensity and all-cause mortality, adjusting for demographics, comorbidities and laboratory measurements. RESULTS: Our cohort included 65 292 persons, of whom 40 124 (61.5%) had CKD G3a, 20 183 (30.9%) G3b and 4985 (7.6%) G4. Overall, 4878 (7.5%) used high-intensity, 39 070 (59.8%) used moderate-intensity and 21 344 (32.7%) used low-intensity statins. High-intensity statins were used more in recent years, and among persons diagnosed with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. There was no association between statin intensity and mortality in unadjusted or multivariable-adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant associations between statin intensity over 1 year of exposure and subsequent mortality among US veterans with CKD. This supports the current KDIGO guideline recommendations to use statins and dosages that have been studied specifically in CKD populations, rather than intensity-based dosing.

17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(12): e1917885, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851350

RESUMO

Importance: Prompt recognition of myocardial infarction symptoms is critical for timely access to lifesaving emergency cardiac care. However, patients with myocardial infarction continue to have a delayed presentation to the hospital. Objective: To understand the variation and disparities in awareness of myocardial infarction symptoms among adults in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the 2017 National Health Interview Survey among adult residents of the United States, assessing awareness of the 5 following common myocardial infarction symptoms among different sociodemographic subgroups: (1) chest pain or discomfort, (2) shortness of breath, (3) pain or discomfort in arms or shoulders, (4) feeling weak, lightheaded, or faint, and (5) jaw, neck, or back pain. The response to a perceived myocardial infarction (ie, calling emergency medical services vs other) was also assessed. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence and characteristics of individuals who were unaware of myocardial infarction symptoms and/or chose not to call emergency medical services in response to these symptoms. Results: Among 25 271 individuals (13 820 women [51.6%; 95% CI, 50.8%-52.4%]; 17 910 non-Hispanic white individuals [69.9%; 95% CI, 68.2%-71.6%]; and 21 826 individuals [82.7%; 95% CI, 81.5%-83.8%] born in the United States), 23 383 (91.8%; 95% CI, 91.0%-92.6%) considered chest pain or discomfort a symptom of myocardial infarction; 22 158 (87.0%; 95% CI, 86.1%-87.8%) considered shortness of breath a symptom; 22 064 (85.7%; 95% CI, 84.8%-86.5%) considered pain or discomfort in arm a symptom; 19 760 (77.0%; 95% CI, 76.1%-77.9%) considered feeling weak, lightheaded, or faint a symptom; and 16 567 (62.6%; 95% CI, 61.6%-63.7%) considered jaw, neck, or back pain a symptom. Overall, 14 075 adults (53.0%; 95% CI, 51.9%-54.1%) were aware of all 5 symptoms, whereas 4698 (20.3%; 95% CI, 19.4%-21.3%) were not aware of the 3 most common symptoms and 1295 (5.8%; 95% CI, 5.2%-6.4%) were not aware of any symptoms. Not being aware of any symptoms was associated with male sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05-1.44; P = .01), Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.47-2.43; P < .001), not having been born in the United States (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.47-2.33; P < .001), and having a lower education level (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.09-1.58; P = .004). Among 294 non-Hispanic black or Hispanic individuals who were not born in the United States, belonged to the low-income or lowest-income subgroup, were uninsured, and had a lower education level, 61 (17.9%; 95% CI, 13.3%-23.6%) were not aware of any symptoms. This group had 6-fold higher odds of not being aware of any symptoms (OR, 6.34; 95% CI, 3.92-10.26; P < .001) compared with individuals without these characteristics. Overall, 1130 individuals (4.5%; 95% CI, 4.0%-5.0%) chose a different response than calling emergency medical services in response to a myocardial infarction. Conclusions and Relevance: Many adults in the United States remain unaware of the symptoms of and appropriate response to a myocardial infarction. In this study, several sociodemographic subgroups were associated with a higher risk of not being aware. They may benefit the most from targeted public health initiatives.

18.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(12): 1807-1812, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668345

RESUMO

The use of prasugrel and ticagrelor as part of dual antiplatelet therapy is increasing in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Accordingly, we aimed to evaluate their prescription patterns in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence (PINNACLE) registry. We analyzed patients enrolled in NCDR PINNACLE registry from January 2013 to March 2015 who underwent PCI with drug-eluting stent and were prescribed dual antiplatelet therapy. All patients received aspirin. The primary study outcome was a 3-level variable denoting the second antiplatelet agent prescribed: (1) clopidogrel, (2) prasugrel, or (3) ticagrelor. Baseline characteristics were compared among the 3 groups. Odds ratios and 95% credible intervals were calculated from a nested hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression models to identify independent predictors of prescription of antiplatelet medications, incorporating practice and provider as random effects. Our study cohort consisted of 26,710 patients during our study period January 2013 to March 2015. Seventy nine percent of patients were prescribed clopidogrel, 12% prasugrel, and 11% ticagrelor. Patients aged ≥75 years, women, history of tobacco use, Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD), hypertension, diabetes, previous vascular complication, heart failure, and stroke/transient ischemic attack were more likely to be on clopidogrel than prasugrel or ticagrelor. The relative percentages of ticagrelor and prasugrel were higher in patients with history of myocardial infarction, compared with those without myocardial infarction. In summary, our study highlights the prescription patterns associated with prescription of antiplatelet agents after PCI. We found that both ticagrelor and prasugrel were mostly prescribed per the current practice guidelines, thus reflecting appropriate guideline adherence by practices in NCDR PINNACLE registry.

19.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 21(11): 43, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673947

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Media sources, such as the Internet, television, and social media, have become powerful communication tools that have transformed the way medical information is acquired across the world. RECENT FINDINGS: Over 40% of today's patients report that social media affects their healthcare decisions, and approximately 65% of healthcare professionals report using social media for professional activities. These enhanced communication tools have made a substantial impact on the widespread dissemination of medical information. However, as a consequence, popular media platforms have also become purveyors of medical misinformation. In this review, we propose a framework for clinicians on how to effectively and appropriately integrate medical information available via online resources including social media platforms into modern healthcare practices.

20.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 21(12): 46, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741082

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review intends to highlight selected cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention studies presented at the 2019 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress. RECENT FINDINGS: Results from the Inclisiran for Subjects with ASCVD or ASCVD-risk Equivalent and Elevated Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (ORION-11) trial validate inclisiran's ability to significantly lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in at-risk individuals on a background of maximally tolerated statin therapy. The EVOlocumab for Early Reduction of LDL-cholesterol Levels in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes (EVOPACS) trial provide additional support that a PCSK9 inhibitor can be initiated safely and effectively early after an acute coronary syndrome. A sub-study of the Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab (ODYSSEY OUTCOMES) trial provides further support for stratification of secondary prevention patients to help define the magnitude of risk reduction associated with PCSK9 inhibitor therapy. A post hoc analysis from the Aspirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial suggest that any benefits associated with aspirin utilizing a risk-based approach are overwhelmed by increased bleeding risk. In a large retrospective cohort study of patients with diabetes mellitus and obesity, the addition of metabolic (weight loss) surgery to standard care led to greater improvement in CVD outcomes, weight loss, and glycemic control. Results from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study demonstrate that while hypertension and dyslipidemia exert additive lifelong effects on CVD risk, other less established risk factors such as low education, household pollution, and poor diet also have a strong impact on CVD outcomes, especially in middle- and low-income countries. Finally, in the Heart Outcomes Prevention and Evaluation (HOPE) 4 trial, a comprehensive model of care adapted to address multiple barriers of specific communities led to substantial improved blood pressure (BP) control, medication use, and adherence. A number of studies presented at the 2019 ESC Congress reinforced the value of preventative interventions in CVD risk reduction.

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