*Phys Rev Lett ; 128(17): 176404, 2022 Apr 29.*

##### RESUMO

We consider a family of twisted graphene multilayers consisting of n-untwisted chirally stacked layers, e.g., AB, ABC, etc, with a single twist on top of m-untwisted chirally stacked layers. Upon neglecting both trigonal warping terms for the untwisted layers and the same sublattice hopping between all layers, the resulting models generalize several remarkable features of the chiral model of twisted bilayer graphene (CTBG). In particular, they exhibit a set of magic angles which are identical to those of CTBG at which a pair of bands (i) are perfectly flat, (ii) have Chern numbers in the sublattice basis given by ±(n,-m) or ±(n+m-1,-1) depending on the stacking chirality, and (iii) satisfy the trace condition, saturating an inequality between the quantum metric and the Berry curvature, and thus realizing ideal quantum geometry. These are the first higher Chern bands that satisfy (iii) beyond fine-tuned models or combinations of Landau levels. We show that ideal quantum geometry is directly related to the construction of fractional quantum Hall model wave functions. We provide explicit analytic expressions for the flatband wave functions at the magic angle in terms of the CTBG wave functions. We also show that the Berry curvature distribution in these models can be continuously tuned while maintaining perfect quantum geometry. Similar to the study of fractional Chern insulators in ideal C=1 bands, these models pave the way for investigating exotic topological phases in higher Chern bands for which no Landau level analog is available.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(16): e2118482119, 2022 Apr 19.*

##### RESUMO

SignificanceWhen two sheets of graphene are twisted to the magic angle of 1.1∘, the resulting flat moiré bands can host exotic correlated electronic states such as superconductivity and ferromagnetism. Here, we show transport properties of a twisted bilayer graphene device at 1.38∘, far enough above the magic angle that we do not expect exotic correlated states. Instead, we see several unusual behaviors in the device's resistivity upon tuning both charge carrier density and perpendicular magnetic field. We can reproduce these behaviors with a surprisingly simple model based on Hofstadter's butterfly. These results shed light on the underlying properties of twisted bilayer graphene.

*Nature ; 600(7889): 439-443, 2021 12.*

##### RESUMO

Fractional Chern insulators (FCIs) are lattice analogues of fractional quantum Hall states that may provide a new avenue towards manipulating non-Abelian excitations. Early theoretical studies1-7 have predicted their existence in systems with flat Chern bands and highlighted the critical role of a particular quantum geometry. However, FCI states have been observed only in Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene (BLG) aligned with hexagonal boron nitride (hBN)8, in which a very large magnetic field is responsible for the existence of the Chern bands, precluding the realization of FCIs at zero field. By contrast, magic-angle twisted BLG9-12 supports flat Chern bands at zero magnetic field13-17, and therefore offers a promising route towards stabilizing zero-field FCIs. Here we report the observation of eight FCI states at low magnetic field in magic-angle twisted BLG enabled by high-resolution local compressibility measurements. The first of these states emerge at 5 T, and their appearance is accompanied by the simultaneous disappearance of nearby topologically trivial charge density wave states. We demonstrate that, unlike the case of the BLG/hBN platform, the principal role of the weak magnetic field is merely to redistribute the Berry curvature of the native Chern bands and thereby realize a quantum geometry favourable for the emergence of FCIs. Our findings strongly suggest that FCIs may be realized at zero magnetic field and pave the way for the exploration and manipulation of anyonic excitations in flat moiré Chern bands.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 127(24): 247701, 2021 Dec 10.*

##### RESUMO

We propose a moiré bilayer as a platform where exotic quantum phases can be stabilized and electrically detected. Moiré bilayers consist of two separate moiré superlattice layers coupled through the interlayer Coulomb repulsion. In the small distance limit, an SU(4) spin can be formed by combining layer pseudospin and the real spin. As a concrete example, we study an SU(4) spin model on triangular lattice in the fundamental representation. By tuning a three-site ring exchange term Kâ¼(t^{3}/U^{2}), we find the SU(4) symmetric crystallized phase and an SU(4)_{1} chiral spin liquid at the balanced filling. We also predict two different exciton supersolid phases with interlayer coherence at imbalanced filling under displacement field. Especially, the system can simulate an SU(2) Bose-Einstein condensation by injecting interlayer excitons into the magnetically ordered Mott insulator at the layer polarized limit. Smoking gun evidences of these phases can be obtained by measuring the pseudospin transport in the counterflow channel.

*Sci Adv ; 7(19)2021 May.*

##### RESUMO

Topological solitons, a class of stable nonlinear excitations, appear in diverse domains as in the Skyrme model of nuclear forces. Here, we argue that similar excitations play an important role in a remarkable material obtained on stacking and twisting two sheets of graphene. Close to a magic twist angle, insulating behavior is observed, which gives way to superconductivity on doping. Here, we propose a unifying description of both observations. A symmetry breaking condensate leads to the ordered insulator, while topological solitons in the condensate-skyrmions-are shown to be charge 2e bosons. Condensation of skyrmions leads to a superconductor, whose physical properties we calculate. More generally, we show how topological textures can mitigate Coulomb repulsion and provide a previously unexplored route to superconductivity. Our mechanism not only clarifies why several other moiré materials do not show superconductivity but also points to unexplored platforms where robust superconductivity is anticipated.

*Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2732, 2021 May 12.*

##### RESUMO

Moiré superlattices created by the twisted stacking of two-dimensional crystals can host electronic bands with flat energy dispersion in which enhanced interactions promote correlated electron states. The twisted double bilayer graphene (TDBG), where two Bernal bilayer graphene are stacked with a twist angle, is such a moiré system with tunable flat bands. Here, we use gate-tuned scanning tunneling spectroscopy to directly demonstrate the tunability of the band structure of TDBG with an electric field and to show spectroscopic signatures of electronic correlations and topology for its flat band. Our spectroscopic experiments are in agreement with a continuum model of TDBG band structure and reveal signatures of a correlated insulator gap at partial filling of its isolated flat band. The topological properties of this flat band are probed with the application of a magnetic field, which leads to valley polarization and the splitting of Chern bands with a large effective g-factor.

*Science ; 371(6534): 1133-1138, 2021 03 12.*

##### RESUMO

Engineering moiré superlattices by twisting layers in van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures has uncovered a wide array of quantum phenomena. We constructed a vdW heterostructure that consists of three graphene layers stacked with alternating twist angles ±Î¸. At the average twist angle Î¸ ~ 1.56°, a theoretically predicted "magic angle" for the formation of flat electron bands, we observed displacement field-tunable superconductivity with a maximum critical temperature of 2.1 kelvin. By tuning the doping level and displacement field, we found that superconducting regimes occur in conjunction with flavor polarization of moiré bands and are bounded by a van Hove singularity (vHS) at high displacement fields. Our findings display inconsistencies with a weak coupling description, suggesting that the observed moiré superconductivity has an unconventional nature.

*Nature ; 583(7815): 221-225, 2020 07.*

##### RESUMO

Reducing the energy bandwidth of electrons in a lattice below the long-range Coulomb interaction energy promotes correlation effects. Moiré superlattices-which are created by stacking van der Waals heterostructures with a controlled twist angle1-3-enable the engineering of electron band structure. Exotic quantum phases can emerge in an engineered moiré flat band. The recent discovery of correlated insulator states, superconductivity and the quantum anomalous Hall effect in the flat band of magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene4-8 has sparked the exploration of correlated electron states in other moiré systems9-11. The electronic properties of van der Waals moiré superlattices can further be tuned by adjusting the interlayer coupling6 or the band structure of constituent layers9. Here, using van der Waals heterostructures of twisted double bilayer graphene (TDBG), we demonstrate a flat electron band that is tunable by perpendicular electric fields in a range of twist angles. Similarly to magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene, TDBG shows energy gaps at the half- and quarter-filled flat bands, indicating the emergence of correlated insulator states. We find that the gaps of these insulator states increase with in-plane magnetic field, suggesting a ferromagnetic order. On doping the half-filled insulator, a sudden drop in resistivity is observed with decreasing temperature. This critical behaviour is confined to a small area in the density-electric-field plane, and is attributed to a phase transition from a normal metal to a spin-polarized correlated state. The discovery of spin-polarized correlated states in electric-field-tunable TDBG provides a new route to engineering interaction-driven quantum phases.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 123(20): 206404, 2019 Nov 15.*

##### RESUMO

The hallmark of symmetry-protected topological phases is the existence of anomalous boundary states, which can only be realized with the corresponding bulk system. In this work, we show that for every Hermitian anomalous boundary mode of the ten Altland-Zirnbauer classes, a non-Hermitian counterpart can be constructed, whose long-time dynamics provides a realization of the anomalous boundary state. We prove that the non-Hermitian counterpart is characterized by a point-gap topological invariant, and furthermore, that the invariant exactly matches that of the corresponding Hermitian anomalous boundary mode. We thus establish a correspondence between the topological classifications of (d+1)-dimensional gapped Hermitian systems and d-dimensional point-gapped non-Hermitian systems. We illustrate this general result with a number of examples in different dimensions. This work provides a new perspective on point-gap topological invariants in non-Hermitian systems.

*Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5333, 2019 11 25.*

##### RESUMO

Two graphene monolayers twisted by a small magic angle exhibit nearly flat bands, leading to correlated electronic states. Here we study a related but different system with reduced symmetry - twisted double bilayer graphene (TDBG), consisting of two Bernal stacked bilayer graphenes, twisted with respect to one another. Unlike the monolayer case, we show that isolated flat bands only appear on application of a vertical displacement field. We construct a phase diagram as a function of twist angle and displacement field, incorporating interactions via a Hartree-Fock approximation. At half-filling, ferromagnetic insulators are stabilized with valley Chern number [Formula: see text]. Upon doping, ferromagnetic fluctuations are argued to lead to spin-triplet superconductivity from pairing between opposite valleys. We highlight a novel orbital effect arising from in-plane fields plays an important role in interpreting experiments. Combined with recent experimental findings, our results establish TDBG as a tunable platform to realize rare phases in conventional solids.

*Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4254, 2019 Sep 18.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum magnets provide the simplest example of strongly interacting quantum matter, yet they continue to resist a comprehensive understanding above one spatial dimension. We explore a promising framework in two dimensions, the Dirac spin liquid (DSL) - quantum electrodynamics (QED3) with 4 Dirac fermions coupled to photons. Importantly, its excitations include magnetic monopoles that drive confinement. We address previously open key questions - the symmetry actions on monopoles on square, honeycomb, triangular and kagome lattices. The stability of the DSL is enhanced on triangular and kagome lattices compared to bipartite (square and honeycomb) lattices. We obtain the universal signatures of the DSL on triangular and kagome lattices, including those of monopole excitations, as a guide to numerics and experiments on existing materials. Even when unstable, the DSL helps unify and organize the plethora of ordered phases in correlated two-dimensional materials.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 123(7): 079901, 2019 Aug 16.*

##### RESUMO

This corrects the article DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.046602.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 122(10): 106405, 2019 Mar 15.*

##### RESUMO

Twisted bilayer graphene (TBG) was recently shown to host superconductivity when tuned to special "magic angles" at which isolated and relatively flat bands appear. However, until now the origin of the magic angles and their irregular pattern have remained a mystery. Here we report on a fundamental continuum model for TBG which features not just the vanishing of the Fermi velocity, but also the perfect flattening of the entire lowest band. When parametrized in terms of αâ¼1/Î¸, the magic angles recur with a remarkable periodicity of Δα≃3/2. We show analytically that the exactly flat band wave functions can be constructed from the doubly periodic functions composed of ratios of theta functions-reminiscent of quantum Hall wave functions on the torus. We further report on the unusual robustness of the experimentally relevant first magic angle, address its properties analytically, and discuss how lattice relaxation effects help justify our model parameters.

*Sci Adv ; 5(3): eaau8725, 2019 Mar.*

##### RESUMO

Crystalline symmetries play an important role in the classification of band structures, and their richness leads to various topological crystalline phases. On the basis of our recently developed method for the efficient discovery of topological materials using symmetry indicators, we explore topological materials in five space groups ( S G s), which are diagnosed by large-order symmetry indicators (â¤8 and â¤12) and support the coexistence of several kinds of gapless boundary states in a single compound. We predict many candidate materials; some representatives include Pt3Ge ( S G 140 ), graphite ( S G 194 ), XPt3 ( S G 221 , X = Sn, Pb), Au4Ti ( S G 87 ), and Ti2Sn ( S G 194 ). As by-products, we also find that AgXF3 ( S G 140 , X = Rb, Cs) and AgAsX ( S G 194 , X = Sr, Ba) are good Dirac semimetals with clean Fermi surfaces. The proposed materials provide a good platform for studying the novel properties emerging from the interplay between different types of boundary states.

*Nature ; 566(7745): 486-489, 2019 02.*

##### RESUMO

Over the past decade, topological materials-in which the topology of electron bands in the bulk material leads to robust, unconventional surface states and electromagnetism-have attracted much attention. Although several theoretically proposed topological materials have been experimentally confirmed, extensive experimental exploration of topological properties, as well as applications in realistic devices, has been restricted by the lack of topological materials in which interference from trivial Fermi surface states is minimized. Here we apply our method of symmetry indicators to all suitable nonmagnetic compounds in all 230 possible space groups. A database search reveals thousands of candidate topological materials, of which we highlight 241 topological insulators and 142 topological crystalline insulators that have either noticeable full bandgaps or a considerable direct gap together with small trivial Fermi pockets. Furthermore, we list 692 topological semimetals that have band crossing points located near the Fermi level. These candidate materials open up the possibility of using topological materials in next-generation electronic devices.

*Science ; 362(6420): 1271-1275, 2018 12 14.*

##### RESUMO

Cuprate superconductors have long been thought of as having strong electronic correlations but negligible spin-orbit coupling. Using spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we discovered that one of the most studied cuprate superconductors, Bi2212, has a nontrivial spin texture with a spin-momentum locking that circles the Brillouin zone center and a spin-layer locking that allows states of opposite spin to be localized in different parts of the unit cell. Our findings pose challenges for the vast majority of models of cuprates, such as the Hubbard model and its variants, where spin-orbit interaction has been mostly neglected, and open the intriguing question of how the high-temperature superconducting state emerges in the presence of this nontrivial spin texture.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 121(12): 126402, 2018 Sep 21.*

##### RESUMO

Topological phases, such as Chern insulators, are defined in terms of additive indices that are stable against the addition of trivial degrees of freedom. Such topology presents an obstruction to any Wannier representation, namely, the representation of the electronic states in terms of symmetric, exponentially localized Wannier functions. Here, we address the converse question: Do obstructions to Wannier representation imply stable band topology? We answer this in the negative, pointing out that some bands can also display a distinct type of "fragile topology." Bands with fragile topology do not admit any Wannier representation by themselves, but such a representation becomes possible once certain additional trivial degrees of freedom are supplied. We construct a physical model of fragile topology on the honeycomb lattice that also helps resolve a recent puzzle in band theory. This model provides a counterexample to the assumption that splitting of an "elementary band representation" introduced in [B. Bradlyn et al., Topological quantum chemistry, Nature (London) 547, 298 (2017)] leads to bands that are individually topological. Instead, half of the split bands of our model realize a trivial band with exponentially localized symmetric Wannier functions, whereas the second half possess fragile topology. Our work highlights an important and previously overlooked connection between band structure and Wannier functions, and is expected to have far-reaching consequences given the central role played by Wannier functions in the modeling of real materials.

*Sci Adv ; 4(8): eaat8685, 2018 08.*

##### RESUMO

The properties of electrons in magnetically ordered crystals are of interest both from the viewpoint of realizing novel topological phases, such as magnetic Weyl semimetals, and from the application perspective of creating energy-efficient memories. A systematic study of symmetry and topology in magnetic materials has been challenging given that there are 1651 magnetic space groups (MSGs). By using an efficient representation of allowed band structures, we obtain a systematic description of several basic properties of free electrons in all MSGs in three dimensions, as well as in the 528 magnetic layer groups relevant to two-dimensional magnetic materials. We compute constraints on electron fillings and band connectivity compatible with insulating behavior. In addition, by contrasting with atomic insulators, we identify band topology entailed by the symmetry transformation of bands, as determined by the MSG alone. We provide an application of our results to identifying topological semimetals arising in periodic arrangements of hedgehog-like magnetic textures.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(30): E6987-E6995, 2018 07 24.*

##### RESUMO

We study a model of fermions on the square lattice at half-filling coupled to an Ising gauge theory that was recently shown in Monte Carlo simulations to exhibit [Formula: see text] topological order and massless Dirac fermion excitations. On tuning parameters, a confining phase with broken symmetry (an antiferromagnet in one choice of Hamiltonian) was also established, and the transition between these phases was found to be continuous, with coincident onset of symmetry breaking and confinement. While the confinement transition in pure gauge theories is well-understood in terms of condensing magnetic flux excitations, the same transition in the presence of gapless fermions is a challenging problem owing to the statistical interactions between fermions and the condensing flux excitations. The conventional scenario then proceeds via a two-step transition, involving a symmetry-breaking transition leading to gapped fermions followed by confinement. In contrast, here, using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we provide further evidence for a direct, continuous transition and also find numerical evidence for an enlarged [Formula: see text] symmetry rotating between antiferromagnetism and valence bond solid orders proximate to criticality. Guided by our numerical finding, we develop a field theory description of the direct transition involving an emergent nonabelian [[Formula: see text]] gauge theory and a matrix Higgs field. We contrast our results with the conventional Gross-Neveu-Yukawa transition.

*Nat Commun ; 8(1): 931, 2017 10 10.*

##### RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this article.