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1.
J Virol Methods ; 291: 114086, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577957

RESUMO

The worldwide demand for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing resulted in a shortage of diagnostic kits. RNA extraction step constitutes a major bottleneck to perform diagnostic. The aim of this study was to assess performances of different extraction-free SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assays compared to a reference RT-PCR assay. The panel of evaluation consisted of 94 samples: 69 positive and 25 negative for SARS-CoV-2 by reference RT-PCR. Three extraction-free RT-PCR assays were assessed: (i) PrimeDirect® Probe RT-qPCR Mix (Takara), (ii) PrimeScript®RT-PCR (Takara), and (iii) SARS-CoV-2 SANSURE®BIOTECH Novel Coronavirus (Sansure). The overall sensitivity of PrimeDirect, PrimeScript and Sansure assays was 55.1 %, 69.6 % and 69.6 %, respectively. The sensitivity increased among samples with Ct<30: 91.9 % (n = 34/37), 89.2 % (n = 33/37) and 94.6 % (n = 35/37) for PrimeDirect, PrimeScript and Sansure assays, respectively. The specificity was 88 %, 100 % and 100 % for PrimeDirect, PrimeScript and Sansure assays, respectively. In the present study, we showed a good sensitivity of extraction-free PCR assays, especially for high viral loads (Ct<30), except PrimeDirect that displayed imperfect sensitivity and specificity. Despite a lower sensitivity for low viral loads, extraction-free reagents can provide a valuable option, cheaper, easier and less reagent consuming for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic, especially in laboratory with lower experience and equipment for molecular assays.

2.
Nat Immunol ; 22(3): 322-335, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531712

RESUMO

Immune system dysfunction is paramount in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and fatality rate. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells involved in mucosal immunity and protection against viral infections. Here, we studied the immune cell landscape, with emphasis on MAIT cells, in cohorts totaling 208 patients with various stages of disease. MAIT cell frequency is strongly reduced in blood. They display a strong activated and cytotoxic phenotype that is more pronounced in lungs. Blood MAIT cell alterations positively correlate with the activation of other innate cells, proinflammatory cytokines, notably interleukin (IL)-18, and with the severity and mortality of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. We also identified a monocyte/macrophage interferon (IFN)-α-IL-18 cytokine shift and the ability of infected macrophages to induce the cytotoxicity of MAIT cells in an MR1-dependent manner. Together, our results suggest that altered MAIT cell functions due to IFN-α-IL-18 imbalance contribute to disease severity, and their therapeutic manipulation may prevent deleterious inflammation in COVID-19 aggravation.

3.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556961

RESUMO

Guidelines for stopping COVID-19 patient isolation are mainly symptom-based, with isolation for 10 to 20 days depending on their condition. Here, we describe three deeply immunocompromised patients, each with different clinical evolutions. Asymptomatic carriage, symptom resolution, or superinfection with a second SARS-CoV-2 strain were observed, all leading to prolonged infectious viral shedding several months. We followed the patients epidemiological, clinical, serological data, infectiousness using viral culture and viral mutations accumulated over time. Understanding underlying mechanisms and frequency of prolonged infectiousness is crucial to adapt current guidelines and strengthen the use of systematic PCR testing before stopping isolation in immunocompromised populations.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(8)2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536313

RESUMO

The characterization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral kinetics in hospitalized patients and its association with mortality is unknown. We analyzed death and nasopharyngeal viral kinetics in 655 hospitalized patients from the prospective French COVID cohort. The model predicted a median peak viral load that coincided with symptom onset. Patients with age ≥65 y had a smaller loss rate of infected cells, leading to a delayed median time to viral clearance occurring 16 d after symptom onset as compared to 13 d in younger patients (P < 10-4). In multivariate analysis, the risk factors associated with mortality were age ≥65 y, male gender, and presence of chronic pulmonary disease (hazard ratio [HR] > 2.0). Using a joint model, viral dynamics after hospital admission was an independent predictor of mortality (HR = 1.31, P < 10-3). Finally, we used our model to simulate the effects of effective pharmacological interventions on time to viral clearance and mortality. A treatment able to reduce viral production by 90% upon hospital admission would shorten the time to viral clearance by 2.0 and 2.9 d in patients of age <65 y and ≥65 y, respectively. Assuming that the association between viral dynamics and mortality would remain similar to that observed in our population, this could translate into a reduction of mortality from 19 to 14% in patients of age ≥65 y with risk factors. Our results show that viral dynamics is associated with mortality in hospitalized patients. Strategies aiming to reduce viral load could have an effect on mortality rate in this population.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Modelos Teóricos , Nasofaringe/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , Carga Viral , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , /epidemiologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/genética , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243261, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid identification of patients with high suspicion of COVID-19 will become a challenge with the co-circulation of multiple respiratory viruses (RVs). We have identified clinical or biological characteristics to help distinguish SARS-CoV-2 from other RVs. METHODS: We used a prospective cohort including all consecutive patients admitted through the emergency department's (ED) and presenting respiratory symptoms from November 2019 to April 2020. Patients were tested for RV using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) and SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR. RESULTS: 203/508 patients were positive for an RV during the non-SARS-CoV-2 epidemic period (November to February), and 268/596 patients were SARS-CoV-2 positive during the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic (March to April). Younger age, male gender, fever, absence of expectoration and absence of chronic lung disease were statistically associated with SARS-CoV-2 detection. Combining these variables allowed for the distinguishing of SARS-CoV-2 infections with 83, 65, 75 and 76% sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV, respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients' characteristics associated with a positive PCR are common between SARS-CoV-2 and other RVs, but a simple discrimination of strong SARS-CoV-2 suspicion with a limited set of clinical features seems possible. Such scoring could be useful but has to be prospectively evaluated and will not eliminate the need for rapid PCR assays.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Molecular assays on nasopharyngeal swabs remain the cornerstone of COVID-19 diagnostic. The high technicalities of nasopharyngeal sampling and molecular assays, as well as scarce resources of reagents, limit our testing capabilities. Several strategies failed, to date, to fully alleviate this testing process (e.g. saliva sampling or antigen testing on nasopharyngeal samples). We assessed the clinical performances of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen (N-antigen) ELISA detection in serum or plasma using the COVID-19 Quantigene® (AAZ, France) assay. METHODS: Performances were determined on 63 sera from 63 non-COVID patients and 227 serum samples (165 patients) from the French COVID and CoV-CONTACT cohorts with RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, including 142 serum (114 patients) obtained within 14 days after symptoms' onset. RESULTS: Specificity was 98.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 95.3 to 100). Sensitivity was 79.3% overall (180/227, 95% CI, 74.0 to 84.6) and 93.0% (132/142, 95% CI, 88.7 to 97.2) within 14 days after symptoms onset. 91 included patients had a sera and nasopharyngeal swabs collected in the same 24 hours. Among those with high nasopharyngeal viral loads, i.e. Ct value below 30 and 33, only 1/50 and 4/67 tested negative for N-antigenemia, respectively. Among those with a negative nasopharyngeal RT-PCR, 8/12 presented positive N-antigenemia; the lower respiratory tract was explored for 6 of these 8 patients, showing positive RT-PCR in 5 cases. CONCLUSION: This is the first evaluation of a commercially available serum N-antigen detection assay. It presents a robust specificity and sensitivity within the first 14 days after symptoms onset. This approach provides a valuable new option for COVID-19 diagnosis, only requiring a blood draw and easily scalable in all clinical laboratories.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243961, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for patients with severe coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) and hyper-inflammation remains debated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cohort study was designed to evaluate whether a therapeutic algorithm using steroids with or without interleukin-1 antagonist (anakinra) could prevent death/invasive ventilation. Patients with a ≥5-day evolution since symptoms onset, with hyper-inflammation (CRP≥50mg/L), requiring 3-5 L/min oxygen, received methylprednisolone alone. Patients needing ≥6 L/min received methylprednisolone + subcutaneous anakinra daily either frontline or in case clinical deterioration upon corticosteroids alone. Death rate and death or intensive care unit (ICU) invasive ventilation rate at Day 15, with Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% CIs, were determined according to logistic regression and propensity scores. A Bayesian analysis estimated the treatment effects. RESULTS: Of 108 consecutive patients, 70 patients received glucocorticoids alone. The control group comprised 63 patients receiving standard of care. In the corticosteroid±stanakinra group (n = 108), death rate was 20.4%, versus 30.2% in the controls, indicating a 30% relative decrease in death risk and a number of 10 patients to treat to avoid a death (p = 0.15). Using propensity scores a per-protocol analysis showed an OR for COVID-19-related death of 0.9 (95%CI [0.80-1.01], p = 0.067). On Bayesian analysis, the posterior probability of any mortality benefit with corticosteroids+/-anakinra was 87.5%, with a 7.8% probability of treatment-related harm. Pre-existing diabetes exacerbation occurred in 29 of 108 patients (26.9%). CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 non-ICU inpatients at the cytokine release phase, corticosteroids with or without anakinra were associated with a 30% decrease of death risk on Day 15.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , /patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(12): 1192-1200, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of the COVID-19 pandemic is hampered by long delays associated with centralised laboratory PCR testing. In hospitals, these delays lead to poor patient flow and nosocomial transmission. Rapid, accurate tests are therefore urgently needed in preparation for the next wave of the pandemic. METHODS: We did a prospective, interventional, non-randomised, controlled study of molecular point-of-care testing in patients aged 18 years or older presenting with suspected COVID-19 to the emergency department or other acute areas of Southampton General Hospital during the first wave of the pandemic in the UK. Nose and throat swab samples taken at admission from patients in the point-of-care testing group were tested with the QIAstat-Dx Respiratory SARS-CoV-2 Panel. Samples taken from patients in a contemporaneous control group were tested by laboratory PCR. The primary outcome was time to results in the full cohort. This study is registered with ISRCTN (ISRCTN14966673) and is completed. FINDINGS: Between March 20 and April 29, 2020, 517 patients were assessed for eligibility, of whom 499 were recruited to the point-of-care testing group and tested by the QIAstat-Dx Respiratory SARS-CoV-2 Panel. 555 contemporaneously identified patients were included in the control group and tested by laboratory PCR. The two groups were similar with regard to the distribution of sex, age, and ethnicity. 197 (39%) patients in the point-of-care testing group and 155 (28%) in the control group tested positive for COVID-19 (difference 11·5% [95% CI 5·8-17·2], p=0·0001). Median time to results was 1·7 h (IQR 1·6-1·9) in the point-of-care testing group and 21·3 h (16·0-27·9) in the control group (difference 19·6 h [19·0-20·3], p<0·0001). A Cox proportional hazards regression model controlling for age, sex, time of presentation, and severity of illness also showed that time to results was significantly shorter in the point-of-care testing group than in the control group (hazard ratio 4023 [95% CI 545-29 696], p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Point-of-care testing is associated with large reductions in time to results and could lead to improvements in infection control measures and patient flow compared with centralised laboratory PCR testing. FUNDING: University Hospitals Southampton NHS Foundation Trust.

9.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 610, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on SARS-CoV-2 load in lower respiratory tract (LRT) are scarce. Our objectives were to describe the viral shedding and the viral load in LRT and to determine their association with mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We conducted a binational study merging prospectively collected data from two COVID-19 reference centers in France and Switzerland. First, we described the viral shedding duration (i.e., time to negativity) in LRT samples. Second, we analyzed viral load in LRT samples. Third, we assessed the association between viral presence in LRT and mortality using mixed-effect logistic models for clustered data adjusting for the time between symptoms' onset and date of sampling. RESULTS: From March to May 2020, 267 LRT samples were performed in 90 patients from both centers. The median time to negativity was 29 (IQR 23; 34) days. Prolonged viral shedding was not associated with age, gender, cardiac comorbidities, diabetes, immunosuppression, corticosteroids use, or antiviral therapy. The LRT viral load tended to be higher in non-survivors. This difference was statistically significant after adjusting for the time interval between onset of symptoms and date of sampling (OR 3.78, 95% CI 1.13-12.64, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The viral shedding in LRT lasted almost 30 days in median in critically ill patients, and the viral load in the LRT was associated with the 6-week mortality.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , /virologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Suíça/epidemiologia , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
10.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(11)2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868327

RESUMO

Remdesivir has reported efficacy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro and in vivo Drug-drug interactions limit therapeutic options in transplant patients. Remdesivir and its metabolite GS-441524 are excreted principally in urine. In intensive care unit (ICU) settings, in which multiple-organ dysfunctions can occur rapidly, hemodialysis may be a viable option for maintaining remdesivir treatment, while improving tolerance, by removing both remdesivir's metabolite (GS-441524) and sulfobutylether ß-cyclodextrin sodium (SEBCD). Additional studies may prove informative, particularly in the evaluations of therapeutic options for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Furanos/urina , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pirróis/urina , Triazinas/urina , beta-Ciclodextrinas/urina , Monofosfato de Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Monofosfato de Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/química , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Alanina/administração & dosagem , Alanina/efeitos adversos , Alanina/química , Alanina/metabolismo , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/cirurgia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações Medicamentosas , Furanos/efeitos adversos , Furanos/química , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Transplante de Pulmão , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/cirurgia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pirróis/efeitos adversos , Pirróis/química , Diálise Renal , Transplantados , Triazinas/efeitos adversos , Triazinas/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/efeitos adversos , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química
13.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10: 123, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953200

RESUMO

Introduction: Acute respiratory failure is the main reason for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) in HIV-infected adults. There is little data about the epidemiology of respiratory viruses in this population. Methods: HIV-infected adults admitted to two intensive care units over a 6-year period for an acute respiratory failure and explored for respiratory viruses with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) were retrospectively selected. Objectives were to describe the prevalence of respiratory viruses, coinfections with non-viral pathogens, and hospital outcome. Results: A total of 123 episodes were included. An HIV infection was newly diagnosed in 9% of cases and 72% of the population were on antiretroviral therapy. Real-time mPCR tests identified at least one respiratory virus in the respiratory tract of 33 (27%) patients, but with a non-viral copathogen in two-thirds of cases. Rhinovirus was predominant, documented in 15 patients, followed by Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Viruses (both n = 6). The prevalence of respiratory virus-associated infection did not vary along with the level of the CD4 T-cell deficiency, except for Rhinovirus which was more prevalent in patients with a CD4 lymphocyte count below 200 cells/µL (n = 13 (20%) vs. n = 2 (4%), p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, respiratory virus-associated infection was not associated with a worse prognosis. Conclusions: Viruses are frequently identified in the respiratory tract of HIV-infected patients with acute respiratory failure that requires ICU admission, but with a non-viral copathogen in two-thirds of cases. Rhinovirus is the predominant viral specie; its prevalence is highest in patients with a CD4 lymphocyte count below 200 cells/µL.

14.
J Clin Virol ; 132: 104618, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919222

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the analytical performances, sensitivity and specificity, of two rapid tests (Covid- Presto® test rapid Covid-19 IgG/IgM and NG-Test® IgM-IgG COVID-19) and one automated immunoassay (Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG) for detecting anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. This study was performed with: (i) a positive panel constituted of 88 SARS-CoV-2 specimens collected from patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR, and (ii) a negative panel of 120 serum samples, all collected before November 2019, including 64 samples with a cross-reactivity panel. Sensitivity of Covid-Presto® test for IgM and IgG was 78.4% and 92.0%, respectively. Sensitivity of NG-Test® for IgM and IgG was 96.6% and 94.9%, respectively. Sensitivity of Abbott IgG assay was 96.5% showing an excellent agreement with the two rapid tests (κ = 0.947 and κ = 0.936 for NGTest ® and Covid-Presto® test, respectively). An excellent agreement was also observed between the two rapid tests (κ = 0.937). Specificity for IgM was 100% and 86.5% for Covid-Presto® test and NG-Test®, respectively. Specificity for IgG was 92.0%, 94.9% and 96.5% for Covid-Presto®, NGTest ®, and Abbott, respectively. Most of the false positive results observed with NG-Test® resulted from samples containing malarial antibodies. In conclusion, performances of these 2 rapid tests are very good and comparable to those obtained with automated immunoassay, except for IgM specificity with the NG-Test®. Thus, isolated IgM should be cautiously interpreted due to the possible false-positive reactions with this test. Finally, before their large use, the rapid tests must be reliably evaluated with adequate and large panel including early seroconversion and possible cross-reactive samples.

15.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(3)2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832526

RESUMO

There is a high prevalence of human herpesviruses in lung samples of IPF patients but this does not differ from controls, neither regarding prevalence, viral load levels nor co-infection rates. Herpesvirus saimiri DNA is not detected in any lung samples. https://bit.ly/2ZrKiDJ.

16.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess interobserver agreement and clinical significance of chest CT reporting in patients suspected of COVID-19. METHODS: From 16 to 24 March 2020, 241 consecutive patients addressed to hospital for COVID-19 suspicion had both chest CT and SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR. Eight observers (2 thoracic and 2 general senior radiologists, 2 junior radiologists, and 2 emergency physicians) retrospectively categorized each CT into one out of 4 categories (evocative, compatible for COVID-19 pneumonia, not evocative, and normal). Observer agreement for categorization between all readers and pairs of readers with similar experience was evaluated with the Kappa coefficient. The results of a consensus categorization were correlated to RT-PCR. RESULTS: Observer agreement across the 4 categories was good between all readers (κ value 0.61 95% CI 0.60-0.63) and moderate to good between pairs of readers (0.54-0.75). It was very good (κ 0.81 95% CI 0.79-0.83), fair (κ 0.32 95% CI 0.29-0.34), moderate (κ 0.56 95% CI 0.54-0.58), and moderate (0.58 95% CI 0.56-0.61) for the categories evocative, compatible, not evocative, and normal, respectively. RT-PCR was positive in 97%, 50%, 31%, and 11% of cases in the respective categories. Observer agreement was lower (p < 0.001) and RT-PCR positive cases less frequently categorized evocative in the presence of an underlying pulmonary disease (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Interobserver agreement for chest CT reporting using categorization of findings is good in patients suspected of COVID-19. Among patients considered for hospitalization in an epidemic context, CT categorized evocative is highly predictive of COVID-19, whereas the predictive value of CT decreases between the categories compatible and not evocative. KEY POINTS: • In patients suspected of COVID-19, interobserver agreement for chest CT reporting into categories is good, and very good to categorize CT "evocative." • Chest CT can participate in estimating the likelihood of COVID-19 in patients presenting to hospital during the outbreak, CT categorized "evocative" being highly predictive of the disease whereas almost a third of patients with CT "not evocative" had a positive RT-PCR in our study. • Observer agreement is lower and CTs of positive RT-PCR cases less frequently "evocative" in presence of an underlying pulmonary disease.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237214, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764788

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Every winter, emergency departments (EDs) face overcrowding with patients presenting influenza-like symptoms, and organisational issues such as single room assignment and droplet precautions to avoid hospital-acquired influenza. Our main objective was to assess the impact of PCR results and patient's severity on single room assignment. METHODS: All patients admitted to Bichat-Claude Bernard Hospital through the ED and tested for influenza by PCR (GenXpert, Cepheid) or (FilmArray, BioMérieux) on a nasopharyngeal swab were retrospectively included during three influenza seasons (2015-2018. RESULTS: Of 1,330 included patients, 278 (20.9%) had a positive PCR for influenza. The median time to obtain a PCR result was 19 hours, and 238 (18.3%) patients were assigned a single room. Among patients with positive and negative influenza PCR, 22.3% and 16.7% were assigned a single room (p = 0.03). The multivariable analysis was performed on the two first epidemic periods, excluding the third epidemic because of the concomitant use of influenza immune-chromatic test. Only level 1 of the Emergency severity index (ESI) (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-2.8; p < 0.01) was associated with single-room assignment. PCR result was not statistically associated with the decision of single room assignment (aOR, 1.4; 95%CI, 1.0-1.4; p = 0.07). CONCLUSION: A PCR positive for influenza was not significantly associated with single-room assignment. Less than one quarter of influenza patients were adequately assigned a single room, likely due to the long turnaround time of PCR result and other conflicting indications for single room-assignment. Accelerating biological diagnosis could improve single-room assignment.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenzavirus B/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenzavirus B/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
J Clin Virol ; 130: 104573, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RT-PCR testing is crucial in the diagnostic of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The use of reliable and comparable PCR assays is a cornerstone to allow use of different PCR assays depending on the local equipment. In this work, we provide a comparison of the Cobas® (Roche) and the RealStar® assay (Altona). METHODS: Assessment of the two assays was performed prospectively in three reference Parisians hospitals, using 170 clinical samples. They were tested with the Cobas® assay, selected to obtain a distribution of cycle threshold (Ct) as large as possible, and tested with the RealStar assay with three largely available extraction platforms: QIAsymphony (Qiagen), MagNAPure (Roche) and NucliSENS-easyMag (BioMérieux). RESULTS: Overall, the agreement (positive for at least one gene) was 76 %. This rate differed considerably depending on the Cobas Ct values for gene E: below 35 (n = 91), the concordance was 99 %. Regarding the positive Ct values, linear regression analysis showed a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.88 and the Deming regression line revealed a strong correlation with a slope of 1.023 and an intercept of -3.9. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the mean difference (Cobas® minus RealStar®) was + 3.3 Ct, with a SD of + 2.3 Ct. CONCLUSIONS: In this comparison, both RealStar® and Cobas® assays provided comparable qualitative results and a high correlation when both tests were positive. Discrepancies exist after 35 Ct and varied depending on the extraction system used for the RealStar® assay, probably due to a low viral load close to the detection limit of both assays.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Carga Viral , Proteínas Virais/genética
19.
J Clin Virol ; 129: 104520, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of efficient, reliable and sensitive PCR assays is a cornerstone in the race to contain the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In this work we performed an independent evaluation of the RealStar® SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR Kit Researh Use Only (Altona) for SARS-CoV-2 detection. METHODS: A comparative limit of detection (LoD) assessment was performed between RealStar® SARS-CoV-2 and the currently WHO recommended RT-PCR (WHO-PCR) workflow using a quantified clinical sample. Assessment of the RealStar® SARS-CoV-2 assay was also performed using 83 primary clinical samples in comparison with the WHO-PCR. RESULTS: The RealStar® SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated a slightly higher sensitivity than the WHO recommended assay with a limit of detection at 625 copies/mL instead of 1250 copies/mL for the WHO-PCR in our conditions. The overall percent agreement between RealStar® SARS-CoV-2 and WHO-PCR on 83 clinical samples was 97.6 % (81/83) with a sensitivity at 97.8 % (45/46) and specificity at 97.3 % (36/37). No cross reaction was encountered for the other human coronaviruses (HKU1, OC43, NL63, 229E). CONCLUSIONS: In this comparison of the RealStar® SARS-CoV-2 assay with the reference WHO assay, we observed a slightly better sensitivity of the RealStar® assay. It provides a robust option for all molecular biology laboratories, with a strong real-life LoD and is compatible with various real-time PCR platforms.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Pandemias , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 290-293, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619764

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak worldwide. Data on treatment are scare and parallels have been made between SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses. Remdesivir is a broad-spectrum antiviral with efficient in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2. Evidence of clinical improvement in patients with severe COVID-19 treated with remdesivir is controversial. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical outcomes and virological monitoring of the first five COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit of Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital, Paris, France, for severe pneumonia related to SARS-CoV-2 and treated with remdesivir. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to monitor SARS-CoV-2 in blood plasma and the lower and upper respiratory tract. Among the five patients treated, two needed mechanical ventilation and one needed high-flow cannula oxygen. A significant decrease in SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the upper respiratory tract was observed in most cases, but two patients died with active SARS-CoV-2 replication in the lower respiratory tract. Plasma samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 in only one patient. Remdesivir was interrupted before the initialy planned duration in four patients, two because of alanine aminotransferase elevations (3 to 5 normal range) and two because of renal failure requiring renal replacement. This case series of five COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care unit treatment for respiratory distress and treated with remdesivir, highlights the complexity of remdesivir use in such critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alanina/efeitos adversos , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , França , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Suspensão de Tratamento
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