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1.
Kidney Int ; 95(6): 1494-1504, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005274

RESUMO

Although genetic testing is increasingly used in clinical nephrology, a large number of patients with congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) remain undiagnosed with current gene panels. Therefore, careful curation of novel genetic findings is key to improving diagnostic yields. We recently described a novel intellectual disability syndrome caused by de novo heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the splicing factor SON. Here, we show that many of these patients, including two previously unreported, exhibit a wide array of kidney abnormalities. Detailed phenotyping of 14 patients with SON haploinsufficiency identified kidney anomalies in 8 patients, including horseshoe kidney, unilateral renal hypoplasia, and renal cysts. Recurrent urinary tract infections, electrolyte disturbances, and hypertension were also observed in some patients. SON knockdown in kidney cell lines leads to abnormal pre-mRNA splicing, resulting in decreased expression of several established CAKUT genes. Furthermore, these molecular events were observed in patient-derived cells with SON haploinsufficiency. Taken together, our data suggest that the wide spectrum of phenotypes in patients with a pathogenic SON mutation is a consequence of impaired pre-mRNA splicing of several CAKUT genes. We propose that genetic testing panels designed to diagnose children with a kidney phenotype should include the SON gene.

2.
Hum Reprod ; 34(5): 932-941, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865283

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Which genes are confidently linked to human monogenic male infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our systematic literature search and clinical validity assessment reveals that a total of 78 genes are currently confidently linked to 92 human male infertility phenotypes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The discovery of novel male infertility genes is rapidly accelerating with the availability of next-generating sequencing methods, but the quality of evidence for gene-disease relationships varies greatly. In order to improve genetic research, diagnostics and counseling, there is a need for an evidence-based overview of the currently known genes. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We performed a systematic literature search and evidence assessment for all publications in Pubmed until December 2018 covering genetic causes of male infertility and/or defective male genitourinary development. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Two independent reviewers conducted the literature search and included papers on the monogenic causes of human male infertility and excluded papers on genetic association or risk factors, karyotype anomalies and/or copy number variations affecting multiple genes. Next, the quality and the extent of all evidence supporting selected genes was weighed by a standardized scoring method and used to determine the clinical validity of each gene-disease relationship as expressed by the following six categories: no evidence, limited, moderate, strong, definitive or unable to classify. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: From a total of 23 526 records, we included 1337 publications about monogenic causes of male infertility leading to a list of 521 gene-disease relationships. The clinical validity of these gene-disease relationships varied widely and ranged from definitive (n = 38) to strong (n = 22), moderate (n = 32), limited (n = 93) or no evidence (n = 160). A total of 176 gene-disease relationships could not be classified because our scoring method was not suitable. LARGE SCALE DATA: Not applicable. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Our literature search was limited to Pubmed. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The comprehensive overview will aid researchers and clinicians in the field to establish gene lists for diagnostic screening using validated gene-disease criteria and help to identify gaps in our knowledge of male infertility. For future studies, the authors discuss the relevant and important international guidelines regarding research related to gene discovery and provide specific recommendations for the field of male infertility. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was supported by a VICI grant from The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (918-15-667 to J.A.V.), the Royal Society, and Wolfson Foundation (WM160091 to J.A.V.) as well as an investigator award in science from the Wellcome Trust (209451 to J.A.V.). PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: None.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 139-156, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595372

RESUMO

Type 2A protein phosphatases (PP2As) are highly expressed in the brain and regulate neuronal signaling by catalyzing phospho-Ser/Thr dephosphorylations in diverse substrates. PP2A holoenzymes comprise catalytic C-, scaffolding A-, and regulatory B-type subunits, which determine substrate specificity and physiological function. Interestingly, de novo mutations in genes encoding A- and B-type subunits have recently been implicated in intellectual disability (ID) and developmental delay (DD). We now report 16 individuals with mild to profound ID and DD and a de novo mutation in PPP2CA, encoding the catalytic Cα subunit. Other frequently observed features were severe language delay (71%), hypotonia (69%), epilepsy (63%), and brain abnormalities such as ventriculomegaly and a small corpus callosum (67%). Behavioral problems, including autism spectrum disorders, were reported in 47% of individuals, and three individuals had a congenital heart defect. PPP2CA de novo mutations included a partial gene deletion, a frameshift, three nonsense mutations, a single amino acid duplication, a recurrent mutation, and eight non-recurrent missense mutations. Functional studies showed complete PP2A dysfunction in four individuals with seemingly milder ID, hinting at haploinsufficiency. Ten other individuals showed mutation-specific biochemical distortions, including poor expression, altered binding to the A subunit and specific B-type subunits, and impaired phosphatase activity and C-terminal methylation. Four were suspected to have a dominant-negative mechanism, which correlated with severe ID. Two missense variants affecting the same residue largely behaved as wild-type in our functional assays. Overall, we found that pathogenic PPP2CA variants impair PP2A-B56(δ) functionality, suggesting that PP2A-related neurodevelopmental disorders constitute functionally converging ID syndromes.

5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 738-746, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679813

RESUMO

Determining pathogenicity of genomic variation identified by next-generation sequencing techniques can be supported by recurrent disruptive variants in the same gene in phenotypically similar individuals. However, interpretation of novel variants in a specific gene in individuals with mild-moderate intellectual disability (ID) without recognizable syndromic features can be challenging and reverse phenotyping is often required. We describe 24 individuals with a de novo disease-causing variant in, or partial deletion of, the F-box only protein 11 gene (FBXO11, also known as VIT1 and PRMT9). FBXO11 is part of the SCF (SKP1-cullin-F-box) complex, a multi-protein E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex catalyzing the ubiquitination of proteins destined for proteasomal degradation. Twenty-two variants were identified by next-generation sequencing, comprising 2 in-frame deletions, 11 missense variants, 1 canonical splice site variant, and 8 nonsense or frameshift variants leading to a truncated protein or degraded transcript. The remaining two variants were identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization and consisted of a partial deletion of FBXO11. All individuals had borderline to severe ID and behavioral problems (autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, aggression) were observed in most of them. The most relevant common facial features included a thin upper lip and a broad prominent space between the paramedian peaks of the upper lip. Other features were hypotonia and hyperlaxity of the joints. We show that de novo variants in FBXO11 cause a syndromic form of ID. The current series show the power of reverse phenotyping in the interpretation of novel genetic variances in individuals who initially did not appear to have a clear recognizable phenotype.

6.
Genet Med ; 21(8): 1719-1725, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568311

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The interpretation of genetic variants after genome-wide analysis is complex in heterogeneous disorders such as intellectual disability (ID). We investigate whether algorithms can be used to detect if a facial gestalt is present for three novel ID syndromes and if these techniques can help interpret variants of uncertain significance. METHODS: Facial features were extracted from photos of ID patients harboring a pathogenic variant in three novel ID genes (PACS1, PPM1D, and PHIP) using algorithms that model human facial dysmorphism, and facial recognition. The resulting features were combined into a hybrid model to compare the three cohorts against a background ID population. RESULTS: We validated our model using images from 71 individuals with Koolen-de Vries syndrome, and then show that facial gestalts are present for individuals with a pathogenic variant in PACS1 (p = 8 × 10-4), PPM1D (p = 4.65 × 10-2), and PHIP (p = 6.3 × 10-3). Moreover, two individuals with a de novo missense variant of uncertain significance in PHIP have significant similarity to the expected facial phenotype of PHIP patients (p < 1.52 × 10-2). CONCLUSION: Our results show that analysis of facial photos can be used to detect previously unknown facial gestalts for novel ID syndromes, which will facilitate both clinical and molecular diagnosis of rare and novel syndromes.

7.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291343

RESUMO

Clinical genomic sequencing can identify pathogenic variants unrelated to the initial clinical question, but of medical relevance to the patients and their families. With ongoing discussions on the utility of disclosing or searching for such variants, it is of crucial importance to obtain unbiased insight in the prevalence of these incidental or secondary findings, in order to better weigh potential risks and benefits. Previous studies have reported a broad range of secondary findings ranging from 1 to 9%, merely attributable to differences in study design, cohorts tested, sequence technology used and genes analyzed. Here, we analyzed WES data of 1640 anonymized healthy Dutch individuals to establish the frequency of medically actionable disease alleles in an outbred population of European descent. Our study shows that 1 in 38 healthy individuals (2.7%) has a (likely) pathogenic variant in one of 59 medically actionable dominant disease genes for which the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recommends disclosure. Additionally, we identified 36 individuals (2.2%) to be a carrier of a recessive pathogenic disease allele. Whereas these frequencies of secondary findings are in line with what has been reported in the East-Asian population, the pathogenic variants are differently distributed across the 59 ACMG genes. Our results contribute to the debate on genetic risk factor screening in healthy individuals and the discussion whether the potential benefits of this knowledge and related preventive options, outweigh the risk of the emotional impact of the test result and possible stigmatization.

8.
Nat Genet ; 50(11): 1615, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291356

RESUMO

In the version of this article published, the P values for the enrichment of single mutation categories were inadvertently not corrected for multiple testing. After multiple-testing correction, only two of the six mutation categories mentioned are still statistically significant. To reflect this, the text "More specifically, paternally derived DNMs are enriched in transitions in A[.]G contexts, especially ACG>ATG and ATG>ACG (Bonferroni-corrected P = 1.3 × 10-2 and P = 1 × 10-3, respectively). Additionally, we observed overrepresentation of ATA>ACA mutations (Bonferroni-corrected P = 4.28 × 10-2) for DNMs of paternal origin. Among maternally derived DNMs, CCA>CTA, GCA>GTA and TCT>TGT mutations were significantly overrepresented (Bonferroni-corrected P = 4 × 10-4, P = 5 × 10-4, P = 1 × 10-3, respectively)" should read "More specifically, CCA>CTA and GCA>GTA mutations were significantly overenriched on the maternal allele (Bonferroni-corrected P = 0.0192 and P = 0.048, respectively)." Additionally, the last sentence to the legend for Fig. 3b should read "Green boxes highlight the mutation categories that differ significantly" instead of "Green boxes highlight the mutation categories that differ more than 1% of mutation load with a bootstrapping P value <0.05." Corrected versions of Fig. 3b and Supplementary Table 25 appear with the Author Correction.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(1): 125-130, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29909962

RESUMO

Mendelian disorders of cholesterol biosynthesis typically result in multi-system clinical phenotypes, underlining the importance of cholesterol in embryogenesis and development. FDFT1 encodes for an evolutionarily conserved enzyme, squalene synthase (SS, farnesyl-pyrophosphate farnesyl-transferase 1), which catalyzes the first committed step in cholesterol biosynthesis. We report three individuals with profound developmental delay, brain abnormalities, 2-3 syndactyly of the toes, and facial dysmorphisms, resembling Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, the most common cholesterol biogenesis defect. The metabolite profile in plasma and urine suggested that their defect was at the level of squalene synthase. Whole-exome sequencing was used to identify recessive disease-causing variants in FDFT1. Functional characterization of one variant demonstrated a partial splicing defect and altered promoter and/or enhancer activity, reflecting essential mechanisms for regulating cholesterol biosynthesis/uptake in steady state.

10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2064, 2018 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29802345

RESUMO

Certain human traits such as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) and congenital anomalies (CAs) are believed to be primarily genetic in origin. However, even after whole-genome sequencing (WGS), a substantial fraction of such disorders remain unexplained. We hypothesize that some cases of ND-CA are caused by aberrant DNA methylation leading to dysregulated genome function. Comparing DNA methylation profiles from 489 individuals with ND-CAs against 1534 controls, we identify epivariations as a frequent occurrence in the human genome. De novo epivariations are significantly enriched in cases, while RNAseq analysis shows that epivariations often have an impact on gene expression comparable to loss-of-function mutations. Additionally, we detect and replicate an enrichment of rare sequence mutations overlapping CTCF binding sites close to epivariations, providing a rationale for interpreting non-coding variation. We propose that epivariations contribute to the pathogenesis of some patients with unexplained ND-CAs, and as such likely have diagnostic relevance.

11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(1): 54-63, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209020

RESUMO

Genotype-first combined with reverse phenotyping has shown to be a powerful tool in human genetics, especially in the era of next generation sequencing. This combines the identification of individuals with mutations in the same gene and linking these to consistent (endo)phenotypes to establish disease causality. We have performed a MIP (molecular inversion probe)-based targeted re-sequencing study in 3,275 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) to facilitate a genotype-first approach for 24 genes previously implicated in ID.Combining our data with data from a publicly available database, we confirmed 11 of these 24 genes to be relevant for ID. Amongst these, PHIP was shown to have an enrichment of disruptive mutations in the individuals with ID (5 out of 3,275). Through international collaboration, we identified a total of 23 individuals with PHIP mutations and elucidated the associated phenotype. Remarkably, all 23 individuals had developmental delay/ID and the majority were overweight or obese. Other features comprised behavioral problems (hyperactivity, aggression, features of autism and/or mood disorder) and dysmorphisms (full eyebrows and/or synophrys, upturned nose, large ears and tapering fingers). Interestingly, PHIP encodes two protein-isoforms, PHIP/DCAF14 and NDRP, each involved in neurodevelopmental processes, including E3 ubiquitination and neuronal differentiation. Detailed genotype-phenotype analysis points towards haploinsufficiency of PHIP/DCAF14, and not NDRP, as the underlying cause of the phenotype.Thus, we demonstrated the use of large scale re-sequencing by MIPs, followed by reverse phenotyping, as a constructive approach to verify candidate disease genes and identify novel syndromes, highlighted by PHIP haploinsufficiency causing an ID-overweight syndrome.

12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(11): 1246-1252, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28875981

RESUMO

Recognition of individuals with a genetic predisposition to gastric cancer (GC) enables preventive measures. However, the underlying cause of genetic susceptibility to gastric cancer remains largely unexplained. We performed germline whole-exome sequencing on leukocyte DNA of 54 patients from 53 families with genetically unexplained diffuse-type and intestinal-type GC to identify novel GC-predisposing candidate genes. As young age at diagnosis and familial clustering are hallmarks of genetic tumor susceptibility, we selected patients that were diagnosed below the age of 35, patients from families with two cases of GC at or below age 60 and patients from families with three GC cases at or below age 70. All included individuals were tested negative for germline CDH1 mutations before or during the study. Variants that were possibly deleterious according to in silico predictions were filtered using several independent approaches that were based on gene function and gene mutation burden in controls. Despite a rigorous search, no obvious candidate GC predisposition genes were identified. This negative result stresses the importance of future research studies in large, homogeneous cohorts.


Assuntos
Exoma , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD , Caderinas/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(3): 478-484, 2017 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28867141

RESUMO

Haploinsufficiency (HI) is the best characterized mechanism through which dominant mutations exert their effect and cause disease. Non-haploinsufficiency (NHI) mechanisms, such as gain-of-function and dominant-negative mechanisms, are often characterized by the spatial clustering of mutations, thereby affecting only particular regions or base pairs of a gene. Variants leading to haploinsufficency might occasionally cluster as well, for example in critical domains, but such clustering is on the whole less pronounced with mutations often spread throughout the gene. Here we exploit this property and develop a method to specifically identify genes with significant spatial clustering patterns of de novo mutations in large cohorts. We apply our method to a dataset of 4,061 de novo missense mutations from published exome studies of trios with intellectual disability and developmental disorders (ID/DD) and successfully identify 15 genes with clustering mutations, including 12 genes for which mutations are known to cause neurodevelopmental disorders. For 11 out of these 12, NHI mutation mechanisms have been reported. Additionally, we identify three candidate ID/DD-associated genes of which two have an established role in neuronal processes. We further observe a higher intolerance to normal genetic variation of the identified genes compared to known genes for which mutations lead to HI. Finally, 3D modeling of these mutations on their protein structures shows that 81% of the observed mutations are unlikely to affect the overall structural integrity and that they therefore most likely act through a mechanism other than HI.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Haploinsuficiência , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Conformação Proteica
14.
Hum Mutat ; 38(11): 1592-1605, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28801929

RESUMO

Microdeletions of the Y chromosome (YCMs), Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), and CFTR mutations are known genetic causes of severe male infertility, but the majority of cases remain idiopathic. Here, we describe a novel method using single molecule Molecular Inversion Probes (smMIPs), to screen infertile men for mutations and copy number variations affecting known disease genes. We designed a set of 4,525 smMIPs targeting the coding regions of causal (n = 6) and candidate (n = 101) male infertility genes. After extensive validation, we screened 1,112 idiopathic infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. In addition to five chromosome YCMs and six other sex chromosomal anomalies, we identified five patients with rare recessive mutations in CFTR as well as a patient with a rare heterozygous frameshift mutation in SYCP3 that may be of clinical relevance. This results in a genetic diagnosis in 11-17 patients (1%-1.5%), a yield that may increase significantly when more genes are confidently linked to male infertility. In conclusion, we developed a flexible and scalable method to reliably detect genetic causes of male infertility. The assay consolidates the detection of different types of genetic variation while increasing the diagnostic yield and detection precision at the same or lower price compared with currently used methods.


Assuntos
Azoospermia/diagnóstico , Azoospermia/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Oligospermia/diagnóstico , Oligospermia/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Estudos de Associação Genética/normas , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/normas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Aberrações dos Cromossomos Sexuais , Contagem de Espermatozoides
15.
Genet Med ; 19(6): 667-675, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574513

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Copy-number variation is a common source of genomic variation and an important genetic cause of disease. Microarray-based analysis of copy-number variants (CNVs) has become a first-tier diagnostic test for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders, with a diagnostic yield of 10-20%. However, for most other genetic disorders, the role of CNVs is less clear and most diagnostic genetic studies are generally limited to the study of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and other small variants. With the introduction of exome and genome sequencing, it is now possible to detect both SNVs and CNVs using an exome- or genome-wide approach with a single test. METHODS: We performed exome-based read-depth CNV screening on data from 2,603 patients affected by a range of genetic disorders for which exome sequencing was performed in a diagnostic setting. RESULTS: In total, 123 clinically relevant CNVs ranging in size from 727 bp to 15.3 Mb were detected, which resulted in 51 conclusive diagnoses and an overall increase in diagnostic yield of ~2% (ranging from 0 to -5.8% per disorder). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that CNVs play an important role in a broad range of genetic disorders and that detection via exome-based CNV profiling results in an increase in the diagnostic yield without additional testing, bringing us closer to single-test genomics.Genet Med advance online publication 27 October 2016.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Exoma , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Estudos de Coortes , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(6): 907-925, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28575647

RESUMO

Yin and yang 1 (YY1) is a well-known zinc-finger transcription factor with crucial roles in normal development and malignancy. YY1 acts both as a repressor and as an activator of gene expression. We have identified 23 individuals with de novo mutations or deletions of YY1 and phenotypic features that define a syndrome of cognitive impairment, behavioral alterations, intrauterine growth restriction, feeding problems, and various congenital malformations. Our combined clinical and molecular data define "YY1 syndrome" as a haploinsufficiency syndrome. Through immunoprecipitation of YY1-bound chromatin from affected individuals' cells with antibodies recognizing both ends of the protein, we show that YY1 deletions and missense mutations lead to a global loss of YY1 binding with a preferential retention at high-occupancy sites. Finally, we uncover a widespread loss of H3K27 acetylation in particular on the YY1-bound enhancers, underscoring a crucial role for YY1 in enhancer regulation. Collectively, these results define a clinical syndrome caused by haploinsufficiency of YY1 through dysregulation of key transcriptional regulators.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transcrição Genética , Fator de Transcrição YY1/genética , Acetilação , Adolescente , Sequência de Bases , Pré-Escolar , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Estudos de Coortes , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Haplótipos/genética , Hemizigoto , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Metilação , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Ligação Proteica/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Fator de Transcrição YY1/química
17.
Genet Med ; 19(9): 1055-1063, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28333917

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Implementation of novel genetic diagnostic tests is generally driven by technological advances because they promise shorter turnaround times and/or higher diagnostic yields. Other aspects, including impact on clinical management or cost-effectiveness, are often not assessed in detail prior to implementation. METHODS: We studied the clinical utility of whole-exome sequencing (WES) in complex pediatric neurology in terms of diagnostic yield and costs. We analyzed 150 patients (and their parents) presenting with complex neurological disorders of suspected genetic origin. In a parallel study, all patients received both the standard diagnostic workup (e.g., cerebral imaging, muscle biopsies or lumbar punctures, and sequential gene-by-gene-based testing) and WES simultaneously. RESULTS: Our unique study design allowed direct comparison of diagnostic yield of both trajectories and provided insight into the economic implications of implementing WES in this diagnostic trajectory. We showed that WES identified significantly more conclusive diagnoses (29.3%) than the standard care pathway (7.3%) without incurring higher costs. Exploratory analysis of WES as a first-tier diagnostic test indicates that WES may even be cost-saving, depending on the extent of other tests being omitted. CONCLUSION: Our data support such a use of WES in pediatric neurology for disorders of presumed genetic origin.Genet Med advance online publication 23 March 2017.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Neurologia/métodos , Neurologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pediatria/métodos , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Padrão de Cuidado/economia , Padrão de Cuidado/normas , Padrão de Cuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(4): 650-658, 2017 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28343630

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) is a highly heterogeneous disorder involving at least 600 genes, yet a genetic diagnosis remains elusive in ∼35%-40% of individuals with moderate to severe ID. Recent meta-analyses statistically analyzing de novo mutations in >7,000 individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders highlighted mutations in PPM1D as a possible cause of ID. PPM1D is a type 2C phosphatase that functions as a negative regulator of cellular stress-response pathways by mediating a feedback loop of p38-p53 signaling, thereby contributing to growth inhibition and suppression of stress-induced apoptosis. We identified 14 individuals with mild to severe ID and/or developmental delay and de novo truncating PPM1D mutations. Additionally, deep phenotyping revealed overlapping behavioral problems (ASD, ADHD, and anxiety disorders), hypotonia, broad-based gait, facial dysmorphisms, and periods of fever and vomiting. PPM1D is expressed during fetal brain development and in the adult brain. All mutations were located in the last or penultimate exon, suggesting escape from nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Both PPM1D expression analysis and cDNA sequencing in EBV LCLs of individuals support the presence of a stable truncated transcript, consistent with this hypothesis. Exposure of cells derived from individuals with PPM1D truncating mutations to ionizing radiation resulted in normal p53 activation, suggesting that p53 signaling is unaffected. However, a cell-growth disadvantage was observed, suggesting a possible effect on the stress-response pathway. Thus, we show that de novo truncating PPM1D mutations in the last and penultimate exons cause syndromic ID, which provides additional insight into the role of cell-cycle checkpoint genes in neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Éxons , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/genética , Adolescente , Ciclo Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Clin Chem ; 62(11): 1458-1464, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27630156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The substantial technological advancements in next-generation sequencing (NGS), combined with dropping costs, have allowed for a swift diffusion of NGS applications in clinical settings. Although several commercial parties report to have broken the $1000 barrier for sequencing an entire human genome, a valid cost overview for NGS is currently lacking. This study provides a complete, transparent and up-to-date overview of the total costs of different NGS applications. METHODS: Cost calculations for targeted gene panels (TGP), whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) were based on the Illumina NextSeq500, HiSeq4000, and HiSeqX5 platforms, respectively. To anticipate future developments, sensitivity analyses are performed. RESULTS: Per-sample costs were €1669 for WGS, € 792 for WES and €333 for TGP. To reach the coveted $1000 genome, not only is the long-term and efficient use of the sequencing equipment needed, but also large reductions in capital costs and especially consumable costs are also required. CONCLUSIONS: WES and TGP are considerably lower-cost alternatives to WGS. However, this does not imply that these NGS approaches should be preferred in clinical practice, since this should be based on the tradeoff between costs and the expected clinical utility of the approach chosen. The results of the present study contribute to the evaluation of such tradeoffs.


Assuntos
Custos e Análise de Custo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/economia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/tendências , Análise de Sequência de DNA/economia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/tendências , Humanos
20.
Nat Neurosci ; 19(9): 1194-6, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27479843

RESUMO

To identify candidate genes for intellectual disability, we performed a meta-analysis on 2,637 de novo mutations, identified from the exomes of 2,104 patient-parent trios. Statistical analyses identified 10 new candidate ID genes: DLG4, PPM1D, RAC1, SMAD6, SON, SOX5, SYNCRIP, TCF20, TLK2 and TRIP12. In addition, we show that these genes are intolerant to nonsynonymous variation and that mutations in these genes are associated with specific clinical ID phenotypes.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteína 4 Homóloga a Disks-Large , Exoma/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXD/genética , Proteína Smad6/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/genética
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