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1.
Mitochondrion ; 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated if Growth and Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15) can be used as a biomarker to distinguish patients with mitochondrial myopathy from patients with other myopathies. METHODS: Serum GDF-15 was measured in 28 patients with mitochondrial disease, 24 with metabolic myopathies, 27 with muscular dystrophy and 21 healthy controls. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that elevated GDF-15 can distinguish patients with mitochondrial myopathy from other myopathies, including metabolic myopathies. This suggests that increases in GDF-15 is specific to respiratory chain dysfunction rather than general metabolic dysfunction or muscle defect.

2.
Ann Neurol ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Popeye domain containing 3 (POPDC3) gene encodes a membrane protein involved in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling. Besides gastric cancer, no disease association has been described. We describe a new muscular dystrophy associated with this gene. METHODS: We screened 1,500 patients with unclassified limb girdle weakness or hyperCKemia for pathogenic POPDC3 variants. Five patients carrying POPDC3 variants were examined by muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), muscle biopsy, and cardiac examination. We performed functional analyses in a zebrafish popdc3 knockdown model and heterologous expression of the mutant proteins in Xenopus laevis oocytes to measure TREK-1 current. RESULTS: We identified homozygous POPDC3 missense variants (p.Leu155His, p.Leu217Phe, and p.Arg261Gln) in 5 patients from 3 ethnically distinct families. Variants affected highly conserved residues in the Popeye (p.Leu155 and p.Leu217) and carboxy-terminal (p.Arg261) domains. The variants were almost absent from control populations. Probands' muscle biopsies were dystrophic, and serum creatine kinase levels were 1,050 to 9,200U/l. Muscle weakness was proximal with adulthood onset in most patients and affected lower earlier than upper limbs. Muscle MRI revealed fat replacement of paraspinal and proximal leg muscles; cardiac investigations were unremarkable. Knockdown of popdc3 in zebrafish, using 2 different splice-site blocking morpholinos, resulted in larvae with tail curling and dystrophic muscle features. All 3 mutants cloned in Xenopus oocytes caused an aberrant modulation of the mechano-gated potassium channel, TREK-1. INTERPRETATION: Our findings point to an important role of POPDC3 for skeletal muscle function and suggest that pathogenic variants in POPDC3 are responsible for a novel type of autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy. ANN NEUROL 2019.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660661

RESUMO

We present eight families with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and myopathy bearing a TTN intron 213 extended splice-site variant (NM_001267550.1:c.39974-11T>G), inherited in trans with a second pathogenic TTN variant. Muscle-derived RNA studies of three individuals confirmed mis-splicing induced by the c.39974-11T>G variant; in-frame exon 214 skipping or use of a cryptic 3' splice-site effecting a frameshift. Confounding interpretation of pathogenicity is the absence of exons 213-217 within the described skeletal muscle TTN N2A isoform. However, RNA-sequencing from 365 adult human gastrocnemius samples revealed 56% specimens predominantly include exons 213-217 in TTN transcripts (inclusion rate ≥ 66%). Further, RNA-sequencing of five fetal muscle samples confirms 4/5 specimens predominantly include exons 213-217 (fifth sample inclusion rate 57%). Importantly, contractures improved significantly with age for four individuals, which may be linked to decreased expression of pathogenic fetal transcripts. Our study extends emerging evidence supporting a vital developmental role for TTN isoforms containing metatranscript-only exons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 7(1): 167, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661040

RESUMO

Glycogen storage disorder type III (GSDIII), or debranching enzyme (GDE) deficiency, is a rare metabolic disorder characterized by variable liver, cardiac, and skeletal muscle involvement. GSDIII manifests with liver symptoms in infancy and muscle involvement during early adulthood. Muscle biopsy is mainly performed in patients diagnosed in adulthood, as routine diagnosis relies on blood or liver GDE analysis, followed by AGL gene sequencing. The GSDIII mouse model recapitulate the clinical phenotype in humans, and a nearly full rescue of muscle function was observed in mice treated with the dual AAV vector expressing the GDE transgene.In order to characterize GSDIII muscle morphological spectrum and identify novel disease markers and pathways, we performed a large international multicentric morphological study on 30 muscle biopsies from GSDIII patients. Autophagy flux studies were performed in human muscle biopsies and muscles from GSDIII mice. The human muscle biopsies revealed a typical and constant vacuolar myopathy, characterized by multiple and variably sized vacuoles filled with PAS-positive material. Using electron microscopy, we confirmed the presence of large non-membrane bound sarcoplasmic deposits of normally structured glycogen as well as smaller rounded sac structures lined by a continuous double membrane containing only glycogen, corresponding to autophagosomes. A consistent SQSTM1/p62 decrease and beclin-1 increase in human muscle biopsies suggested an enhanced autophagy. Consistent with this, an increase in the lipidated form of LC3, LC3II was found in patients compared to controls. A decrease in SQSTM1/p62 was also found in the GSDIII mouse model.In conclusion, we characterized the morphological phenotype in GSDIII muscle and demonstrated dysfunctional autophagy in GSDIII human samples.These findings suggest that autophagic modulation combined with gene therapy might be considered as a novel treatment for GSDIII.

5.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(10): 1949-1960, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study if treatment with triheptanoin, a 7-carbon triglyceride, improves exercise tolerance in patients with McArdle disease. McArdle patients have a complete block in glycogenolysis and glycogen-dependent expansion of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), which may restrict fat oxidation. We hypothesized that triheptanoin metabolism generates substrates for the TCA, which potentially boosts fat oxidation and improves exercise tolerance in McArdle disease. METHODS: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in patients with McArdle disease completing two treatment periods of 14 days each with a triheptanoin or placebo diet (1 g/kg/day). Primary outcome was change in mean heart rate during 20 min submaximal exercise on a cycle ergometer. Secondary outcomes were change in peak workload and oxygen uptake along with changes in blood metabolites and respiratory quotients. RESULTS: Nineteen of 22 patients completed the trial. Malate levels rose on triheptanoin treatment versus placebo (8.0 ± SD2.3 vs. 5.5 ± SD1.8 µmol/L, P < 0.001), but dropped from rest to exercise (P < 0.001). There was no difference in exercise heart rates between triheptanoin (120 ± SD16 bpm) and placebo (121 ± SD16 bpm) treatments. Compared with placebo, triheptanoin did not change the submaximal respiratory quotient (0.82 ± SD0.05 vs. 0.84 ± SD0.03), peak workload (105 ± SD38 vs. 102 ± SD31 Watts), or peak oxygen uptake (1938 ± SD499 vs. 1977 ± SD380 mL/min). INTERPRETATION: Despite increased resting plasma malate with triheptanoin, the increase was insufficient to generate a normal TCA turnover during exercise and the treatment has no effect on exercise capacity or oxidative metabolism in patients with McArdle disease.

6.
J Neurol ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type R1/2A (LGMDR1/LGMD2A) is a progressive myopathy caused by deficiency of calpain 3, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease of skeletal muscle, and it represents the most frequent type of LGMD worldwide. In the last few years, muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as a tool for identifying patterns of muscular involvement in genetic disorders and as a biomarker of disease progression in muscle diseases. In this study, 57 molecularly confirmed LGMDR1 patients from a European cohort (age range 7-78 years) underwent muscle MRI and a global evaluation of functional status (Gardner-Medwin and Walton score and ability to raise the arms). RESULTS: We confirmed a specific pattern of fatty substitution involving predominantly the hip adductors and hamstrings in lower limbs. Spine extensors were more severely affected than spine rotators, in agreement with higher incidence of lordosis than scoliosis in LGMDR1. Hierarchical clustering of lower limb MRI scores showed that involvement of anterior thigh muscles discriminates between classes of disease progression. Severity of muscle fatty substitution was significantly correlated with CAPN3 mutations: in particular, patients with no or one "null" alleles showed a milder involvement, compared to patients with two null alleles (i.e., predicting absence of calpain-3 protein). Expectedly, fat infiltration scores strongly correlated with functional measures. The "pseudocollagen" sign (central areas of sparing in some muscle) was associated with longer and more severe disease course. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that skeletal muscle MRI represents a useful tool in the diagnostic workup and clinical management of LGMDR1.

7.
Neurology ; 93(15): e1433-e1438, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate substrate metabolism during exercise in an adult with lipin-1 deficiency, an inherited defect in lipid homeostasis, and to study the effect of glucose supplementation on his exercise tolerance. METHODS: We studied a 48-year-old man with lipin-1 deficiency and 2 healthy men. The patient has exercise intolerance and monthly episodes of rhabdomyolysis. All participants performed a submaximal exercise test while total fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and palmitate oxidation rate were assessed by stable isotope technique and indirect calorimetry. On another day, the patient was infused with 10% glucose (410 mL/h) and repeated the exercise. On the third and fourth visits, he was randomized in a double-blind manner to drink a supplement of glucose (soft drink 2% concentration) or placebo (soft drink: aspartame, acesulfame-K) before and during exercise. RESULTS: Mean FAO and palmitate oxidation rate during exercise were lower in the patient vs controls: 431 vs 1,271 and 1912 µmol/min and 122 vs 191 and 212 µmol/min. Plasma fatty acid concentration was lower in the patient during exercise than in controls: 477 vs 643 and 630 µmol/L. The patient's exercise duration increased from 36 to 60 minutes with IV glucose and 46 minutes with oral glucose, and his rating of exertion dropped from 15 to 9 on average (Borg scale). CONCLUSION: In this adult lipin-1-deficient patient, FAO was reduced, which was associated with no increase in plasma free fatty acids during submaximal exercise, and his exercise capacity improved with continuous ingestion of high-dose glucose. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT02635269.

8.
Lancet Neurol ; 18(9): 834-844, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inclusion body myositis is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and the most common myopathy affecting people older than 50 years. To date, there are no effective drug treatments. We aimed to assess the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of bimagrumab-a fully human monoclonal antibody-in individuals with inclusion body myositis. METHODS: We did a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (RESILIENT) at 38 academic clinical sites in Australia, Europe, Japan, and the USA. Individuals (aged 36-85 years) were eligible for the study if they met modified 2010 Medical Research Council criteria for inclusion body myositis. We randomly assigned participants (1:1:1:1) using a blocked randomisation schedule (block size of four) to either bimagrumab (10 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, or 1 mg/kg) or placebo matched in appearance to bimagrumab, administered as intravenous infusions every 4 weeks for at least 48 weeks. All study participants, the funder, investigators, site personnel, and people doing assessments were masked to treatment assignment. The primary outcome measure was 6-min walking distance (6MWD), which was assessed at week 52 in the primary analysis population and analysed by intention-to-treat principles. We used a multivariate normal repeated measures model to analyse data for 6MWD. Safety was assessed by recording adverse events and by electrocardiography, echocardiography, haematological testing, urinalysis, and blood chemistry. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01925209; this report represents the final analysis. FINDINGS: Between Sept 26, 2013, and Jan 6, 2016, 251 participants were enrolled to the study, of whom 63 were assigned to each bimagrumab group and 62 were allocated to the placebo group. At week 52, 6MWD change from baseline did not differ between any bimagrumab dose and placebo (least squares mean treatment difference for bimagrumab 10 mg/kg group, 17·6 m, SE 14·3, 99% CI -19·6 to 54·8; p=0·22; for 3 mg/kg group, 18·6 m, 14·2, -18·2 to 55·4; p=0·19; and for 1 mg/kg group, -1·3 m, 14·1, -38·0 to 35·4; p=0·93). 63 (100%) participants in each bimagrumab group and 61 (98%) of 62 in the placebo group had at least one adverse event. Falls were the most frequent adverse event (48 [76%] in the bimagrumab 10 mg/kg group, 55 [87%] in the 3 mg/kg group, 54 [86%] in the 1 mg/kg group, and 52 [84%] in the placebo group). The most frequently reported adverse events with bimagrumab were muscle spasms (32 [51%] in the bimagrumab 10 mg/kg group, 43 [68%] in the 3 mg/kg group, 25 [40%] in the 1 mg/kg group, and 13 [21%] in the placebo group) and diarrhoea (33 [52%], 28 [44%], 20 [32%], and 11 [18%], respectively). Adverse events leading to discontinuation were reported in four (6%) participants in each bimagrumab group compared with one (2%) participant in the placebo group. At least one serious adverse event was reported by 21 (33%) participants in the 10 mg/kg group, 11 (17%) in the 3 mg/kg group, 20 (32%) in the 1 mg/kg group, and 20 (32%) in the placebo group. No significant adverse cardiac effects were recorded on electrocardiography or echocardiography. Two deaths were reported during the study, one attributable to subendocardial myocardial infarction (secondary to gastrointestinal bleeding after an intentional overdose of concomitant sedatives and antidepressants) and one attributable to lung adenocarcinoma. Neither death was considered by the investigator to be related to bimagrumab. INTERPRETATION: Bimagrumab showed a good safety profile, relative to placebo, in individuals with inclusion body myositis but did not improve 6MWD. The strengths of our study are that, to the best of our knowledge, it is the largest randomised controlled trial done in people with inclusion body myositis, and it provides important natural history data over 12 months. FUNDING: Novartis Pharma.

9.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(12): 5968-5976, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294795

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Plasma acylcarnitines are biomarkers of ß-oxidation and are useful in diagnosing several inborn errors of metabolism but have never been investigated systematically in patients with mitochondrial myopathy. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that acylcarnitines can also be biomarkers of mitochondrial myopathy and sought to investigate the prevalence and pattern of elevated acylcarnitines. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study of patients with confirmed mitochondrial myopathy followed at Copenhagen Neuromuscular Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. PATIENTS: We included 35 patients (44 ± 15 years, 15 women) with mitochondrial myopathy caused by single, large-scale deletions of mitochondrial DNA (n = 17), pathogenic variants in mitochondrial transfer RNA (n = 13), or in proteins of the respiratory chain complexes (n = 5).Concentrations of 35 acylcarnitines were measured using ultra-HPLC and tandem mass-spectrometry. Findings were compared with muscle mutation load in all patients and to respiratory chain activity in 26 patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of elevated concentrations of acylcarnitines related to acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenases in patients with mitochondrial myopathy and relation to genotypes/phenotypes. RESULTS: In total, 27 (77%) patients had elevated concentrations of acylcarnitines related to acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. Elevated concentrations of seven acylcarnitine species were more common in patients compared with a control cohort of >900 individuals, and a specific pattern involving hydroxylated long-chain acylcarnitines occurred in 22 (63%) patients. Severity of derangements was correlated with muscle mutation load and genotypes/phenotypes. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, elevated concentrations of acylcarnitines is common in patients with mitochondrial myopathy and shows a specific pattern affecting hydroxylated long-chain acylcarnitines, which can have implications for future diagnostic workup of patients.

10.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 181(24)2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267951

RESUMO

In this case report, a 23-year-old normal-functioning young man was repeatedly admitted to the hospital with mal-nutrition and pseudo-obstruction. External ophthalmoplegia, global muscular atrophy and demyelinating sensory-motor-autonomic neuropathy became evident. An MRI showed symmetrical white matter lesions and muscle biopsy atrophic muscle fibres. A TYMP mutation confirmed the diagnosis, and the patient had a rapidly fatal disease course. Mitochondrial neuro-gastro-intestinal encephalo-myopathy is rare and often overlooked. In less advanced disease, stem cell transplantation can correct thymidine phosphorylase deficiency.

11.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(6): 1033-1045, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211167

RESUMO

Objective: Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type R9 (LGMD R9) is an autosomal recessive muscle disease for which there is currently no causative treatment. The development of putative therapies requires sensitive outcome measures for clinical trials in this slowly progressing condition. This study extends functional assessments and MRI muscle fat fraction measurements in an LGMD R9 cohort across 6 years. Methods: Twenty-three participants with LGMD R9, previously assessed over a 1-year period, were re-enrolled at 6 years. Standardized functional assessments were performed including: myometry, timed tests, and spirometry testing. Quantitative MRI was used to measure fat fraction in lower limb skeletal muscle groups. Results: At 6 years, all 14 muscle groups assessed demonstrated significant increases in fat fraction, compared to eight groups in the 1-year follow-up study. In direct contrast to the 1-year follow-up, the 6-min walk test, 10-m walk or run, timed up and go, stair ascend, stair descend and chair rise demonstrated significant decline. Among the functional tests, only FVC significantly declined over both the 1- and 6-year studies. Interpretation: These results further support fat fraction measurements as a primary outcome measure alongside functional assessments. The most appropriate individual muscles are the vastus lateralis, gracilis, sartorius, and gastrocnemii. Using composite groups of lower leg muscles, thigh muscles, or triceps surae, yielded high standardized response means (SRMs). Over 6 years, quantitative fat fraction assessment demonstrated higher SRM values than seen in functional tests suggesting greater responsiveness to disease progression.

12.
Acta Neuropathol ; 138(3): 477-495, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218456

RESUMO

Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a skeletal muscle disorder caused by mutations in genes that are generally involved in muscle contraction, in particular those related to the structure and/or regulation of the thin filament. Many pathogenic aspects of this disease remain largely unclear. Here, we report novel pathological defects in skeletal muscle fibres of mouse models and patients with NM: irregular spacing and morphology of nuclei; disrupted nuclear envelope; altered chromatin arrangement; and disorganisation of the cortical cytoskeleton. Impairments in contractility are the primary cause of these nuclear defects. We also establish the role of microtubule organisation in determining nuclear morphology, a phenomenon which is likely to contribute to nuclear alterations in this disease. Our results overlap with findings in diseases caused directly by mutations in nuclear envelope or cytoskeletal proteins. Given the important role of nuclear shape and envelope in regulating gene expression, and the cytoskeleton in maintaining muscle fibre integrity, our findings are likely to explain some of the hallmarks of NM, including contractile filament disarray, altered mechanical properties and broad transcriptional alterations.

13.
Endocr Connect ; 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146262

RESUMO

AIM: This case-control study aimed to examine impairments in glucose metabolism in non-diabetic carriers of the mitochondrial mutation m.3243A>G by evaluating insulin secretion capacity and sensitivity. METHODS: Glucose metabolism was investigated in 23 non-diabetic m.3243A>G carriers and matched healthy controls with an extended 4-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin sensitivity index and acute insulin response were estimated on basis of the OGTT. This was accompanied by examination of body composition by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), maximum aerobic capacity, and a Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ). RESULTS: Fasting p-glucose, s-insulin and s-c-peptide levels did not differ between m.3243A>G carriers and controls. Insulin sensitivity index (BIGTT-S1) was significantly lower in the m.3243A>G carriers, but there was no difference in the acute insulin response between groups. P-lactate levels were higher in carriers throughout the OGTT. VO2max, but not BMI, waist and hip circumferences, lean and fat body mass %, MET or grip strength, was lower in mutation carriers. BIGTT-S1 remained lower in mutation carriers after adjustment for multiple confounding factors including VO2max in regression analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Glucose metabolism in m.3243A>G carriers was characterized by reduced insulin sensitivity, which could represent the earliest phase in the pathogenesis of m.3243A>G-associated diabetes.

14.
Hum Mutat ; 40(7): 962-974, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932294

RESUMO

Congenital myopathies are early onset, slowly progressive neuromuscular disorders of variable severity. They are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous and caused by pathogenic variants in several genes. Multi-minicore Disease, one of the more common congenital myopathies, is frequently caused by recessive variants in either SELENON, encoding the endoplasmic reticulum glycoprotein selenoprotein N or RYR1, encoding a protein involved in calcium homeostasis and excitation-contraction coupling. The mechanism by which recessive SELENON variants cause Multiminicore disease (MmD) is unclear. Here, we extensively investigated muscle physiological, biochemical and epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNA expression, to understand the pathomechanism of MmD. We identified biochemical changes that are common in patients harboring recessive RYR1 and SELENON variants, including depletion of transcripts encoding proteins involved in skeletal muscle calcium homeostasis, increased levels of Class II histone deacetylases (HDACs) and DNA methyltransferases. CpG methylation analysis of genomic DNA of patients with RYR1 and SELENON variants identified >3,500 common aberrantly methylated genes, many of which are involved in calcium signaling. These results provide the proof of concept for the potential use of drugs targeting HDACs and DNA methyltransferases to treat patients with specific forms of congenital myopathies.

15.
Muscle Nerve ; 60(2): 183-188, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026058

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bethlem myopathy is caused by dysfunctional collagen VI assembly, leading to varying degrees of hyperlaxity, contractures and muscle weakness. Previous studies demonstrate that cardiovascular training is safe and beneficial in patients with myopathies. However, exercise exacerbates the dystrophic phenotype in collagen VI-knockout mice. METHODS: Six men with Bethlem myopathy were included (4 training; 2 controls). After training, 2 patients detrained. Patients performed 10 weeks of home-based, moderate-intensity exercise monitored by a pulse-watch. The primary outcome was change in peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak ). Secondary outcomes were performances in functional tests. RESULTS: VO2peak improved in the training group (16%, P = 0.017). Detraining led to regression of VO2peak toward baseline values (-8%; P = 0.03). No change was seen in the control group (-7%; P = 0.47). Performance in functional tests did not change significantly. Creatine kinase values were stable during the study. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-intensity exercise seems to safely improve oxidative function in patients with Bethlem myopathy. Muscle Nerve 60: 183-188, 2019.


Assuntos
Contratura/reabilitação , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício , Distrofias Musculares/congênito , Consumo de Oxigênio , Aptidão Física , Adulto , Contratura/fisiopatologia , Ergometria , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Distrofias Musculares/fisiopatologia , Distrofias Musculares/reabilitação , Teste de Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Neurol ; 266(7): 1693-1697, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Long duration, moderate-intensity exercise is not well tolerated in patients with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). This study investigated whether patients with SBMA can benefit from high-intensity training (HIT). METHODS: Ten patients with SBMA were randomized to 8 weeks of supervised HIT [n = 5; age = 50 (25-63) years] followed by 8 weeks of self-training or 8 weeks of no training followed by 8 weeks of non-supervised HIT [n = 5; age = 50 (26-54) years]. Training consisted of 2 × 5-min exercise periods with 1-min cyclic blocks of intermittent maximal intensity exercise on an ergometer bike. Maximal oxygen capacity (VO2max) and workload (Wmax) were measured before and after training by incremental exercise tests. Plasma creatine kinase levels, self-rated muscle pain, muscle fatigue, and activity level were monitored throughout the training period. RESULTS: Eight patients completed training. One patient dropped out after 5 weeks of training for private reasons. Another patient was excluded after 4 weeks due to lack of compliance. Eight weeks of training increased both VO2max (1.9 ± 2.3 ml min-1 kg-1; p = 0.04) and Wmax (15.6 ± 17.9 W; p = 0.03) in the 8 patients who completed training. There were no changes in plasma creatine kinase levels, self-reported muscle pain or muscle fatigue activity level after training. CONCLUSION: This pilot study suggests that high-intensity training is safe and improves fitness in patients with SBMA. Unlike low- and moderate-intensity training, HIT is efficacious and favored over other training forms by the patients.

17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(9): 3610-3613, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990523

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) affects oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (FAO) and is associated with risk of metabolic crises and episodic rhabdomyolysis. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present the cases of two patients with LCHADD. Patient 1 (male, 26 years old) was severely affected by muscle weakness and neuropathy. He was diagnosed at age 20 years and was nonadherent to standard dietary management. MRI revealed significant fat replacement of muscle in both calves. Patient 2 (female, 15 years old) was diagnosed at age 1 year. She had no muscle weakness and was compliant with the recommended diet. Compared with healthy persons, both patients had reduced FAO and palmitate oxidation, measured with indirect calorimetry and stable isotope technique during a submaximal cycle ergometer test. Patient 2 had some residual capacity to increase FAO and a compensatory higher carbohydrate oxidation, which ensured a near-normal exercise capacity. Patient 1 was unable to increase FAO and could only complete 23 minutes of exercise, vs 60 minutes by patient 2 and healthy persons. In both, 10% IV infusion of glucose (IV-glucose) during exercise increased carbohydrate oxidation slightly, but endurance was not improved, which likely relates to the fixed weakness in patient 1 and because the residual FAO was suppressed by the glucose infusion in both. CONCLUSION: The two patients illustrate that FAO is impaired and carbohydrate oxidation is elevated during exercise in patients affected by LCHADD, compared with healthy persons, but IV-glucose has no beneficial effect on exercise tolerance in LCHADD.

18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4680, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886222

RESUMO

Spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion in the androgen receptor gene on the X chromosome. There is a toxic effect of the mutant receptor on muscle and neurons resulting in muscle weakness and atrophy. The weakness can be explained by wasting due to loss of muscle cells, but it is unknown whether weakness also relates to poor muscle contractility of the remaining musculature. In this study, we investigated the muscle contractility in SBMA. We used stationary dynamometry and quantitative MRI to assess muscle strength and absolute and fat-free, cross-sectional areas. Specific muscle force (strength per cross-sectional area) and contractility (strength per fat-free cross-sectional area) were compared with healthy controls and their relation to walking distance and disease severity was investigated. Specific force was reduced by 14-49% in SBMA patients compared to healthy controls. Contractility was reduced by 22-39% in elbow flexion, knee extension, ankle dorsi- and plantarflexion in SBMA patients. The contractility decreased with increasing muscle fat content in muscles with affected contractility in SBMA. The decreased muscle contractility in SBMA may relate to motor neuron degeneration and changed fibre type distribution and muscle architecture.

19.
J Neurol ; 266(6): 1367-1375, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the prevalence of cardiac involvement in patients with congenital myopathies and the association to specific genotypes. METHODS: We evaluated patients with physical examination, electrocardiogram, echocardiography, and 48-h Holter monitoring. Follow-up was performed for major events. RESULTS: We included 130 patients, 55 men (42%), with a mean age of 34 ± 17 years. A genetic diagnosis was established in 97 patients (75%). Right bundle branch block was observed in three patients: 2/34 patients with a ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) and 1/6 with a tropomyosin two gene (TPM2) gene mutation. Echocardiography showed left-ventricular hypertrophy in five patients: 2/17 and 3/34 patients with a Dynamin 2 (DNM2) and a RYR1 mutation, respectively. One patient with a myosin heavy-chain (MYH7) mutation had dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. On Holter monitoring, frequent ventricular premature contractions were observed in one patient with a DNM2 mutation. Two patients with a TPM2 and a RYR1 mutation, respectively, had a single short run of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. Atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia was observed in a 20-year-old man with an actin 1 gene mutation. During follow-up (median 8.4 years), four patients died, all of non-cardiac causes. CONCLUSION: Congenital myopathies are generally associated with a mild cardiac phenotype. Our findings substantiate the literature and indicate that, except for patients with specific genotypes, such as MYH7 and TTN mutations, repeated cardiac assessments can be minimized, given a normal initial cardiac screening at time of diagnosis.

20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5116, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914683

RESUMO

McArdle disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the absence of the muscle glycogen phosphorylase, which leads to impairment of glycogen breakdown. The McArdle mouse, a model heavily affected by glycogen accumulation and exercise intolerance, was used to characterize disease progression at three different ages. The molecular and histopathological consequences of the disease were analyzed in five different hind-limb muscles (soleus, extensor digitorum longus, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius and quadriceps) of young (8-week-old), adult (35-week-old) and old (70-week-old) mice. We found that McArdle mice have a high perinatal and post-weaning mortality. We also observed a progressive muscle degeneration, fibrosis and inflammation process that was not associated with an increase in muscle glycogen content during aging. Additionally, this progressive degeneration varied among muscle and fiber types. Finally, the lack of glycogen content increase was associated with the inactivation of glycogen synthase and not with compensatory expression of the Pygl and/or Pygb genes in mature muscle.

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