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1.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(4): 436-443, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With HIV now considered a chronic disease, economic burden for people living with HIV (LWH) may threaten long-term disease outcomes. We studied associations between economic burden (employment, income, insurance, and financial difficulty) and HIV status for gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) and how economic burden relates to disease progression. SETTING: We analyzed data collected every 6 months through 2015 from GBMSM LWH and GBMSM living without HIV from 2 waves (2001-2003 cohort and 2010+ new recruit cohort) of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. METHODS: Using generalized estimating equations, we first assessed the association between HIV status (exposure) and economic burden indicators since the last study visit (outcomes) of employment (working/student/retired versus not currently working), personal annual income of ≥$10,000, insurance (public/private versus none), and financial difficulty meeting basic expenses. Then among people LWH, we assessed the relationships between economic burden indicators (exposures), risk of progressive immune suppression (CD4 ≤500 cells/uL), and progression to AIDS (CD4 ≤200; outcomes). RESULTS: Of 1721 participants, 59.5% were LWH (n = 1024). GBMSM LWH were 12% less likely to be employed, 16% more likely to have health insurance, and 9% more likely to experience financial difficulty than GBMSM living without HIV. Among GBMSM LWH, employment was associated with a 6% and 32% lower likelihood of immune suppression or progression to AIDS, respectively, and the income was associated with a 15% lower likelihood of progression to AIDS. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions that stabilize employment, income, and offer insurance support may enrich GBMSM LWH's ability to prevent disease progression.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185832

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship of circulating immune cells with recurrence and metabolic/lifestyle factors in patients with early-stage breast cancer. METHODS: Patients with early-stage breast cancer were identified from the electronic record and institutional registry. Lymphocyte and monocyte counts were obtained from blood samples at time of diagnosis prior to any chemotherapy. Correlations between lymphocyte and monocyte and recurrence were assessed in the entire cohort and among obese patients, those reporting alcohol consumption and smoking. Competing risk regression was used to analyze time to recurrence. RESULTS: A total of 950 patients with ≥ 5 years of follow-up were identified; 433 had complete data and were eligible for analysis. 293 (68%) had hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, 82 (19%) HER2 positive, and 53 (13%) triple negative. Patients in the highest quintile of lymphocytes compared to the lowest quintile had lower risk of recurrence (subhazard ratio (SHR) = 0.17, 95% CI [0.03-0.93], p = 0.041) while patients in the highest quintile of monocytes had lower risk for recurrence (SHR = 0.19, 95% CI [0.04, 0.92], p = 0.039). Higher monocytes were more strongly associated with lower recurrence among those reporting alcohol consumption (HR = 0.10, 95% CI [0.01, 0.91], p = 0.04). In obese patients, higher lymphocytes were associated with lower risk of recurrence (p = 0.046); in non-obese patients, higher monocytes were associated with lower risk of recurrence (p = 0.02). There were no correlations among patients who reported tobacco use. CONCLUSIONS: High lymphocyte and monocyte counts are associated with lower recurrence rate in early-stage breast cancer, particularly in obese patients and those reporting alcohol consumption.

4.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128203

RESUMO

Associations between anthropometric factors and breast cancer (BC) risk have varied inconsistently by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status. Associations between prediagnostic anthropometric factors and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC overall and ER/PR status subtypes were investigated in a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohorts, including 36,297 BC cases among 1,061,915 women, using multivariable Cox regression analyses, controlling for reproductive factors, diet and other risk factors. We estimated dose-response relationships and tested for nonlinear associations using restricted cubic splines. Height showed positive, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (6-7% RR increase per 5 cm increment), with stronger associations for receptor-positive subtypes. Body mass index (BMI) at cohort baseline was strongly inversely associated with premenopausal BC risk, and strongly positively-and nonlinearly-associated with postmenopausal BC (especially among women who never used hormone replacement therapy). This was primarily observed for receptor-positive subtypes. Early adult BMI (at 18-20 years) showed inverse, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (21% and 11% RR decrease per 5 kg/m2, respectively) with stronger associations for receptor-negative subtypes. Adult weight gain since 18-20 years was positively associated with postmenopausal BC risk, stronger for receptor-positive subtypes, and among women who were leaner in early adulthood. Women heavier in early adulthood generally had reduced premenopausal BC risk, independent of later weight gain. Positive associations between height, baseline (adult) BMI, adult weight gain and postmenopausal BC risk were substantially stronger for hormone receptor-positive versus negative subtypes. Premenopausal BC risk was positively associated with height, but inversely with baseline BMI and weight gain (mostly in receptor-positive subtypes). Inverse associations with early adult BMI seemed stronger in receptor-negative subtypes of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC.

5.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 51, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083530

RESUMO

Physical activity is recommended for most cancer patients as a nonpharmacological therapy to improve prognosis. Few studies have investigated the association between physical activity and breast cancer prognosis by ethnicity, biological, and modifiable risk factors for mortality. We investigated the association between physical activity and long-term survival among breast cancer survivors. A total of 397 survivors (96 Hispanic and 301 non-Hispanic White (NHW)) from the New Mexico HEAL study contributed baseline and biological data approximately 6 months after diagnosis. Study outcomes included all-cause, breast cancer-specific, and non-breast cancer mortality. The exposure was self-reported physical activity within the past month. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox Proportional Hazards regression. A total of 133 deaths (53 breast cancer-specific deaths) were observed after a median follow-up time of 13 years. Engaging in >6.9 metabolic equivalent hours/week (MET-h/week) of moderate to vigorous physical activity (active) was inversely associated with all-cause mortality among all women (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.43-0.99) and NHWs (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36-0.94). Active NHW women also had a reduced risk of non-breast cancer mortality (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.31-0.99), compared to inactive women (0 MET-h/week). In subgroups, we observed the inverse associations with all-cause mortality among women >58 years old (p-interaction= 0.03) and with localized stage (p-interaction = 0.046). Our results confirm the protective association between physical activity and mortality after breast cancer diagnosis, and demonstrate that this association significantly differs by age and cancer stage. Larger studies are warranted to substantiate our findings.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2376-2382, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer incidence has been associated with hypertension, which might worsen disease prognosis, but few nationwide studies have investigated the association between antihypertensive drug use and breast cancer prognosis. METHODS: A cohort of 73,170 women diagnosed with breast cancer during 1995-2013 identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry was combined with information on antihypertensive drug use during the same time period from a national prescription database. Antihypertensive drugs were analyzed in groups categorized by mechanism of action. Usage of antihypertensive drugs, statins, antidiabetic, and anticoagulative drugs was analyzed as time-dependent exposure to model for simultaneous use of multiple drug groups. Influence of protopathic bias was evaluated in lag-time analyses. RESULTS: In prediagnostic use, only angiotensin receptor (ATR)-blockers were associated with decreased risk of breast cancer death as compared with nonusers (HR: 0.76, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.69-0.82), and there was an inverse association with cumulative dose of use. Postdiagnostic use of ATR-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors, beta-blockers, and calcium-channel blockers was dose dependently associated with better breast cancer survival compared with nonusers. The risk decrease was strongest for ATR-blockers (HR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.63-0.75) and remained for exposures occurring up to 3 years earlier. CONCLUSIONS: Only ATR-blockers were associated with improved breast cancer survival in both prediagnostic and postdiagnostic use. The association was dose dependent and supported by a biological rationale as a causal explanation. In postdiagnostic use, similar reduction was found also for other antihypertensives, supporting a prognostic role of hypertension control. IMPACT: Inhibition of angiotensin receptor subtype 1 (AT1) could be a promising novel way to affect breast cancer progression.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are associated with pancreatic cancer risk is uncertain. Mendelian randomization (MR) represents a study design using genetic instruments to better characterize the relationship between exposure and outcome. METHODS: We utilized data from genome-wide association studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, involving approximately 9,269 cases and 12,530 controls of European descent, to evaluate associations between pancreatic cancer risk and genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels. Conventional MR analyses were performed using individual-level and summary-level data. RESULTS: Using genetic instruments, we did not find evidence of associations between genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels and pancreatic cancer risk [estimates per one SD increase in each PUFA-specific weighted genetic score using summary statistics: linoleic acid odds ratio (OR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.02; arachidonic acid OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.99-1.01; and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.87-1.02]. The OR estimates remained virtually unchanged after adjustment for covariates, using individual-level data or summary statistics, or stratification by age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that variations of genetically determined plasma n-6 PUFA levels are not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. IMPACT: These results suggest that modifying n-6 PUFA levels through food sources or supplementation may not influence risk of pancreatic cancer.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Auto-antibodies to tumor suppressor p53 are found in a subset of patients with colorectal cancer. A recent prospective study in the United States has reported a significant 1.8-fold increased odds for colorectal cancer development with prediagnostic seropositivity to p53. In this study, we sought to examine this association in a U.S. colorectal cancer cohort consortium to evaluate the potential utility of p53 auto-antibodies as an early biomarker for colorectal cancer. METHODS: Auto-antibodies to p53 were measured in prediagnostic blood samples of 3,702 incident colorectal cancer cases and 3,702 controls, matched by age, race, and sex, from 9 U.S. prospective cohorts. The association of seropositivity to p53 with colorectal cancer risk, overall and by time between blood draw and diagnosis, was determined by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 5% of controls and 7% of cases were seropositive to p53, resulting in a statistically significant 33% increased colorectal cancer risk [odds ratio (OR), 1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.61]. By follow-up time, the association was only significant with colorectal cancer diagnoses within 4 years after blood draw (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.62-3.19), but not thereafter (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.76-1.24). CONCLUSIONS: In this large consortium of prospective cohorts, we found that prediagnostic seropositivity to tumor suppressor p53 was significantly associated with an over 2-fold increased odds of developing colorectal cancer within 4 years after blood draw. IMPACT: Our finding suggests that p53 seropositivity may not be a useful predictor of long-term colorectal cancer risk; however, it might be considered as a marker to aid in the early diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2010-2018, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers have shared developmental pathways. Few studies have prospectively examined heterogeneity in risk factor associations across these three anatomic sites. METHODS: We identified 3,738 ovarian, 337 peritoneal, and 176 fallopian tube incident cancer cases in 891,731 women from 15 prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Associations between 18 putative risk factors and risk of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer, overall and for serous and high-grade serous tumors, were evaluated using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was assessed by likelihood ratio tests. RESULTS: Most associations did not vary by tumor site (P het ≥ 0.05). Associations between first pregnancy (P het = 0.04), tubal ligation (P het = 0.01), and early-adult (age 18-21 years) body mass index (BMI; P het = 0.02) and risk differed between ovarian and peritoneal cancers. The association between early-adult BMI and risk further differed between peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer (P het = 0.03). First pregnancy and tubal ligation were inversely associated with ovarian, but not peritoneal, cancer. Higher early-adult BMI was associated with higher risk of peritoneal, but not ovarian or fallopian tube, cancer. Patterns were generally similar when restricted to serous and high-grade serous cases. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers appear to have both shared and distinct etiologic pathways, although most risk factors appear to have similar associations by anatomic site. IMPACT: Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the differences in risk profiles may provide insights regarding the developmental origins of tumors arising in the peritoneal cavity and inform prevention efforts.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 432-444, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758450

RESUMO

Accurate colorectal cancer (CRC) risk prediction models are critical for identifying individuals at low and high risk of developing CRC, as they can then be offered targeted screening and interventions to address their risks of developing disease (if they are in a high-risk group) and avoid unnecessary screening and interventions (if they are in a low-risk group). As it is likely that thousands of genetic variants contribute to CRC risk, it is clinically important to investigate whether these genetic variants can be used jointly for CRC risk prediction. In this paper, we derived and compared different approaches to generating predictive polygenic risk scores (PRS) from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) including 55,105 CRC-affected case subjects and 65,079 control subjects of European ancestry. We built the PRS in three ways, using (1) 140 previously identified and validated CRC loci; (2) SNP selection based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) clumping followed by machine-learning approaches; and (3) LDpred, a Bayesian approach for genome-wide risk prediction. We tested the PRS in an independent cohort of 101,987 individuals with 1,699 CRC-affected case subjects. The discriminatory accuracy, calculated by the age- and sex-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), was highest for the LDpred-derived PRS (AUC = 0.654) including nearly 1.2 M genetic variants (the proportion of causal genetic variants for CRC assumed to be 0.003), whereas the PRS of the 140 known variants identified from GWASs had the lowest AUC (AUC = 0.629). Based on the LDpred-derived PRS, we are able to identify 30% of individuals without a family history as having risk for CRC similar to those with a family history of CRC, whereas the PRS based on known GWAS variants identified only top 10% as having a similar relative risk. About 90% of these individuals have no family history and would have been considered average risk under current screening guidelines, but might benefit from earlier screening. The developed PRS offers a way for risk-stratified CRC screening and other targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano/genética , Medição de Risco , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
11.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 16(10): 665-674, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603252

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly changed delivery of cancer care. Many nonurgent surgeries are delayed to preserve hospital resources, and patient visits to health care settings are limited to reduce exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Providers must carefully weigh risks and benefits of delivering immunosuppressive therapy during the pandemic. For breast cancer, a key difference is increased use of neoadjuvant systemic therapy due to deferral of many breast surgeries during the pandemic. In some cases, this necessitates increased use of genomic tumor profiling on core biopsy specimens to guide neoadjuvant therapy decisions. Breast cancer treatment during the pandemic requires multidisciplinary input and varies according to stage, tumor biology, comorbidities, age, patient preferences, and available hospital resources. We present here the Johns Hopkins Women's Malignancies Program approach to breast cancer management during the COVID-19 pandemic. We include algorithms based on tumor biology and extent of disease that guide management decisions during the pandemic. These algorithms emphasize medical oncology treatment decisions and demonstrate how we have operationalized the general treatment recommendations during the pandemic proposed by national groups, such as the COVID-19 Pandemic Breast Cancer Consortium. Our recommendations can be adapted by other institutions and medical oncology practices in accordance with local conditions and resources. Guidelines such as these will be important as we continue to balance treatment of breast cancer against risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and infection until approval of a vaccine.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Oncologia/tendências , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/patologia
12.
Cancer Res ; 80(18): 4004-4013, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641412

RESUMO

Registry-based epidemiologic studies suggest associations between chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As genetic susceptibility contributes to a large proportion of chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases, we hypothesize that the genomic regions surrounding established genome-wide associated variants for these chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with PDAC. We examined the association between PDAC and genomic regions (±500 kb) surrounding established common susceptibility variants for ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, chronic pancreatitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. We analyzed summary statistics from genome-wide association studies data for 8,384 cases and 11,955 controls of European descent from two large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method to examine the overall association of combined genomic regions for each inflammatory disease group. Combined genomic susceptibility regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis were associated with PDAC at P values < 0.05 (0.0040, 0.0057, 0.011, and 3.4 × 10-6, respectively). After excluding the 20 PDAC susceptibility regions (±500 kb) previously identified by GWAS, the genomic regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and inflammatory bowel disease remained associated with PDAC (P = 0.0029, 0.0057, and 0.0098, respectively). Genomic regions for celiac disease (P = 0.22) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (P = 0.078) were not associated with PDAC. Our results support the hypothesis that genomic regions surrounding variants associated with inflammatory intestinal diseases, particularly, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC. SIGNIFICANCE: The joint effects of common variants in genomic regions containing susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC and may provide insights to understanding pancreatic cancer etiology.

13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that breast cancer survivors have higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality relative to the general population. Information on temporal patterns for all-cause and CVD mortality among breast cancer survivors relative to cancer-free women is limited. METHODS: All-cause and CVD-related mortality were compared in 628 women with breast cancer and 3,140 age-matched cancer-free women within CLUE II, a prospective cohort. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards regression for all-cause mortality, and Fine and Gray models for CVD-related mortality to account for competing risks. RESULTS: Over 25 years of follow-up, 916 deaths occurred (249 CVD-related). Breast cancer survivors had an overall higher risk of dying compared to cancer-free women (HR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.53-2.09) irrespective of time since diagnosis, tumor stage, estrogen receptor (ER) status, and older age at diagnosis (≥70 years). Risk of death was greatest among older survivors 15 or more years after diagnosis (HR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.59-4.55). CVD (69.1% ischemic heart disease) was the leading cause of death among cancer-free women and the second among survivors. Survivors had an increase in CVD-related deaths compared to cancer-free women beginning at 8 years after diagnosis (HR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.00-2.73) with the highest risk among older survivors (HR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.29-3.88) and after ER-positive disease (HR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.06-3.20). CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer survivors continue to have an elevated mortality compared to the general population for many years after diagnosis. Preventing cardiac deaths, particularly among older breast cancer patients, could lead to significant reductions in mortality.

14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1784-1791, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and diabetes are major modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Interactions between genetic variants and diabetes/obesity have not previously been comprehensively investigated in pancreatic cancer at the genome-wide level. METHODS: We conducted a gene-environment interaction (GxE) analysis including 8,255 cases and 11,900 controls from four pancreatic cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets (Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium I-III and Pancreatic Cancer Case Control Consortium). Obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) and diabetes (duration ≥3 years) were the environmental variables of interest. Approximately 870,000 SNPs (minor allele frequency ≥0.005, genotyped in at least one dataset) were analyzed. Case-control (CC), case-only (CO), and joint-effect test methods were used for SNP-level GxE analysis. As a complementary approach, gene-based GxE analysis was also performed. Age, sex, study site, and principal components accounting for population substructure were included as covariates. Meta-analysis was applied to combine individual GWAS summary statistics. RESULTS: No genome-wide significant interactions (departures from a log-additive odds model) with diabetes or obesity were detected at the SNP level by the CC or CO approaches. The joint-effect test detected numerous genome-wide significant GxE signals in the GWAS main effects top hit regions, but the significance diminished after adjusting for the GWAS top hits. In the gene-based analysis, a significant interaction of diabetes with variants in the FAM63A (family with sequence similarity 63 member A) gene (significance threshold P < 1.25 × 10-6) was observed in the meta-analysis (P GxE = 1.2 ×10-6, P Joint = 4.2 ×10-7). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis did not find significant GxE interactions at the SNP level but found one significant interaction with diabetes at the gene level. A larger sample size might unveil additional genetic factors via GxE scans. IMPACT: This study may contribute to discovering the mechanism of diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer.

15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 930, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast Cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Since 2008, Mwanza, Tanzania, has worked to provide comprehensive cancer services through its Zonal consultant hospital. New national guidelines focused on clinical breast exam requires that women be aware of and seek care for breast concerns. Therefore, this study aims to understand breast cancer awareness in Mwanza and describe women-level barriers, care-seeking behavior, and perspectives on breast cancer. METHODS: A community-based survey was administered to conveniently sampled women aged 30 and older to assess women's perspectives on breast cancer and care-seeking behavior. RESULTS: Among 1129 women with a median age of 37 (IQR: 31-44) years, 73% have heard of cancer and 10% have received breast health education. Women self-evaluated their knowledge of breast cancer (from 1-none to 10-extremely knowledgeable) with a median response of 3 (IQR: 1-4). Only 14% felt they knew any signs or symptoms of breast cancer. Encouragingly, 56% of women were fairly-to-very confident they would notice changes in their breasts, with 24% of women practicing self-breast examination and 21% reporting they had received a past breast exam. Overall, 74% said they would be somewhat-to-very likely to seek care if they noticed breast changes, with 96% noting severity of symptoms as a motivator. However, fear of losing a breast (40%) and fear of a poor diagnosis (38%) were most frequent barriers to care seeking. In assessing knowledge of risk factors, about 50% of women did not know any risk factors for breast cancer whereas 42% of women believed long term contraceptive use a risk factor. However, 37% and 35% of women did not think that family history or being older were risk factors, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The success of efforts to improve early diagnosis in a setting without population-based screening depends on women being aware of breast cancer signs and symptoms, risks, and ultimately seeking care for breast concerns. Fortunately, most women said they would seek care if they noticed a change in their breasts, but the low levels of cancer knowledge, symptoms, and common risk factors highlight the need for targeted community education and awareness campaigns.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Autoexame de Mama/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1501-1508, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies, with few known risk factors and biomarkers. Several blood protein biomarkers have been linked to PDAC in previous studies, but these studies have assessed only a limited number of biomarkers, usually in small samples. In this study, we evaluated associations of circulating protein levels and PDAC risk using genetic instruments. METHODS: To identify novel circulating protein biomarkers of PDAC, we studied 8,280 cases and 6,728 controls of European descent from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, using genetic instruments of protein quantitative trait loci. RESULTS: We observed associations between predicted concentrations of 38 proteins and PDAC risk at an FDR of < 0.05, including 23 of those proteins that showed an association even after Bonferroni correction. These include the protein encoded by ABO, which has been implicated as a potential target gene of PDAC risk variant. Eight of the identified proteins (LMA2L, TM11D, IP-10, ADH1B, STOM, TENC1, DOCK9, and CRBB2) were associated with PDAC risk after adjusting for previously reported PDAC risk variants (OR ranged from 0.79 to 1.52). Pathway enrichment analysis showed that the encoding genes for implicated proteins were significantly enriched in cancer-related pathways, such as STAT3 and IL15 production. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 38 candidates of protein biomarkers for PDAC risk. IMPACT: This study identifies novel protein biomarker candidates for PDAC, which if validated by additional studies, may contribute to the etiologic understanding of PDAC development.

17.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 18(4): 380-391, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259785

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast, Ovarian, and Pancreatic provide recommendations for genetic testing and counseling for hereditary cancer syndromes, and risk management recommendations for patients who are diagnosed with syndromes associated with an increased risk of these cancers. The NCCN panel meets at least annually to review comments, examine relevant new data, and reevaluate and update recommendations. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the panel's discussion and most recent recommendations regarding criteria for high-penetrance genes associated with breast and ovarian cancer beyond BRCA1/2, pancreas screening and genes associated with pancreatic cancer, genetic testing for the purpose of systemic therapy decision-making, and testing for people with Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry.

18.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(5): 511-516, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144680

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A comparison of stage at cancer diagnosis and cancer treatment rates between people with HIV (PWH) and the general US population is needed to identify any disparities by HIV status. METHODS: We compared 236 PWH in clinical care diagnosed with cancer from 1997 to 2014 to a sample from NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, presumed to be HIV negative. We performed G-computation using random forest methods to estimate stage and treatment percent differences (PD) by HIV. We conducted sensitivity analyses among non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADC), by sex and by CD4 ≤ 200 or > 200 cells/mm3. RESULTS: PWH were less likely to be diagnosed at localized stage (PD = - 16%; 95% CI - 21, - 11) and more likely to be diagnosed at regional stage (PD = 14%; 95% CI 8, 19) than those in SEER. Cancer treatment rates were 13% lower among PWH as compared to SEER (95% CI - 18, - 8). The difference in percent receiving cancer treatment was more pronounced for those with lower CD4 at cancer diagnosis (PD -15%; 95% CI - 27, - 6). Lower treatment rates were observed among NADC, males, and women with CD4 ≤ 200. CONCLUSION: Cancer care for PWH could be improved by diagnosis at earlier stages and increasing rates of cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Programa de SEER , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Cancer ; 147(5): 1306-1314, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012248

RESUMO

Early-adulthood body size is strongly inversely associated with risk of premenopausal breast cancer. It is unclear whether subsequent changes in weight affect risk. We pooled individual-level data from 17 prospective studies to investigate the association of weight change with premenopausal breast cancer risk, considering strata of initial weight, timing of weight change, other breast cancer risk factors and breast cancer subtype. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using Cox regression. Among 628,463 women, 10,886 were diagnosed with breast cancer before menopause. Models adjusted for initial weight at ages 18-24 years and other breast cancer risk factors showed that weight gain from ages 18-24 to 35-44 or to 45-54 years was inversely associated with breast cancer overall (e.g., HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.95-0.98) and with oestrogen-receptor(ER)-positive breast cancer (HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.98). Weight gain from ages 25-34 was inversely associated with ER-positive breast cancer only and weight gain from ages 35-44 was not associated with risk. None of these weight gains were associated with ER-negative breast cancer. Weight loss was not consistently associated with overall or ER-specific risk after adjusting for initial weight. Weight increase from early-adulthood to ages 45-54 years is associated with a reduced premenopausal breast cancer risk independently of early-adulthood weight. Biological explanations are needed to account for these two separate factors.

20.
Cancer Res ; 80(5): 1210-1218, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932455

RESUMO

Repeated exposure to the acute proinflammatory environment that follows ovulation at the ovarian surface and distal fallopian tube over a woman's reproductive years may increase ovarian cancer risk. To address this, analyses included individual-level data from 558,709 naturally menopausal women across 20 prospective cohorts, among whom 3,246 developed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (2,045 serous, 319 endometrioid, 184 mucinous, 121 clear cell, 577 other/unknown). Cox models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs between lifetime ovulatory cycles (LOC) and its components and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Women in the 90th percentile of LOC (>514 cycles) were almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer than women in the 10th percentile (<294) [HR (95% confidence interval): 1.92 (1.60-2.30)]. Risk increased 14% per 5-year increase in LOC (60 cycles) [(1.10-1.17)]; this association remained after adjustment for LOC components: number of pregnancies and oral contraceptive use [1.08 (1.04-1.12)]. The association varied by histotype, with increased risk of serous [1.13 (1.09-1.17)], endometrioid [1.20 (1.10-1.32)], and clear cell [1.37 (1.18-1.58)], but not mucinous [0.99 (0.88-1.10), P-heterogeneity = 0.01] tumors. Heterogeneity across histotypes was reduced [P-heterogeneity = 0.15] with adjustment for LOC components [1.08 serous, 1.11 endometrioid, 1.26 clear cell, 0.94 mucinous]. Although the 10-year absolute risk of ovarian cancer is small, it roughly doubles as the number of LOC rises from approximately 300 to 500. The consistency and linearity of effects strongly support the hypothesis that each ovulation leads to small increases in the risk of most ovarian cancers, a risk that cumulates through life, suggesting this as an important area for identifying intervention strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: Although ovarian cancer is rare, risk of most ovarian cancers doubles as the number of lifetime ovulatory cycles increases from approximately 300 to 500. Thus, identifying an important area for cancer prevention research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Ovário/imunologia , Ovulação/imunologia , Idoso , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Tubas Uterinas/imunologia , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Ovário/patologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , História Reprodutiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
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