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1.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1901472, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479306

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To update the ASCO guideline on pharmacologic interventions for breast cancer risk reduction and provide guidance on clinical issues that arise when deciding to use endocrine therapy for breast cancer risk reduction. METHODS: An Expert Panel conducted targeted systematic literature reviews to identify new studies. RESULTS: A randomized clinical trial that evaluated the use of anastrozole for reduction of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers in postmenopausal women at increased risk of developing breast cancer provided the predominant basis for the update. UPDATED RECOMMENDATIONS: In postmenopausal women at increased risk, the choice of endocrine therapy now includes anastrozole (1 mg/day) in addition to exemestane (25 mg/day), raloxifene (60 mg/day), or tamoxifen (20 mg/day). The decision regarding choice of endocrine therapy should take into consideration age, baseline comorbidities, and adverse effect profiles. Clinicians should not prescribe anastrozole, exemestane, or raloxifene for breast cancer risk reduction to premenopausal women. Tamoxifen 20 mg/day for 5 years is still considered standard of care for risk reduction in premenopausal women who are at least 35 years old and have completed childbearing. Data on low-dose tamoxifen as an alternative to the standard dose for both pre- and postmenopausal women with intraepithelial neoplasia are discussed in the Clinical Considerations section of this article. Additional information is available at www.asco.org/breast-cancer-guidelines.

3.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446591

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Breast cancer-related lymphedema is an adverse effect of breast cancer surgery affecting nearly 30% of US breast cancer survivors (BCS). Our previous analysis showed that, even 12 years after cancer treatment, out-of-pocket healthcare costs for BCS with lymphedema remained higher than for BCS without lymphedema; however, only half of the cost difference was lymphedema-related. This follow-up analysis examines what, above and beyond lymphedema, contributes to cost differences. METHODS: This mixed methods study included 129 BCS who completed 12 monthly cost diaries in 2015. Using Cohen's d and multivariable analysis, we compared self-reported costs across 13 cost categories by lymphedema status. We elicited quotes about specific cost categories from in-person interviews with 40 survey participants. RESULTS: Compared with BCS without lymphedema, BCS with lymphedema faced 122% higher mean overall monthly direct costs ($355 vs $160); had significantly higher co-pay, medication, and other out-of-pocket costs, lower lotion costs; and reported inadequate insurance coverage and higher costs that persisted over time. Lotion and medication expenditure differences were driven by BCS' socioeconomic differences in ability to pay. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated patient costs for BCS with lymphedema are for more than lymphedema itself, suggesting that financial coverage for lymphedema treatment alone may not eliminate cost disparities. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: The economic challenges examined in this paper have long been a concern of BCS and advocates, with only recent attention by policy makers, researchers, and providers. BCS identified potential policy and programmatic solutions, including expanding insurance coverage and financial assistance for BCS across socioeconomic levels.

4.
Cancer Res ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462430

RESUMO

Growing epidemiologic evidence supports chronic inflammation as a mechanism of ovarian carcinogenesis. An association between a circulating marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), and ovarian cancer risk has been consistently observed, yet, potential heterogeneity of this association by tumor and patient characteristics has not been adequately explored. In this study, we pooled data from case-control studies nested within six cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3) to examine the association between CRP and epithelial ovarian cancer risk overall, by histologic subtype and by participant characteristics. CRP concentrations were measured from pre-diagnosis serum or plasma in 1,091 cases and 1,951 controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). When CRP was evaluated using tertiles, no associations with ovarian cancer risk were observed. A 67% increased ovarian cancer risk was found for women with CRP concentrations >10mg/L compared to <1mg/L (OR=1.67, 95% CI=1.12, 2.48). A CRP concentration >10mg/L was positively associated with risk of mucinous (OR=9.67, 95% CI=1.10, 84.80) and endometrioid carcinoma (OR=3.41, 95% CI=1.07, 10.92), and suggestively positive, though not statistically significant, for serous (OR=1.43, 95% CI=0.82, 2.49) and clear cell carcinoma (OR=2.05, 95% CI=0.36, 11.57; p-heterogeneity=0.20). Heterogeneity was observed with oral contraceptive use (p-interaction=0.03), where the increased risk was present only among ever users (OR=3.24, 95% CI=1.62, 6.47). The present study adds to the existing evidence that CRP plays a role in ovarian carcinogenesis, and suggests that inflammation may be particularly implicated in the etiology of endometrioid and mucinous carcinoma.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276202

RESUMO

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all ptrend < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300453

RESUMO

PURPOSE: An unmet need in low-resource countries is an automated breast cancer detection assay to prioritize women who should undergo core breast biopsy and pathologic review. Therefore, we sought to identify and validate a panel of methylated DNA markers to discriminate between cancer and benign breast lesions using cells obtained by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Two case-control studies were conducted comparing cancer and benign breast tissue identified from clinical repositories in the United States, China, and South Africa for marker selection/training (N = 226) and testing (N = 246). Twenty-five methylated markers were assayed by Quantitative Multiplex-Methylation-Specific PCR (QM-MSP) to select and test a cancer-specific panel. Next, a pilot study was conducted on archival FNAs (49 benign, 24 invasive) from women with mammographically suspicious lesions using a newly developed, 5-hour, quantitative, automated cartridge system. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) compared with histopathology for the marker panel. RESULTS: In the discovery cohort, 10 of 25 markers were selected that were highly methylated in breast cancer compared with benign tissues by QM-MSP. In the independent test cohort, this panel yielded an AUC of 0.937 (95% CI = 0.900-0.970). In the FNA pilot, we achieved an AUC of 0.960 (95% CI = 0.883-1.0) using the automated cartridge system. CONCLUSIONS: We developed and piloted a fast and accurate methylation marker-based automated cartridge system to detect breast cancer in FNA samples. This quick ancillary test has the potential to prioritize cancer over benign tissues for expedited pathologic evaluation in poorly resourced countries.

7.
Cancer ; 125(15): 2594-2601, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To the authors' knowledge, the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and lung and colorectal cancer outcomes is not well established. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed of 49,143 consecutive patients who underwent clinician-referred exercise stress testing from 1991 through 2009. The patients ranged in age from 40 to 70 years, were without cancer, and were treated within the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit, Michigan. CRF, measured in metabolic equivalents of task (METs), was categorized as <6 (reference), 6 to 9, 10 to 11, and ≥12. Incident cancer was obtained through linkage to the cancer registry and all-cause mortality from the National Death Index. RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 54 ± 8 years. Approximately 46% were female, 64% were white, 29% were black, and 1% were Hispanic. The median follow-up was 7.7 years. Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for age, race, sex, body mass index, smoking history, and diabetes, found that those in the highest fitness category (METs ≥12) had a 77% decreased risk of lung cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 0.23; 95% CI, 0.14-0.36) and a 61% decreased risk of incident colorectal cancer (HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.23-0.66; with additional adjustment for aspirin and statin use). Among those diagnosed with lung and colorectal cancer, those with high fitness had a decreased risk of subsequent death of 44% and 89%, respectively (HR, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.32-1.00] and HR, 0.11 [95% CI, 0.03-0.37], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In what to the authors' knowledge is the largest study performed to date, higher CRF was associated with a lower risk of incident lung and colorectal cancer in men and women and a lower risk of all-cause mortality among those diagnosed with lung or colorectal cancer.

8.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 42, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Models that accurately predict risk of breast cancer are needed to help younger women make decisions about when to begin screening. Premenopausal concentrations of circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a biomarker of ovarian reserve, and testosterone have been positively associated with breast cancer risk in prospective studies. We assessed whether adding AMH and/or testosterone to the Gail model improves its prediction performance for women aged 35-50. METHODS: In a nested case-control study including ten prospective cohorts (1762 invasive cases/1890 matched controls) with pre-diagnostic serum/plasma samples, we estimated relative risks (RR) for the biomarkers and Gail risk factors using conditional logistic regression and random-effects meta-analysis. Absolute risk models were developed using these RR estimates, attributable risk fractions calculated using the distributions of the risk factors in the cases from the consortium, and population-based incidence and mortality rates. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminatory accuracy of the models with and without biomarkers. RESULTS: The AUC for invasive breast cancer including only the Gail risk factor variables was 55.3 (95% CI 53.4, 57.1). The AUC increased moderately with the addition of AMH (AUC 57.6, 95% CI 55.7, 59.5), testosterone (AUC 56.2, 95% CI 54.4, 58.1), or both (AUC 58.1, 95% CI 56.2, 59.9). The largest AUC improvement (4.0) was among women without a family history of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: AMH and testosterone moderately increase the discriminatory accuracy of the Gail model among women aged 35-50. We observed the largest AUC increase for women without a family history of breast cancer, the group that would benefit most from improved risk prediction because early screening is already recommended for women with a family history.

9.
BMJ ; 364: k4981, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of prospectively measured circulating high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration and risk of lung cancer overall, by smoking status (never, former, and current smokers), and histological sub-type. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. SETTING: 20 population based cohort studies in Asia, Europe, Australia, and the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 5299 patients with incident lung cancer, with individually incidence density matched controls. EXPOSURE: Circulating hsCRP concentrations in prediagnostic serum or plasma samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident lung cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: A positive association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer for current (odds ratio associated with a doubling in hsCRP concentration 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.13) and former smokers (1.09, 1.04 to 1.14) was observed, but not for never smokers (P<0.01 for interaction). This association was strong and consistent across all histological subtypes, except for adenocarcinoma, which was not strongly associated with hsCRP concentration regardless of smoking status (odds ratio for adenocarcinoma overall 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.01). The association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer was strongest in the first two years of follow-up for former and current smokers. Including hsCRP concentration in a risk model, in addition to smoking based variables, did not improve risk discrimination overall, but slightly improved discrimination for cancers diagnosed in the first two years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Former and current smokers with higher circulating hsCRP concentrations had a higher risk of lung cancer overall. Circulating hsCRP concentration was not associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma. Circulating hsCRP concentration could be a prediagnostic marker of lung cancer rather than a causal risk factor.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ex-Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 174(2): 401-412, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560461

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Estrogen receptor-alpha (ER) is a therapeutic target of ER-positive (ER+) breast cancers. Although ER signaling is complex, many mediators of this pathway have been identified. Specifically, phosphorylation of ER at serine 118 affects responses to estrogen and therapeutic ligands and has been correlated with clinical outcomes in ER+ breast cancer patients. We hypothesized that a newly described germline variant (S118P) at this residue would drive cellular changes consistent with breast cancer development and/or hormone resistance. METHODS: Isogenic human breast epithelial cell line models harboring ER S118P were developed via genome editing and characterized to determine the functional effects of this variant. We also examined the frequency of ER S118P in a case-control study (N = 536) of women with and without breast cancer with a familial risk. RESULTS: In heterozygous knock-in models, the S118P variant demonstrated no significant change in proliferation, migration, MAP Kinase pathway signaling, or response to the endocrine therapies tamoxifen and fulvestrant. Further, there was no difference in the prevalence of S118P between women with and without cancer relative to population registry databases. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the ER S118P variant does not affect risk for breast cancer or hormone therapy resistance. Germline screening and modification of treatments for patients harboring this variant are likely not warranted.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Fulvestranto/uso terapêutico , Variação Genética , Humanos , Incidência , Células MCF-7 , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosforilação , Análise de Sobrevida , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Ann Intern Med ; 170(1): 22-30, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30534999

RESUMO

Background: Parity is widely recognized as protective for breast cancer, but breast cancer risk may be increased shortly after childbirth. Whether this risk varies with breastfeeding, family history of breast cancer, or specific tumor subtype has rarely been evaluated. Objective: To characterize breast cancer risk in relation to recent childbirth. Design: Pooled analysis of individual-level data from 15 prospective cohort studies. Setting: The international Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group. Participants: Women younger than 55 years. Measurements: During 9.6 million person-years of follow-up, 18 826 incident cases of breast cancer were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for breast cancer were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Compared with nulliparous women, parous women had an HR for breast cancer that peaked about 5 years after birth (HR, 1.80 [95% CI, 1.63 to 1.99]) before decreasing to 0.77 (CI, 0.67 to 0.88) after 34 years. The association crossed over from positive to negative about 24 years after birth. The overall pattern was driven by estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer; no crossover was seen for ER-negative cancer. Increases in breast cancer risk after childbirth were pronounced when combined with a family history of breast cancer and were greater for women who were older at first birth or who had more births. Breastfeeding did not modify overall risk patterns. Limitations: Breast cancer diagnoses during pregnancy were not uniformly distinguishable from early postpartum diagnoses. Data on human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) oncogene overexpression were limited. Conclusion: Compared with nulliparous women, parous women have an increased risk for breast cancer for more than 20 years after childbirth. Health care providers should consider recent childbirth a risk factor for breast cancer in young women. Primary Funding Source: The Avon Foundation, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Breast Cancer Now and the UK National Health Service, and the Institute of Cancer Research.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 58-69, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561796

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer risk factors differ by histotype; however, within subtype, there is substantial variability in outcomes. We hypothesized that risk factor profiles may influence tumor aggressiveness, defined by time between diagnosis and death, independent of histology. Among 1.3 million women from 21 prospective cohorts, 4,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified and classified as highly aggressive (death in <1 year, n = 864), very aggressive (death in 1 to < 3 years, n = 1,390), moderately aggressive (death in 3 to < 5 years, n = 639), and less aggressive (lived 5+ years, n = 1,691). Using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression, we assessed heterogeneity of associations by tumor aggressiveness for all cases and among serous and endometrioid/clear cell tumors. Associations between parity (phet = 0.01), family history of ovarian cancer (phet = 0.02), body mass index (BMI; phet ≤ 0.04) and smoking (phet < 0.01) and ovarian cancer risk differed by aggressiveness. A first/single pregnancy, relative to nulliparity, was inversely associated with highly aggressive disease (HR: 0.72; 95% CI [0.58-0.88]), no association was observed for subsequent pregnancies (per pregnancy, 0.97 [0.92-1.02]). In contrast, first and subsequent pregnancies were similarly associated with less aggressive disease (0.87 for both). Family history of ovarian cancer was only associated with risk of less aggressive disease (1.94 [1.47-2.55]). High BMI (≥35 vs. 20 to < 25 kg/m2 , 1.93 [1.46-2.56] and current smoking (vs. never, 1.30 [1.07-1.57]) were associated with increased risk of highly aggressive disease. Results were similar within histotypes. Ovarian cancer risk factors may be directly associated with subtypes defined by tumor aggressiveness, rather than through differential effects on histology. Studies to assess biological pathways are warranted.

13.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499135

RESUMO

Vitamin B supplementation can have side effects for human health, including cancer risk. We aimed to elucidate the role of vitamin B12 in lung cancer aetiology via direct measurements of pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin B12 concentrations in a nested case-control study, complemented with a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach in an independent case-control sample. We used pre-diagnostic biomarker data from 5,183 case-control pairs nested within 20 prospective cohorts, and genetic data from 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. Exposures included directly measured circulating vitamin B12 in pre-diagnostic blood samples from the nested case-control study, and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with vitamin B12 concentrations in the MR study. Our main outcome of interest was increased risk for lung cancer, overall and by histological subtype, per increase in circulating vitamin B12 concentrations. We found circulating vitamin B12 to be positively associated with overall lung cancer risk in a dose response fashion (odds ratio for a doubling in B12 [ORlog2B12 ] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.06-1.25). The MR analysis based on 8 genetic variants also indicated that genetically determined higher vitamin B12 concentrations were positively associated with overall lung cancer risk (OR per 150 pmol/L standard deviation increase in B12 [ORSD ]= 1.08, 95%CI= 1.00-1.16). Considering the consistency of these two independent and complementary analyses, these findings support the hypothesis that high vitamin B12 status increases the risk of lung cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541042

RESUMO

Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify associations of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with cancer risk but usually only explain a fraction of the inherited variability. Pathway analysis of genetic variants is a powerful tool to identify networks of susceptibility genes. Methods: We conducted a large agnostic pathway-based meta-analysis of GWAS data using the summary-based adaptive rank truncated product method to identify gene sets and pathways associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in 9040 cases and 12 496 controls. We performed expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and functional annotation of the top SNPs in genes contributing to the top associated pathways and gene sets. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: We identified 14 pathways and gene sets associated with PDAC at a false discovery rate of less than 0.05. After Bonferroni correction (P ≤ 1.3 × 10-5), the strongest associations were detected in five pathways and gene sets, including maturity-onset diabetes of the young, regulation of beta-cell development, role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transactivation by G protein-coupled receptors in cardiac hypertrophy pathways, and the Nikolsky breast cancer chr17q11-q21 amplicon and Pujana ATM Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) network gene sets. We identified and validated rs876493 and three correlating SNPs (PGAP3) and rs3124737 (CASP7) from the Pujana ATM PCC gene set as eQTLs in two normal derived pancreas tissue datasets. Conclusion: Our agnostic pathway and gene set analysis integrated with functional annotation and eQTL analysis provides insight into genes and pathways that may be biologically relevant for risk of PDAC, including those not previously identified.

15.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 134, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30424783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis, an indicator of significant bone loss, has been consistently reported among older breast cancer survivors. Data are limited on the incidence of osteopenia, an earlier indicator of bone loss, and osteoporosis in younger breast cancer survivors compared with cancer-free women. METHODS: We prospectively examined bone loss in 211 breast cancer survivors (mean age at breast cancer diagnosis = 47 years) compared with 567 cancer-free women in the same cohort with familial risk for breast cancer. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of osteopenia and/or osteoporosis incidence based on physician diagnosis. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 5.8 years, 66% of breast cancer survivors and 53% of cancer-free women reported having a bone density examination, and 112 incident cases of osteopenia and/or osteoporosis were identified. Breast cancer survivors had a 68% higher risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis compared to cancer-free women (HR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.12-2.50). The association was stronger among recent survivors after only 2 years of follow-up (HR = 2.74, 95% CI = 1.37-5.47). A higher risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis was also observed among survivors aged ≤ 50 years, estrogen receptor-positive tumors, and those treated with aromatase inhibitors alone or chemotherapy plus any hormone therapy relative to cancer-free women. CONCLUSIONS: Younger breast cancer survivors are at higher risk for osteopenia and osteoporosis compared to cancer-free women. Studies are needed to determine effective approaches to minimize bone loss in this population.

16.
Cancer Res ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425058

RESUMO

Previous prospective studies assessing the relationship between circulating concentrations of vitamin D and prostate cancer risk have shown inconclusive results, particularly for risk of aggressive disease. In this study, we examine the association between pre-diagnostic concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25(OH)2D and the risk of prostate cancer overall and by tumor characteristics. Principal investigators of 19 prospective studies provided individual participant data on circulating 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D for up to 13,462 men with incident prostate cancer and 20,261 control participants. Odds ratios (OR) for prostate cancer by study-specific fifths of season-standardized vitamin D concentration were estimated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. 25(OH)D concentration was positively associated with risk for total prostate cancer (multivariable-adjusted OR comparing highest versus lowest study-specific fifth was 1.22, 95% CI 1.13-1.31; P trend<0.001). However, this association varied by disease aggressiveness (Pheterogeneity=0.014); higher circulating 25(OH)D was associated with a higher risk of non-aggressive disease (OR per 80 percentile increase=1.24, 1.13-1.36) but not with aggressive disease (defined as stage 4, metastases, or prostate cancer death, 0.95, 0.78-1.15). 1,25(OH)2D concentration was not associated with risk for prostate cancer overall or by tumor characteristics. The absence of an association of vitamin D with aggressive disease does not support the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency increases prostate cancer risk. Rather, the association of high circulating 25(OH)D concentration with a higher risk of non-aggressive prostate cancer may be influenced by detection bias.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30322882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Credit scores have been identified as a marker of disease burden. This study investigated credit scores' association with chronic diseases and health behaviours that are associated with chronic diseases. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis included data on 2083 residents of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA in 2015. Nine-digit ZIP code level FICO credit scores were appended to individual self-reported chronic diseases (obesity, diabetes, hypertension) and related health behaviours (smoking, exercise, and salt intake and medication adherence among those with hypertension). Models adjusted for individual-level and area-level demographics and retail pharmacy accessibility. RESULTS: Median ZIP code credit score was 665 (SD=58). In adjusted models, each 50-point increase in ZIP code credit score was significantly associated with: 8% lower chronic disease risk; 6% lower overweight/obesity risk, 19% lower diabetes risk; 9% lower hypertension risk and 14% lower smoking risk. Other health behaviours were not significantly associated. Compared with high prime credit, subprime credit score was significantly associated with a 15%-70% increased risk of chronic disease, following a dose-response pattern with a prime rating. CONCLUSION: Lower area level credit scores may be associated with greater chronic disease prevalence but not necessarily with related health behaviours. Area-level consumer credit may make a novel contribution to identifying chronic disease patterns.

18.
Gastroenterology ; 2018 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Previous studies reported an association of the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, the primary cause of gastric cancer, and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, these findings have been inconsistent, appear to vary with population characteristics, and may be specific for virulence factor VacA. To more thoroughly evaluate the potential association of H pylori antibodies with CRC risk, we assembled a large consortium of cohorts representing diverse populations in the United States. METHODS: We used H pylori multiplex serologic assays to analyze serum samples from 4063 incident cases of CRC, collected before diagnosis, and 4063 matched individuals without CRC (controls) from 10 prospective cohorts for antibody responses to 13 H pylori proteins, including virulence factors VacA and CagA. The association of seropositivity to H pylori proteins, as well as protein-specific antibody level, with odds of CRC was determined by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 40% of controls and 41% of cases were H pylori-seropositive (odds ratio [OR], 1.09; 95% CI, 0.99-1.20). H pylori VacA-specific seropositivity was associated with an 11% increased odds of CRC (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.22), and this association was particularly strong among African Americans (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.08-1.95). Additionally, odds of CRC increased with level of VacA antibody in the overall cohort (P = .008) and specifically among African Americans (P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of a large consortium of cohorts representing diverse populations, we found serologic responses to H pylori VacA to associate with increased risk of CRC risk, particularly for African Americans. Future studies should seek to understand whether this marker is related to virulent H pylori strains carried in these populations.

19.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 11(11): 697-706, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30232083

RESUMO

The prognosis of women diagnosed with invasive high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) is poor. More information about serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) and serous tubal intraepithelial lesions (STIL), putative precursor lesions of HGSC, could inform prevention efforts. We conducted a multicenter study to identify risk/protective factors associated with STIC/STILs and characterize p53 signatures in the fallopian tube. The fallopian tubes and ovaries of 479 high-risk women ≥30 years of age who underwent bilateral risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy were reviewed for invasive cancer/STICs/STILs. Epidemiologic data was available for 400 of these women. In 105 women, extensive sampling of the tubes for STICs/STILs/p53 signatures were undertaken. Descriptive statistics were used to compare groups with and without lesions. The combined prevalence of unique tubal lesions [invasive serous cancer (n = 6) /STICs (n = 14)/STILs (n = 5)] was 6.3% and this was split equally among BRCA1 (3.0%) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (3.3%). A diagnosis of invasive cancer was associated with older age but no risk/protective factor was significantly associated with STICs/STILs. Extensive sampling identified double the number of STICs/STILs (11.9%), many p53 signatures (27.0%), and multiple lesions in 50% of the cases. Women with p53 signatures in the fimbria were older than women with signatures in the remaining tube (P = 0.03). STICs/STILs may not share the protective factors that are associated with HGSC. It is plausible that these factors are only associated with STICs that progress to HGSC. Having multiple lesions in the fimbria may be an important predictor of disease progression. Cancer Prev Res; 11(11); 697-706. ©2018 AACR.

20.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230539

RESUMO

Elevated serum sCD27 and sCD30 from a single banked sample have been associated with future non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk; however, the etiologic relevance of this finding is unclear. To address this question, we conducted a case-control study (235 cases, 235 controls) nested within the CLUE-I and CLUE-II cohorts, which enrolled participants in 1974 and 1989 respectively in Washington County, Maryland. Our study features a subset of 102 cases and 102 controls with two banked pre-diagnostic samples each, collected fifteen years apart. In analyses involving an individual sample per subject, both sCD27 and sCD30 were associated with NHL diagnosed up to 20 years later. In analyses involving repeated samples, cases were significantly more likely than controls to have higher analyte levels in the CLUE-II vs. CLUE-I sample for sCD27 (P = 0.006) but not sCD30 (P = 0.16). In joint analyses of dichotomized analyte levels in both samples, the strongest NHL association observed for sCD27 was for having below-median levels in CLUE-I and above-median levels in CLUE-II [odds ratio (OR) 3.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-9.2 vs. below-median levels in both). In joint analyses for sCD30, the strongest NHL association was observed for having above-median levels in both samples (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-3.7), particularly for cases diagnosed >10 years after the CLUE-II sample (OR 2.4, 95% CI 0.9-6.7). Our findings suggest that sCD27 is a disease marker for NHL and add to the weight of evidence that elevated circulating sCD30 is a marker of increased NHL susceptibility. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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