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1.
Clin Pract ; 11(2): 190-192, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808063

RESUMO

Regional anesthesia is an important aspect of the overall anesthetic plan for patients. It has the potential to offer superior benefits compared to opioid-based treatment and is an important component of Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) protocols. The use of the pectoral type I (PECS I) and pectoral type II blocks (PECS II) has been shown to reduce postoperative pain and opioid consumption in patients undergoing complete mastectomy and breast surgery. We describe the use of dexamethasone and dexmedetomidine to prolong the analgesic effects of these regional blocks in a patient undergoing total mastectomy with lymph node dissection.

2.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804565

RESUMO

Thoracic outlet syndrome comprises a group of disorders that result in compression of the brachial plexus and subclavian vessels exiting the thoracic outlet. Symptoms include pain, paresthesia, pallor, and weakness depending upon the compromised structures. While consensus in diagnostic criteria has not yet been established, a thorough patient history, physical exam, and appropriate imaging studies are helpful in diagnosis. General first-line therapy for thoracic outlet syndrome is a conservative treatment, and may include physical therapy, lifestyle modifications, NSAIDs, and injection therapy of botulinum toxin A or steroids. Patients who have failed conservative therapy are considered for surgical decompression. This article aims to review the epidemiology, etiology, relevant anatomy, clinical presentations, diagnosis, and management of thoracic outlet syndrome.

5.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(4): 21, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693989

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide relevant, aggregate information about a variety of disinfectants and antiseptics, along with potential utility and limitations. While not exhaustive, this review's goal is to add to the body of literature available on this topic and give interventional providers and practitioners an additional resource to consider when performing procedures. RECENT FINDINGS: In the current SARS-CoV2 epidemiological environment, infection control and costs associated with healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are of paramount importance. Even before the onset of SARS-CoV2, HAIs affected nearly 2million patients a year in the USA and resulted in nearly 90,000 deaths, all of which resulted in a cost to hospitals ranging from US$28 billion to 45 billion. The onset SARS-CoV2, though not spread by an airborne route, has heightened infection control protocols in hospitals and, as such, cast a renewed focus on disinfectants and their utility across different settings and organisms. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of disinfectants used in the inpatient setting.

6.
Neurol Int ; 13(1): 64-78, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670456

RESUMO

Valtoco® is a new FDA-approved nasal spray version of diazepam indicated for the treatment of acute, intermittent, and stereotypic episodes of frequent seizure activity in epilepsy patients six years of age and older. Although IV and rectal diazepam are already used to treat seizure clusters, Valtoco® has less variability in plasma concentration compared to rectal diazepam. Furthermore, the intranasal administration of Valtoco® is more convenient and less invasive than rectal or IV diazepam, making it ideal for self-administration outside of a hospital setting. Multiple clinical trials have taken place comparing Valtoco® to the oral, rectal, and IV forms of diazepam. Aside from mild nasal irritation and lacrimation, Valtoco® was found to have no increased safety risk in comparison to traditional forms of diazepam. This review of Valtoco® will include a history of diazepam prescribing and withdrawal treatment, Valtoco® drug information, its mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and a comprehensive review of clinical studies.

7.
Cardiol Ther ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704678

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic venous insufficiency is found to some extent in a large proportion of the world's population, especially in the elderly and obese. Despite its prevalence, little research has been pursued into this pathology when compared to similarly common conditions. Pain is often the presenting symptom of chronic venous insufficiency and has significant deleterious effects on quality of life. This manuscript will describe the development of pain in chronic venous insufficiency, and will also review both traditional methods of pain management and novel advances in both medical and surgical therapy for this disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Pain in chronic venous insufficiency is a common complication which remains poorly correlated in recent studies with the clinically observable extent of disease. Although lifestyle modification remains the foundation of treatment for pain associated with chronic venous sufficiency, compression devices and various pharmacologic agents have emerged as safe and effective treatments for pain in these patients. In patients for whom these measures are insufficient, recently developed minimally invasive vascular surgical techniques have been shown to reduce postsurgical complications and recovery time, although additional research is necessary to characterize long-term outcomes of these procedures. This review discusses the latest findings concerning the pathophysiology of pain in chronic venous insufficiency, conservative and medical management, and surgical strategies for pain relief, including minimally invasive treatment strategies.

8.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(3): 13, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630172

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This is a comprehensive review of the superior hypogastric block for the management of chronic pelvic pain. It reviews the background, including etiology, epidemiology, and current treatment available for chronic pelvic pain. It then presents the superior hypogastric block and reviews the seminal and most recent evidence about its use in chronic pelvic pain. RECENT FINDINGS: Several definitions exist for chronic pelvic pain (CPP), making the diagnosis more challenging for the clinician; however, they commonly describe continuous pain lasting 6 months in the pelvis, with an overwhelming majority of patients being reproductive-aged women. This pain is often one of mechanical, inflammatory, or neuropathic. It is generally underdiagnosed and affects anywhere between 5 and 26% of women. The diagnosis of chronic pelvic pain is clinical, consisting of mainly of a thorough history and physical and ruling out other causes. The pathophysiology is often endometriosis (70%) and also includes PID, adhesions, adenomyosis, uterine fibroids, chronic processes of the GI and urinary tracts, as well as pelvic-intrinsic musculoskeletal causes. Treatment includes physical therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and oral and parenteral opioids. Interventional techniques provide an added tier of treatment and may help to reduce the requirement for chronic opioid use. Superior hypogastric plexus block is one of the available interventional techniques; first described in 1990, it has been shown to provide long-lasting relief in 50-70% of patients who underwent the procedure. Two approaches described so far, both under fluoroscopy, have seen similar results. More recently, ultrasound and CT-guided procedures have also been described with similar success. The injectate includes local anesthetic, steroids, and neurolytic agents such as phenol or ethanol. CPP is a common debilitating condition. It is diagnosed clinically and is underdiagnosed globally. Current treatments can be helpful at times but may fall short of satisfactory pain relief. Interventional techniques provide an added layer of treatment as well as reduce the requirement for opioids. Superior hypogastric plexus block provides long-lasting relief in many patients, regardless of approach. Evidence level is limited, and further RCTs could help provide better tools for evaluation and patient selection.

11.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(1): 2, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443607

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This evidence-based systematic review will focus on the use of acupuncture and its role in the treatment of low back pain to help better guide physicians in their practice. It will cover the background and the burden of low back pain and present the current options for treatment and weigh the evidence that is available to support acupuncture as a treatment modality for low back pain. RECENT FINDINGS: Low back pain (LBP), defined as a disorder of the lumbosacral spine and categorized as acute, subacute, or chronic, can be a debilitating condition for many patients. Chronic LBP is more typically defined by its chronicity with pain persisting > 12 weeks in duration. Conventional treatment for chronic LBP includes both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic options. First-line pharmacologic therapy involves the use of NSAIDs, then SNRI/TCA/skeletal muscle relaxants, and antiepileptics. Surgery is usually not recommended for chronic non-specific LBP patients. According to the 2016 CDC Guidelines for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain and the 2017 American College of Physicians (ACP) clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain, non-pharmacologic interventions, acupuncture can be a first-line treatment for patients suffering from chronic low back pain. Many studies have been done, and most show promising results for acupuncture as an alternative treatment for low back pain. Due to non-standardized methods for acupuncture with many variations, standardization remains a challenge.

12.
Pain Physician ; 24(1): E45-E50, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Twelfth rib syndrome, or slipping of the 12th rib, is an often overlooked cause for chronic chest, back, flank, and abdominal pain from irritation of the 12th intercostal nerve. Diagnosis is clinical and follows the exclusion of other causes of pain. This syndrome is usually accompanied by long-suffering, consequent psychiatric comorbidities, and increased health care costs, which are secondary to the delayed diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: This manuscript is a review of twelfth rib syndrome and its management options. The review provides etiology, pathophysiology, and epidemiology of twelfth rib syndrome. Additionally, diagnosis and current options for treatment and management are presented. STUDY DESIGN: This is a narrative review of twelfth rib syndrome. SETTING: A database review. METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted to ascertain seminal literature regarding twelfth rib syndrome. RESULTS: Conservative treatment is usually the first line, including local heat or ice packs, rest, and oral over-the-counter analgesics. Transcutaneous stimulation and 12th intercostal nerve cryotherapy have also been described with some success. Nerve blocks can additionally be tried and are usually effective in the immediate term; there is a paucity of evidence to suggest long-term efficacy. Surgical removal of all or part of the 12th rib and possibly the 11th rib, as well as the next line of therapy, may provide long-lasting relief of pain. LIMITATIONS: Further large scale clinical studies are needed to assess the most effective management of twelfth rib syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Twelfth rib syndrome is usually diagnosed late and causes significant morbidity and suffering. The actual epidemiology is unclear given the difficulty of diagnosis. Nerve blocks and surgical rib resection appear to be effective in treating this syndrome, however, further evidence is required to properly evaluate them. Familiarity with this syndrome is crucial in reaching a prompter diagnosis.

14.
Curr Oncol ; 28(1): 640-660, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494319

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by excessive clonal proliferation of plasma cells. The treatment of multiple myeloma presents a variety of unique challenges due to the complex molecular pathophysiology and incurable status of the disease at this time. Given that MM is the second most common blood cancer with a characteristic and unavoidable relapse/refractory state during the course of the disease, the development of new therapeutic modalities is crucial. Belantamab mafodotin (belamaf, GSK2857916) is a first-in-class therapeutic, indicated for patients who have previously attempted four other treatments, including an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody, a proteosome inhibitor, and an immunomodulatory agent. In November 2017, the FDA designated belamaf as a breakthrough therapy for heavily pretreated patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. In August 2020, the FDA granted accelerated approval as a monotherapy for relapsed or treatment-refractory multiple myeloma. The drug was also approved in the EU for this indication in late August 2020. Of note, belamaf is associated with the following adverse events: decreased platelets, corneal disease, decreased or blurred vision, anemia, infusion-related reactions, pyrexia, and fetal risk, among others. Further studies are necessary to evaluate efficacy in comparison to other standard treatment modalities and as future drugs in this class are developed.

16.
Neurol Int ; 12(3): 89-108, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287177

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a prevalent and debilitating neurologic condition characterized by widespread neurodegeneration and the formation of focal demyelinating plaques in the central nervous system. Current therapeutic options are complex and attempt to manage acute relapse, modify disease, and manage symptoms. Such therapies often prove insufficient alone and highlight the need for more targeted MS treatments with reduced systemic side effect profiles. Ozanimod is a novel S1P (sphingosine-1-phosphate) receptor modulator used for the treatment of clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting, and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. It selectively modulates S1P1 and S1P5 receptors to prevent autoreactive lymphocytes from entering the CNS where they can promote nerve damage and inflammation. Ozanimod was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) for the management of multiple sclerosis in March 2020 and has been proved to be both effective and well tolerated. Of note, ozanimod is associated with the following complications: increased risk of infections, liver injury, fetal risk, increased blood pressure, respiratory effects, macular edema, and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, among others. Further investigation including head-to-head clinical trials is warranted to evaluate the efficacy of ozanimod compared with other S1P1 receptor modulators.

17.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(4): 681-686, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288118

RESUMO

Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is an undesirable outcome that occurs in up to 30% of patients. Over the years, the cost of treating PONV has decreased due to the availability of cheaper yet effective antiemetics. Limiting PONV development benefits the hospital system as studies have shown that prevention is associated with shorter post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) stays as well as decreased supply costs and staffing burden. The financial burden for prophylaxis against PONV has been shown to be less than what patients are willing to pay to prevent the development of PONV. Studies have also shown that prevention of initial development of PONV limits readmission rates, which is beneficial to both the patient and the hospital. Owing to recent economic analysis and reductions in antiemetic prices, the patient's preference for comfort, the hospital's commitment to providing the best care, and the system's desire for fiscal prudence are aligned. This culminates in recommending PONV prophylaxis for all patients undergoing anesthesia.

18.
Neurol Int ; 12(3): 109-129, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302331

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that leads to significant morbidity and disability. PD is caused by a loss of dopaminergic, cholinergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), and peripherally; the syndromic parkinsonism symptoms of movement disorder, gait disorder, rigidity and tremor are mostly driven by the loss of these neurons in the basal ganglia. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of patients taking levodopa, the standard of care treatment for PD, will begin to experience a decrease in effectiveness at varying times. These periods, referred to as "off episodes", are characterized by increased symptoms and have a detrimental effect on quality of life and disability. Istradefylline, a novel adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, is indicated as a treatment addition to levodopa/carbidopa in patients experiencing "off episodes". It promotes dopaminergic activity by antagonizing adenosine in the basal ganglia. This review will discuss istradefylline as a treatment for PD patients with off episodes.

19.
Pulm Ther ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263926

RESUMO

End-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most common indication for single- or double-lung transplantation. Acute native lung hyperinflation (ANLH) is a unique postoperative complication of single-lung transplantation for COPD patients, with incidence varying in the medical literature from 15 to 30%. The diagnosis is made radiographically by contralateral mediastinal shift and ipsilateral diaphragmatic flattening. ANLH can deteriorate into hemodynamic instability, and respiratory impairment can result from compression of the allograft, which can precipitate atelectasis, hypoxemia, and hypercapnia, necessitating specific ventilatory intervention or volume reduction surgery. Currently, there is consensus for a therapeutic role of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in acute respiratory failure after lung transplantation as a well-tolerated measure to avoid re-intubation. This manuscript presents a concise review on the diagnosis and treatment of ANLH following unilateral lung transplant, along with a management algorithm created by the authors.

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