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1.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226547, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869356

RESUMO

Benthic invertebrates are the most commonly used organisms used to assess ecological status as required by the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). For WFD-compliant assessments, benthic invertebrate communities are sampled, identified and counted. Taxa × abundance matrices are used to calculate indices and the resulting scores are compared to reference values to determine the ecological status class. DNA-based tools, such as DNA metabarcoding, provide a new and precise method for species identification but cannot deliver robust abundance data. To evaluate the applicability of DNA-based tools to ecological status assessment, we evaluated whether the results derived from presence/absence data are comparable to those derived from abundance data. We analysed benthic invertebrate community data obtained from 13,312 WFD assessments of German streams. Broken down to 30 official stream types, we compared assessment results based on abundance and presence/absence data for the assessment modules "organic pollution" (i.e., the saprobic index) and "general degradation" (a multimetric index) as well as their underlying metrics. In 76.6% of cases, the ecological status class did not change after transforming abundance data to presence/absence data. In 12% of cases, the status class was reduced by one (e.g., from good to moderate), and in 11.2% of cases, the class increased by one. In only 0.2% of cases, the status shifted by two classes. Systematic stream type-specific deviations were found and differences between abundance and presence/absence data were most prominent for stream types where abundance information contributed directly to one or several metrics of the general degradation module. For a single stream type, these deviations led to a systematic shift in status from 'good' to 'moderate' (n = 201; with only n = 3 increasing). The systematic decrease in scores was observed, even when considering simulated confidence intervals for abundance data. Our analysis suggests that presence/absence data can yield similar assessment results to those for abundance-based data, despite type-specific deviations. For most metrics, it should be possible to intercalibrate the two data types without substantial efforts. Thus, benthic invertebrate taxon lists generated by standardised DNA-based methods should be further considered as a complementary approach.

2.
Zookeys ; (773): 79-108, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026662

RESUMO

Himalopsyche Banks, 1940 (Trichoptera, Rhyacophilidae) is a genus of caddisflies inhabiting mountain and alpine environments in Central and East Asia and the Nearctic. Of 53 known species, only five species have been described previously in the aquatic larval stage. We perform life stage association using three strategies (GMYC, PTP, and reciprocal monophyly) based on fragments of two molecular markers: the nuclear CAD, and the mitochondrial COI gene. A total of 525 individuals from across the range of Himalopsyche (Himalayas, Hengduan Shan, Tian Shan, South East Asia, Japan, and western North America) was analysed and 32 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in our dataset delimited. Four distinct larval types of Himalopsyche are uncovered, and these are defined as the phryganea type, japonica type, tibetana type, and gigantea type and a comparative morphological characterisation of the larval types is presented. The larval types differ in a number of traits, most prominently in their gill configuration, as well as in other features such as setal configuration of the pronotum and presence/absence of accessory hooks of the anal prolegs.

3.
Zookeys ; (766): 63-77, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930479

RESUMO

The Ethiopian caddisfly fauna comprises 85 species, including 10 Oecetis species and three Lepidostoma species. In this context we provide the first species-level descriptions of Ethiopian caddisfly larvae. We describe and illustrate the larvae of O. mizrain and L. scotti, with additional notes on their habitats and distribution.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 637-638: 1295-1310, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29801222

RESUMO

The bioassessment of aquatic ecosystems is currently based on various biotic indices that use the occurrence and/or abundance of selected taxonomic groups to define ecological status. These conventional indices have some limitations, often related to difficulties in morphological identification of bioindicator taxa. Recent development of DNA barcoding and metabarcoding could potentially alleviate some of these limitations, by using DNA sequences instead of morphology to identify organisms and to characterize a given ecosystem. In this paper, we review the structure of conventional biotic indices, and we present the results of pilot metabarcoding studies using environmental DNA to infer biotic indices. We discuss the main advantages and pitfalls of metabarcoding approaches to assess parameters such as richness, abundance, taxonomic composition and species ecological values, to be used for calculation of biotic indices. We present some future developments to fully exploit the potential of metabarcoding data and improve the accuracy and precision of their analysis. We also propose some recommendations for the future integration of DNA metabarcoding to routine biomonitoring programs.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ecossistema
5.
Zootaxa ; 4370(2): 171-179, 2018 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29689863

RESUMO

In this contribution, we describe Isoperla vjosae sp. nov. from Albania. We characterize males, females, and larvae of the new species collected at the Vjosa River using morphological and molecular approaches. Isoperla vjosae sp.nov. is a member of the I. tripartita group, which is widely distributed in the Balkans. This new endemic species is being threatened by a proposed hydroelectric power dam on the Vjosa River impacting the type locality - a large, shifting gravel, low altitude River - an atypical habitat for larvae of the I. tripartita group. For the first time we use molecular tools to delineate Isoperla species from the Balkans.


Assuntos
Insetos , Albânia , Animais , Península Balcânica , Ecossistema , Feminino , Larva , Masculino
6.
Zootaxa ; 4379(1): 74-86, 2018 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29689974

RESUMO

This contribution describes the previously unknown larva of Adicella cremisa Malicky 1972. Information on the morphology of the 5th larval instar is given and the important diagnostic features are highlighted on micrographs. Within the genus Adicella the hitherto known larvae differ in color patterns of the head capsule, the morphology of the posterior process of abdominal segment I, and in setation patterns on the metanotum, metasternum, abdominal segment IX, and anal prolegs. With respect to zoogeography, A. filicornis and A. reducta are widespread throughout Europe whereas A. cremisa is restricted to European Ecoregions 3 (Italian Mainland), 5 (Dinaric Western Balkan: Slovenia, Croatia), 9 (Central Highlands: Austria) and 11 (Hungarian Plains; Vienna). Based on mandible morphology, A. cremisa is likely a collector-gatherer and shredder.


Assuntos
Insetos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Áustria , Croácia , Europa (Continente) , Larva , Eslovênia
7.
J Proteome Res ; 17(4): 1397-1414, 2018 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466015

RESUMO

In many insects, mating induces drastic changes in male and female responses to sex pheromones or host-plant odors. In the male moth Agrotis ipsilon, mating induces a transient inhibition of behavioral and neuronal responses to the female sex pheromone. As neuropeptides and peptide hormones regulate most behavioral processes, we hypothesize that they could be involved in this mating-dependent olfactory plasticity. Here we used next-generation RNA sequencing and a combination of liquid chromatography, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, and direct tissue profiling to analyze the transcriptome and peptidome of different brain compartments in virgin and mated males and females of A. ipsilon. We identified 37 transcripts encoding putative neuropeptide precursors and 54 putative bioactive neuropeptides from 23 neuropeptide precursors (70 sequences in total, 25 neuropeptide precursors) in different areas of the central nervous system including the antennal lobes, the gnathal ganglion, and the corpora cardiaca-corpora allata complex. Comparisons between virgin and mated males and females revealed tissue-specific differences in peptide composition between sexes and according to physiological state. Mated males showed postmating differences in neuropeptide occurrence, which could participate in the mating-induced olfactory plasticity.


Assuntos
Mariposas/química , Neuropeptídeos/análise , Hormônios Peptídicos/análise , Proteômica/métodos , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Central/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Masculino , Peptídeos/análise , Fatores Sexuais , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
8.
Zookeys ; (711): 131-140, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29134032

RESUMO

Adicella syriaca is a leptocerid caddisfly distributed throughout the Balkan Peninsula, the Carpathians, the Hungarian Lowlands, the Pontic Province, and the Caucasus. This paper describes the previously unknown larva of this species, based on material from the Greek island of Corfu. Information on the morphology of the fifth larval instar is given, and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. A key to the known larvae of the European species of Adicella McLachlan, 1877 is provided. In the context of existing identification keys, the larva of Adicella syriaca Ulmer, 1907 keys together with Adicella cremisa Malicky, 1972, but the species pair can be easily separated by the number of setae on the pro- and mesonotum, and setation patterns on abdominal dorsum IX.

9.
BMC Evol Biol ; 17(1): 129, 2017 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28587671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taxonomy offers precise species identification and delimitation and thus provides basic information for biological research, e.g. through assessment of species richness. The importance of molecular taxonomy, i.e., the identification and delimitation of taxa based on molecular markers, has increased in the past decade. Recently developed exploratory tools now allow estimating species-level diversity in multi-locus molecular datasets. RESULTS: Here we use molecular species delimitation tools that either quantify differences in intra- and interspecific variability of loci, or divergence times within and between species, or perform coalescent species tree inference to estimate species-level entities in molecular genetic datasets. We benchmark results from these methods against 14 morphologically readily differentiable species of a well-defined subgroup of the diverse Drusinae subfamily (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae). Using a 3798 bp (6 loci) molecular data set we aim to corroborate a geographically isolated new species by integrating comparative morphological studies and molecular taxonomy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that only multi-locus species delimitation provides taxonomically relevant information. The data further corroborate the new species Drusus zivici sp. nov. We provide differential diagnostic characters and describe the male, female and larva of this new species and discuss diversity patterns of Drusinae in the Balkans. We further discuss potential and significance of molecular species delimitation. Finally we argue that enhancing collaborative integrative taxonomy will accelerate assessment of global diversity and completion of reference libraries for applied fields, e.g., conservation and biomonitoring.


Assuntos
Insetos/classificação , Insetos/genética , Animais , Península Balcânica , Feminino , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Insetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/genética , Masculino , Filogenia
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 205, 2017 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28441957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vector-pathogen dynamics are controlled by fluctuations of potential vector communities, such as the Culicidae. Assessment of mosquito community diversity and, in particular, identification of environmental parameters shaping these communities is therefore of key importance for the design of adequate surveillance approaches. In this study, we assess effects of climatic parameters and habitat structure on mosquito communities in eastern Austria to deliver these highly relevant baseline data. METHODS: Female mosquitoes were sampled twice a month from April to October 2014 and 2015 at 35 permanent and 23 non-permanent trapping sites using carbon dioxide-baited traps. Differences in spatial and seasonal abundance patterns of Culicidae taxa were identified using likelihood ratio tests; possible effects of environmental parameters on seasonal and spatial mosquito distribution were analysed using multivariate statistical methods. We assessed community responses to environmental parameters based on 14-day-average values that affect ontogenesis. RESULTS: Altogether 29,734 female mosquitoes were collected, and 21 of 42 native as well as two of four non-native mosquito species were reconfirmed in eastern Austria. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences in mosquito abundance between sampling years and provinces. Incidence and abundance patterns were found to be linked to 14-day mean sunshine duration, humidity, water-level maxima and the amount of precipitation. However, land cover classes were found to be the most important factor, effectively assigning both indigenous and non-native mosquito species to various communities, which responded differentially to environmental variables. CONCLUSIONS: These findings thus underline the significance of non-climatic variables for future mosquito prediction models and the necessity to consider these in mosquito surveillance programmes.


Assuntos
Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Insetos Vetores , Animais , Áustria , Clima , Culicidae/classificação , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 9: 197, 2016 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27067139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Culex pipiens complex taxa differ in behaviour, ecophysiology and epidemiologic importance. Despite their epidemiologic significance, information on genetic diversity, occurrence and seasonal and spatial distribution patterns of the Cx. pipiens complex is still insufficient. Assessment of seasonal and spatial distribution patterns of Culex pipiens forms and their congener Cx. torrentium is crucial for the understanding of their vector-pathogen dynamics. METHODS: Female mosquitoes were trapped from April-October 2014 twice a month for a 24-h time period with BG-sentinel traps at 24 sampling sites in eastern Austria, using carbon dioxide as attractant. Ecological forms of Cx. pipiens s.l. and their hybrids were differentiated using the CQ11 locus, and Cx. pipiens forms and their congener Cx. torrentium using the ACE-2 gene. Differential exploitation of ecological niches by Cx. pipiens forms and Cx. torrentium was analysed using likelihood ratio tests. Possible effects of environmental parameters on these taxa were tested using PERMANOVA based on distance matrices and, if significant, were modelled in nMDS ordination space to estimate non-linear relationships. RESULTS: For this study, 1476 Culex spp. were sampled. Culex pipiens f. pipiens representing 87.33 % of the total catch was most abundant, followed by hybrids of both forms (5.62 %), Cx. torrentium (3.79 %) and Cx. pipiens f. molestus (3.25 %). Differences in proportional abundances were found between land cover classes. Ecological parameters affecting seasonal and spatial distribution of these taxa in eastern Austria are precipitation duration, air temperature, sunlight and the interaction term of precipitation amount and the Danube water level, which can be interpreted as a proxy for breeding habitat availability. CONCLUSIONS: The Cx. pipiens complex of eastern Austria comprises both ecologically different forms, the mainly ornithophilic form pipiens and the mainly mammalophilic and anthropophilic form molestus. Heterogeneous agricultural areas as areas of coexistence may serve as hybridization zones, resulting in potential bridge vectors between birds and humans. Occurrence, seasonal and spatial distribution patterns of the Cx. pipiens complex and Cx. torrentium and the presence of hybrids between both forms were quantified for the first time in Austria. These findings will improve the knowledge of their vector-pathogen dynamics in this country.


Assuntos
Biota , Culex/classificação , Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Variação Genética , Animais , Áustria , Culex/genética , Feminino , Estações do Ano , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise Espaço-Temporal
12.
Zootaxa ; 4093(4): 559-565, 2016 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27073321

RESUMO

This paper describes the previously unknown larva of Rhyacophila meyeri McLachlan 1879. Information on the morphology of the 5th larval instar is given, and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. In the context of existing identification keys the larva of R. meyeri keys together with R. stigmatica (Kolenati 1859). The species pair can be separated by differences in the setation pattern at the anterior pronotal border and maximum head width. With respect to zoogeography, Rhyacophila meyeri is reported from Switzerland and northern Italy whereas R. stigmatica is restricted to the Austrian, German and Swiss Alps and northern Slovenia (Cianficconi 2002; Graf et al. 2008; Lubini-Ferlin & Vicentini 2005; Malicky 2009; Robert 2004).

13.
Zootaxa ; 4085(3): 431-437, 2016 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27069351

RESUMO

A new species of the alpine caddisfly genus Consorophylax (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Stenophylacini) and the female of the recently described C. vinconi Graf & Malicky 2015 are described. The new species C. lepontiorumsp. nov. is a microendemic of the South-Western Alps and differs from its congeners in the shape of the superior and inferior appendages and the unique setation of the aedeagus, absent in all other Consorophylax species. The female of C. vinconi is characterized by the unique formation of the anal tube. Potential effects of alpine orogenesis, phenology and climatic oscillation on speciation of aquatic insects inhabiting high-altitude habitats are discussed. The description of C. lepontiorumsp. nov. accentuates the significance of the Western Alps as harbours of aquatic insect biodiversity, and demonstrates the necessity of faunal and taxonomic studies in Europe - a supposedly well-explored region.

14.
Zookeys ; (559): 107-24, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27006607

RESUMO

In this paper we describe Drusus sharrensis sp. n., from the Sharr Mountains in Kosovo. Males of the new species are morphologically most similar to Drusus krusniki Malicky, 1981, Drusus kerek Oláh, 2011 and Drusus juliae Oláh, 2011 but differ mainly in exhibiting (1) a differently shaped spinose area on tergite VIII; (2) intermediate appendages anteriorly curved in lateral view with broad tips in dorsal view; (3) inferior appendages with a distinct dorsal protrusion in the proximal half. Females of the new species are morphologically most similar to Drusus krusniki, Drusus kerek, Drusus juliae, and Drusus plicatus Radovanovic, 1942 but mainly differ in (1) segment X that is longer than the supragenital plate with distinctly pointed tips; (2) supragenital plate quadrangular with a distinct round dorsal protrusion; (3) a vulvar scale with a small median lobe. Results of phylogenetic species delimitation support monophyly of Drusus sharrensis sp. n. and recover it as sister to a clade comprising (Drusus pelasgus Oláh, 2010 + Drusus juliae + Drusus arbanios Oláh, 2010 + Drusus plicatus + (Drusus dacothracus Oláh, 2010 + Drusus illyricus Oláh, 2010)). The new species is a micro-endemic of the Sharr Mountains, a main biodiversity hotspot in the Balkan Peninsula. Main threats to the aquatic ecosystems of this part of the Balkan Peninsula are discussed.

15.
Zootaxa ; 4083(4): 483-500, 2016 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26985141

RESUMO

Drusinae (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae) are highland caddisflies inhabiting high-gradient, turbulent running water and spring habitats. They are disjunctly distributed over the Eurasian mountain ranges, and the majority of species is endemic to particular mountain areas. The most diverse of three main groups of the Drusinae, the grazer clade, consists of species in which larvae feed on epiltihic biofilm and algae. In this paper we describe three previously unknown grazer-clade Drusinae larvae: Drusus krusniki Malicky 1981 (endemic to the Dinaric western Balkans), D. vernonensis Malicky 1989 (endemic to the Hellenic western Balkans), and D. vespertinus Marinkovic 1976 (endemic to the Dinaric western Balkans). The larvae of these species have toothless mandibles typical of the Drusinae grazer clade. Larvae and adults were unambiguously associated using molecular genetic data, i.e., the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene fragment (mtCOI3-P). Morphological characteristics of the larvae are described and the diagnostic features enabling species-level identification are illustrated. We further discuss the ecology and distribution of three Western Balkan endemic species.


Assuntos
Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Península Balcânica , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Larva
16.
Zootaxa ; 4032(5): 551-68, 2015 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26624385

RESUMO

The Balkan Peninsula is one of the most important European hotspots of freshwater biodiversity. The region is, however, to a large extent insufficiently investigated. Here we present data on distribution of caddisflies in one particularly understudied area, the Republic of Kosovo. Our data include the first records of Adicella altandroconia Botosaneanu & Novak and Halesus tessellatus (Rambur) for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna, and a new locality for the recently described Ecclisopteryx keroveci Previsic, Graf, & Vitecek. Further, we describe the new caddisfly species Drusus dardanicus sp. nov. from the Kopaonik Mountains. The new species belongs to the D. discophorus Species Group and differs morphologically from its most similar congeners (D. discophorus Radovanovic, D. balcanicus Kumanski, and D. bureschi Kumanski) mainly in exhibiting (1) subtrianglar superior appendages; (2) a narrow, dorsal spinate area of tergite VIII; and (3) evenly rounded tips of intermediate appendages in caudal view. In phylogenetic analysis, D. dardanicus sp. nov. is well delineated and recovered as a sister taxon to D. osogovicus Kumanski, a species recorded from Bulgaria. The recent discovery of a new species and other rare or microendemic species presents important contributions to the knowledge on the rich freshwater biodiversity in Kosovo. These species face increasing anthropogenic pressure and threats to their conservation.


Assuntos
Insetos/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Biodiversidade , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Feminino , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Insetos/genética , Insetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia
17.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 93: 249-260, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26265260

RESUMO

The caddisfly subfamily Drusinae BANKS comprises roughly 100 species inhabiting mountain ranges in Europe, Asia Minor and the Caucasus. A 3-gene phylogeny of the subfamily previously identified three major clades that were corroborated by larval morphology and feeding ecologies: scraping grazers, omnivorous shredders and filtering carnivores. Larvae of filtering carnivores exhibit unique head capsule complexities, unknown from other caddisfly larvae. Here we assess the species-level relationships within filtering carnivores, hypothesizing that head capsule complexity is derived from simple shapes observed in the other feeding groups. We summarize the current systematics and taxonomy of the group, clarify the systematic position of Cryptothrix nebulicola, and present a larval key to filtering carnivorous Drusinae. We infer relationships of all known filtering carnivorous Drusinae and 34 additional Drusinae species using Bayesian species tree analysis and concatenated Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 3805bp of sequence data from six gene regions (mtCOI5-P, mtCOI3-P, 16S mrDNA, CADH, WG, 28S nrDNA), morphological cladistics from 308 characters, and a total evidence analysis. All analyses support monophyly of the three feeding ecology groups but fail to fully resolve internal relationships. Within filtering carnivores, variation in head setation and frontoclypeus structure may be associated with progressive niche adaptation, with less complex species recovered at a basal position. We propose that diversification of complex setation and frontoclypeus shape represents a recent evolutionary development, hypothetically enforcing speciation and niche specificity within filtering carnivorous Drusinae.


Assuntos
Insetos/genética , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Carnivoridade , Europa (Continente) , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Genes de Insetos , Especiação Genética , Cabelo/anatomia & histologia , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Zootaxa ; 3957(1): 85-97, 2015 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26249056

RESUMO

In this study we present morphological, molecular and ecological features of the last instar larvae of Drusus bosnicus with data about distribution of this species in Bosnia and Herzegovina. We also included  the most important diagnostic features enabling separation of larvae of D. bosnicus from larvae of the other European Drusinae and Trichoptera species.


Assuntos
Insetos/classificação , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Insetos/genética , Insetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão
19.
Zookeys ; (513): 79-104, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26257570

RESUMO

Two new species of the genus Drusus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae) from the Western Balkans are described. Additionally, observations on the biodiversity and threats to the region's endemic aquatic fauna are discussed. Drususkrpachi sp. n. is a micro-endemic of the Korab Mountains, Macedonia, and Drususmalickyi sp. n. is a micro-endemic of the Prokletije Mountains, Albania. Both new species are most similar to Drususmacedonicus but differ from the latter in the shape of segment IX, the shape of the tips of the intermediate appendages in lateral view, the shape of the inferior appendages, and the form and shape of the parameres. In addition, males of the European species of filtering carnivore Drusinae are diagnosed and illustrated, including Cryptothrixnebulicola McLachlan, Drususchrysotus Rambur, Drususdiscolor Rambur, Drususmacedonicus Schmid, Drususmeridionalis Kumanski, Drususmuelleri McLachlan, Drususromanicus Murgoci and Botosaneanu, and Drusussiveci Malicky. These additions to the Western Balkan fauna demonstrate the significance of this region for European biodiversity and further highlight the importance of faunistic studies in Europe.

20.
Zookeys ; (496): 85-103, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25931956

RESUMO

New species are described in the genera Wormaldia (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae) and Drusus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae). Additionally, the larva of the new species Drususcrenophylax sp. n. is described, and a key provided to larval Drusus species of the bosnicus-group, in which the new species belongs. Observations on the threats to regional freshwater biodiversity and caddisfly endemism are discussed. The new species Wormaldiasarda sp. n. is an endemic of the Tyrrhenian island of Sardinia and differs most conspicuously from its congeners in the shape of segment X, which is trilobate in lateral view. The new species Drususcrenophylax sp. n. is a micro-endemic of the Western Balkans, and increases the endemism rate of Balkan Drusinae to 79% of 39 species. Compared to other Western Balkan Drusus, males of the new species are morphologically most similar to Drususdiscophorus Radovanovic and Drususvernonensis Malicky, but differ in the shape of superior and intermediate appendages. The females of Drususcrenophylax sp. n. are most similar to those of Drususvernonensis, but differ distinctly in the outline of segment X. Larvae of Drususcrenophylax sp. n. exhibit toothless mandibles, indicating a scraping grazing-feeding ecology.

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