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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126627, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343881

RESUMO

The escalating loads of municipal solid waste (MSW) end up in open dumps and landfills, producing continuous flows of landfill leachate. The risk of incorporating highly toxic landfill leachate into environment is important to be evaluated and measured in order to facilitate decision making for landfill leachate management and treatment. Leachate pollution index (LPI) provides quantitative measures of the potential environmental pollution by landfill leachate and information about the environmental quality adjacent to a particular landfill. According to LPI values, most developing countries show high pollution potentials from leachate, mainly due to high organic waste composition and low level of waste management techniques. A special focus on leachate characterization studies with LPI and its integration to treatment, which has not been focused in previous reviews on landfill leachate, is given here. Further, the current review provides a summary related to leachate generation, composition, characterization, risk assessment and treatment together with challenges and perspectives in the sector with its focus to developing nations. Potential commercial and industrial applications of landfill leachate is discussed in the study to provide insights into its sustainable management which is original for the study.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
2.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118412, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737106

RESUMO

The removal of excessive ammonium from water is vital for preventing eutrophication of surface water and ensuring drinking water safety. Several studies have explored the use of biochar for removing ammonium from water. However, the efficacy of pristine biochar is generally weak, and various biochar modification approaches have been proposed to enhance adsorption capacity. In this study, biochar obtained from giant reed stalks (300, 500, 700 °C) was modified by sulfonation, and the ammonium adsorption capabilities of both giant reed biochars (RBCs) and sulfonated reed biochars (SRBCs) were assessed. The ammonium adsorption rates of SRBCs were much faster than RBCs, with equilibrium times of ∼2 h and ∼8 h for SRBCs and RBCs, respectively. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of SRBCs were 4.20-5.19 mg N/g for SRBCs, significantly greater than RBCs (1.09-1.92 mg N/g). Physical-chemical characterization methods confirmed the increased levels of carboxylic and sulfonic groups on sulfonated biochar. The reaction of ammonium with these O-containing functional groups was the primary mechanism for the enhancement of ammonium adsorption by SRBCs. To conclude, sulfonation significantly improved the adsorption performance of biochar, suggesting its potential application for ammonium mitigation in water.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Águas Residuárias , Água
3.
Sci Total Environ ; : 152055, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871684

RESUMO

The contamination of natural resources by hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) originating from natural and anthropogenic activities is a serious environmental concern. Although many articles on chromium remediation have been published, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms involved in remediation with different sorbents is not yet available. In this systematic review, the performance and applicability of several adsorptive materials for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous media are discussed, along with a detailed analysis of the mechanisms involved. Statistical analysis is applied to compare the efficacies of different adsorbents, while a similar approach is used to determine the effects of sorbent properties and experimental conditions on the adsorption capacity. A detailed analysis of the factors involved in fixed-bed column studies is also presented. A suitable desorption approach to the regeneration of the spent adsorbent and its adsorption performance in reuse is also examined. Among the different sorbents, nanoparticles and mineral-doped biochar were found to be the most effective sorbents, while the adsorption was higher at low pH (~4.0) than that at intermediate pH (6-8). Contrary to our expectation, adsorption was high for sorbents with low specific surface areas, suggesting that the adsorption of Cr(VI) is largely influenced by the chemical properties of the sorbents. The optimum adsorption in fixed-bed column systems is obtained at a lower Cr(VI) ion concentration, a lower influent flow rate, and a higher bed height. Since most of the studies reviewed herein were merely experimental and utilized ideal conditions with the presence of a single contaminant, i.e. Cr(VI) in water, further studies on adsorption dynamics with the presence of other interfering ions are suggested. This review is promising for the further development of Cr(VI) removal strategies and closes the research gaps pertaining to their challenges.

4.
Appl Biol Chem ; 64(1): 91, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34957350

RESUMO

This review focuses on existing technologies for carcass and corpse disposal and potential alternative treatment strategies. Furthermore, key issues related to these treatments (e.g., carcass and corpse disposal events, available methods, performances, and limitations) are addressed in conjunction with associated environmental impacts. Simultaneously, various treatment technologies have been evaluated to provide insights into the adsorptive removal of specific pollutants derived from carcass disposal and management. In this regard, it has been proposed that a low-cost pollutant sorbent may be utilized, namely, biochar. Biochar has demonstrated the ability to remove (in)organic pollutants and excess nutrients from soils and waters; thus, we identify possible biochar uses for soil and water remediation at carcass and corpse disposal sites. To date, however, little emphasis has been placed on potential biochar use to manage such disposal sites. We highlight the need for strategic efforts to accurately assess biochar effectiveness when applied towards the remediation of complex pollutants produced and circulated within carcass and corpse burial systems.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 293: 118564, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838711

RESUMO

Land application of sewage sludge is increasingly used as an alternative to landfilling and incineration owing to a considerable content of carbon and essential plant nutrients in sewage sludge. However, the presence of chemical and biological contaminants in sewage sludge poses potential dangers; therefore, sewage sludge must be suitably treated before being applied to soils. The most common methods include anaerobic digestion, aerobic composting, lime stabilization, incineration, and pyrolysis. These methods aim at stabilizing sewage sludge, to eliminate its potential environmental pollution and restore its agronomic value. To achieve best results on land, a comprehensive understanding of the transformation of organic matter, nutrients, and contaminants during these sewage-sludge treatments is essential; however, this information is still lacking. This review aims to fill this knowledge gap by presenting various approaches to treat sewage sludge, transformation processes of some major nutrients and pollutants during treatment, and potential impacts on soils. Despite these treatments, overtime there are still some potential risks of land application of treated sewage sludge. Potentially toxic substances remain the main concern regarding the reuse of treated sewage sludge on land. Therefore, further treatment may be applied, and long-term field studies are warranted, to prevent possible adverse effects of treated sewage sludge on the ecosystem and human health and enable its land application.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769574

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets suspended in the air with varying size, shape, and chemical composition which intensifies significant concern due to severe health effects. Based on the well-established human health effects of outdoor PM, health-based standards for outdoor air have been promoted (e.g., the National Ambient Air Quality Standards formulated by the U.S.). Due to the exchange of indoor and outdoor air, the chemical composition of indoor particulate matter is related to the sources and components of outdoor PM. However, PM in the indoor environment has the potential to exceed outdoor PM levels. Indoor PM includes particles of outdoor origin that drift indoors and particles that originate from indoor activities, which include cooking, fireplaces, smoking, fuel combustion for heating, human activities, and burning incense. Indoor PM can be enriched with inorganic and organic contaminants, including toxic heavy metals and carcinogenic volatile organic compounds. As a potential health hazard, indoor exposure to PM has received increased attention in recent years because people spend most of their time indoors. In addition, as the quantity, quality, and scope of the research have expanded, it is necessary to conduct a systematic review of indoor PM. This review discusses the sources, pathways, characteristics, health effects, and exposure mitigation of indoor PM. Practical solutions and steps to reduce exposure to indoor PM are also discussed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Culinária , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
7.
Environ Int ; 158: 106908, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619530

RESUMO

Antimony (Sb) is introduced into soils, sediments, and aquatic environments from various sources such as weathering of sulfide ores, leaching of mining wastes, and anthropogenic activities. High Sb concentrations are toxic to ecosystems and potentially to public health via the accumulation in food chain. Although Sb is poisonous and carcinogenic to humans, the exact mechanisms causing toxicity still remain unclear. Most studies concerning the remediation of soils and aquatic environments contaminated with Sb have evaluated various amendments that reduce Sb bioavailability and toxicity. However, there is no comprehensive review on the biogeochemistry and transformation of Sb related to its remediation. Therefore, the present review summarizes: (1) the sources of Sb and its geochemical distribution and speciation in soils and aquatic environments, (2) the biogeochemical processes that govern Sb mobilization, bioavailability, toxicity in soils and aquatic environments, and possible threats to human and ecosystem health, and (3) the approaches used to remediate Sb-contaminated soils and water and mitigate potential environmental and health risks. Knowledge gaps and future research needs also are discussed. The review presents up-to-date knowledge about the fate of Sb in soils and aquatic environments and contributes to an important insight into the environmental hazards of Sb. The findings from the review should help to develop innovative and appropriate technologies for controlling Sb bioavailability and toxicity and sustainably managing Sb-polluted soils and water, subsequently minimizing its environmental and human health risks.

8.
Chemosphere ; : 132551, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655645

RESUMO

Biochar has widely been utilized as an agricultural soil amendment owing to its enhanced surface properties and cost-effectiveness. In the present work, the influence of tea waste biochar (TWBC) upon acid modification on Allium cepa L. (red onion) growth has been studied. Its effect as a soil amendment has also been studied by assessing the nutrient retention, microbial population growth and immobilization of potentially toxic metal ions. A greenhouse experiment was carried out by applying different biochar (BC) ratios (2% and 5% w/w) to soil as the growth media for onion plants. A 2.4 times (2.4 × ) reduction of phosphate from leaching was observed upon BC application at a ratio of 2% than that of 5%. Moreover, red onion plants that grew in the BC-fertilizer amended soil at a 2% ratio showed higher growth compared to that of 5%. A ∼1.3 × and ∼1.2 × increment of total dry weight was observed upon amendment of soil fertilizer system with nitric and sulfuric acid-modified TWBC, respectively. An analysis of the potentially toxic metal ion uptake by the respective plant parts showed that lead uptake by the roots of red onion was ∼8.3 × less in BC amended soil compared to that in contaminated soil. Thus, acid-modified TWBC can be considered a potential soil amendment for an enhanced red onion growth. Employing TWBC as a soil amendment in tropical countries, where tea-waste is in abundance, will boost sustainable agriculture.

9.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 118067, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488156

RESUMO

With the ever-increasing demand for lithium (Li) for portable energy storage devices, there is a global concern associated with environmental contamination of Li, via the production, use, and disposal of Li-containing products, including mobile phones and mood-stabilizing drugs. While geogenic Li is sparingly soluble, Li added to soil is one of the most mobile cations in soil, which can leach to groundwater and reach surface water through runoff. Lithium is readily taken up by plants and has relatively high plant accumulation coefficient, albeit the underlying mechanisms have not been well described. Therefore, soil contamination with Li could reach the food chain due to its mobility in surface- and ground-waters and uptake into plants. High environmental Li levels adversely affect the health of humans, animals, and plants. Lithium toxicity can be considerably managed through various remediation approaches such as immobilization using clay-like amendments and/or chelate-enhanced phytoremediation. This review integrates fundamental aspects of Li distribution and behaviour in terrestrial and aquatic environments in an effort to efficiently remediate Li-contaminated ecosystems. As research to date has not provided a clear picture of how the increased production and disposal of Li-based products adversely impact human and ecosystem health, there is an urgent need for further studies on this field.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ecossistema , Humanos , Lítio/análise , Gestão de Riscos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 420: 126534, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280720

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are generated due to incomplete burning of organic substances. Use of fossil fuels is the primary anthropogenic cause of PAHs emission in natural settings. Although several PAH compounds exist in the natural environmental setting, only 16 of these compounds are considered priority pollutants. PAHs imposes several health impacts on humans and other living organisms due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic properties. The specific characteristics of PAHs, such as their high hydrophobicity and low water solubility, influence their active adsorption onto soils and sediments, affecting their bioavailability and subsequent degradation. Therefore, this review first discusses various sources of PAHs, including source identification techniques, bioavailability, and interactions of PAHs with soils and sediments. Then this review addresses the remediation technologies adopted so far of PAHs in soils and sediments using immobilization techniques (capping, stabilization, dredging, and excavation), mobilization techniques (thermal desorption, washing, electrokinetics, and surfactant assisted), and biological degradation techniques. The pros and cons of each technology are discussed. A detailed systematic compilation of eco-friendly approaches used to degrade PAHs, such as phytoremediation, microbial remediation, and emerging hybrid or integrated technologies are reviewed along with case studies and provided prospects for future research.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Disponibilidade Biológica , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Solo , Tensoativos
11.
Environ Pollut ; 288: 117676, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265555

RESUMO

Recently, the adsorption-based environmental remediation techniques have gained a considerable attention, due to their economic viability and simplicity over other methods. Hence, detailed presentation and analysis were herein focused on describing the role of biochar in oil spill removal. Oil removal by utilizing biochar is assumed as a green-oriented concept. Biochar is a carbon-rich low-cost material with high porosity and specific surface chemistry, with a tremendous potentiality for oil removal from aqueous solutions. Oil sorption properties of biochar mainly depend on the biochar production/synthesis method, and the biomass feedstock type. In order to preserve the stability of functional groups in the structure, biochar needs to be produced/activated at low temperatures (<700 ᵒC). In general, biochar derived from biomass containing high lignin content via slow pyrolysis is more favorable for oil removal. Exceptional characteristics of biochar which intensify the oil removal capability such as hydrophobicity, oleophilicity or/and specific contaminant-surface interaction of biochar can be enhanced and be tuned by chemical and physical activation methods. Considering all the presented results, future perspectives such as the examination of biochar efficacy on oil removal efficiency in multi-element contaminated aqueous solutions to identify the best biomass feedstocks, the production protocols and large-scale field trials, are also discussed.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Pirólise
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 795: 148839, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328928

RESUMO

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) is receiving considerable attention due to the serious threat to human health throughout the world. However, the roles of geo-socio-environmental factors in the prevalence of the CKDu endemic areas are still unknown. Sri Lanka is one of the countries most seriously affected by CKDu, where 10 out of 25 districts have been identified as the areas with the high prevalence of CKDu (10-20%). This review summarizes the geographical distribution of CKDu and its probable geochemical, behavioral, sociological, and environmental risk factors based on research related to hydrogeochemical influences on CKDu in Sri Lanka. More than 98% of CKDu patients have consumed groundwater as their primary water source in daily life, indicating the interactions of geogenic contaminants (such as F-, total dissolved solids, Hofmeister ions) in groundwater is responsible for the disease. Apart from the hydrogeochemical factors, mycotoxins, cyanotoxins, use of some herbal medicines, dehydration, and exposure to agrochemicals were alleged as risk factors. Sociological factors, including poverty, living habits and anthropogenic activities, may also provoke the emergence of CKDu. Therefore, the interaction of geo-socio environmental risk factors should be sociologically and scientifically considered to prevent the prevalence of CKDu. Future in-depth studies are required to reveal the individual role of each of the postulated etiological factors, possibly using machine learning and advanced statistics.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Água , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Água
13.
Environ Int ; 155: 106600, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964642

RESUMO

Aqueous film-forming foam, used in firefighting, and biowastes, including biosolids, animal and poultry manures, and composts, provide a major source of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) input to soil. Large amounts of biowastes are added to soil as a source of nutrients and carbon. They also are added as soil amendments to improve soil health and crop productivity. Plant uptake of PFAS through soil application of biowastes is a pathway for animal and human exposure to PFAS. The complexity of PFAS mixtures, and their chemical and thermal stability, make remediation of PFAS in both solid and aqueous matrices challenging. Remediation of PFAS in biowastes, as well as soils treated with these biowastes, can be achieved through preventing and decreasing the concentration of PFAS in biowaste sources (i.e., prevention through source control), mobilization of PFAS in contaminated soil and subsequent removal through leaching (i.e., soil washing) and plant uptake (i.e., phytoremediation), sorption of PFAS, thereby decreasing their mobility and bioavailability (i.e., immobilization), and complete removal through thermal and chemical oxidation (i.e., destruction). In this review, the distribution, bioavailability, and remediation of PFAS in soil receiving solid biowastes, which include biosolids, composts, and manure, are presented.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Disponibilidade Biológica , Humanos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 334: 125240, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964811

RESUMO

The discovery of anammox process has provided eco-friendly and low-cost means of treating ammonia rich wastewater with remarkable efficiency. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that the possibility of operating the anammox process under low temperatures and high organic matter contents broadening the application of the anammox process. However, short doubling time and extensive levels of sensitivity towards nutrients and environmental alterations such as salinity and temperature are the limitations in practical applications of the anammox process. This review article provides the recent yet comprehensive viewpoint on anammox bacteria and the key perspectives in applying them as an efficient strategy for wastewater treatment.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 786: 147381, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975118

RESUMO

Swine and chicken manures are abundant solid wastes that can be converted into carbonaceous materials through hydrothermal carbonization (HTC). Owing to their unique biochemical compositions, co-HTC of these two types of manures may have significant implications for the generated products. We investigated the co-HTC of swine manure and chicken manure to understand the influence of the interaction between contrasting manures on the properties of the derived products. The results indicated that co-HTC treatment enhanced the formation of solid product and improved the C and N contents, heating value, and energy yield of the resulting hydrochar. Regarding the ignition temperature and comprehensive combustion index, the combustion properties of the hydrochar were enhanced owing to the mutual effect of the HTC intermediates. Additionally, the interaction of the intermediates significantly impacted the transfer of nitrogenous species and generation of organic acids and organic polymers with fused-ring structures. Therefore, co-HTC processing of animal manures could potentially provide a sustainable pathway for the conversion of animal waste into solid products with improved characteristics compared to those produced by treating the two feedstocks separately.

16.
Chemosphere ; 281: 130676, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020185

RESUMO

Modification of biochar for efficient removal of antibiotics from water could be a valuable approach in the environmental applications. In this study, a brown seaweed (Sargassum crassifolium) was pyrolyzed at 500 °C and the obtained biochar (SWBC) was modified with zeolite through the slurry method maintaining the ratio at 1:5 (zeolite: biochar) (SWBC-Z). Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the adsorption tendency of SWBC and SWBC-Z for the removal of ciprofloxacin (CPX) from water via pH edge, kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamic experiments. The highest adsorption was in the pH range of 6.5-8, supported by the electrostatic attractions and hydrogen bonding with zwitterionic CPX. Experimental kinetics data was well-fitted to the pseudo-second-order and Elovich models (R2 of 0.992 and 0.976, respectively), while the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models best described the isotherm data (R2 of 0.954 and 0.976, respectively). The maximum adsorption capacity of 93.65 mg g-1 was recorded for the SWBC-Z. The models predicted chemisorption and physisorption interactions on the heterogenous biochar surface. Well-defined peaks of silanol groups in the FTIR spectrum of SWBC-Z and its electron microscopy confirmed the incorporation of zeolite minerals. Post adsorption FTIR analysis elucidated the changes in the surface functional groups of the SWBC-Z. Thermodynamic data revealed spontaneous and exothermic reaction between CPX and both the biochars. It was concluded that modification of pristine biochar with zeolite imparted greater surface area and additional active sites, which subsequently enhanced the overall CPX adsorption by the SWBC-Z.


Assuntos
Sargassum , Alga Marinha , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Zeolitas , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Ciprofloxacina , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Termodinâmica
17.
Environ Res ; 197: 111091, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794177

RESUMO

This review summarizes the adsorptive removal of Fluoroquinolones (FQ) from water and wastewater. The influence of different physicochemical parameters on the adsorptive removal of FQ-based compounds is detailed. Further, the mechanisms involved in the adsorption of FQ-based antibiotics on various adsorbents are succinctly described. As the first of its kind, this paper emphasizes the performance of each adsorbent for FQ-type antibiotic removal based on partition coefficients of the adsorbents that is a more sensitive parameter than adsorption capacity for comparing the performances of adsorbents under various adsorbate concentrations and heterogeneous environmental conditions. It was found that π-π electron donor-acceptor interactions, electrostatic interactions, and pore-filling were the most prominent mechanisms for FQ adsorption by carbon and clay-based adsorbents. Among all the categories of adsorbents reviewed, graphene showed the highest performance for the removal of FQ antibiotics from water and wastewater. Based on the current state of knowledge, this review fills the gap through methodolically understanding the mechanism for further improvement of FQ antibiotics adsorption performance from water and wastewater.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Carbono , Fluoroquinolonas , Águas Residuárias/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Environ Res ; 197: 111102, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798520

RESUMO

The present study investigated adsorptive removal of toluene and ethylbenzene from the aqueous media via using biochar derived from municipal solid waste (termed "MSW-BC") in a single and binary contaminant system at 25-45 °C. The adsorption was evaluated at different pH (3-10), experimental time (up to 24 h), and initial adsorbate concentrations (10-600 µg/L) in single and binary contaminant system. A fixed-bed column experiment was also conducted using MSW-BC (0.25%) and influent concentration of toluene and ethylbenzene (4 mg/L) at 2 mL/min of flow rate. The adsorption of toluene and ethylbenzene on the MSW-BC was mildly dependent on the pH, and the peak adsorption ability (44-47 µg/g) was recorded at a baseline pH of ~8 in mono and dual contaminant system. Langmuir and Hill are the models that match the isotherm results in a single contaminant environment for both toluene (R2 of 0.97 and 0.99, respectively) and ethylbenzene (R2 of 0.99 and 0.99, respectively) adsorption. In the binary system, the isotherm models matched in the order of Langmuir > Hill > Freundlich for toluene, whereas Hill > Freundlich > Langmuir for ethylbenzene. The adsorption in the batch experiment was likely to take place via cooperative and multilayer adsorption onto MSW-BC involving hydrophobic, π- π and n- π attractions, specific interaction such as hydrogen-π and cation-π interactions, and van der Waals interactions. The thermodynamic results indicate exothermic adsorption occurred by physical attractions between toluene and ethylbenzene, and MSW-BC. The breakthrough behavior of toluene and ethylbenzene was successfully described with Yoon-Nelson and Thomas models. The data demonstrate that the low-cost adsorbent derived from the municipal solid waste can be utilized to remove toluene and ethylbenzene in landfill leachate.


Assuntos
Resíduos Sólidos , Tolueno , Derivados de Benzeno , Carvão Vegetal , Cinética
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125702, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866291

RESUMO

The term "Total petroleum hydrocarbons" (TPH) is used to describe a complex mixture of petroleum-based hydrocarbons primarily derived from crude oil. Those compounds are considered as persistent organic pollutants in the terrestrial environment. A wide array of organic amendments is increasingly used for the remediation of TPH-contaminated soils. Organic amendments not only supply a source of carbon and nutrients but also add exogenous beneficial microorganisms to enhance the TPH degradation rate, thereby improving the soil health. Two fundamental approaches can be contemplated within the context of remediation of TPH-contaminated soils using organic amendments: (i) enhanced TPH sorption to the exogenous organic matter (immobilization) as it reduces the bioavailability of the contaminants, and (ii) increasing the solubility of the contaminants by supplying desorbing agents (mobilization) for enhancing the subsequent biodegradation. Net immobilization and mobilization of TPH have both been observed following the application of organic amendments to contaminated soils. This review examines the mechanisms for the enhanced remediation of TPH-contaminated soils by organic amendments and discusses the influencing factors in relation to sequestration, bioavailability, and subsequent biodegradation of TPH in soils. The uncertainty of mechanisms for various organic amendments in TPH remediation processes remains a critical area of future research.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
20.
Chemosphere ; 276: 130079, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721631

RESUMO

Kaolinite and methoxy-modified kaolinite were used as novel adsorbents for oxytetracycline (OTC) removal and recovery from aqueous media. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to study the effect of pH, ionic strengths, initial concentration, and contact time on OTC adsorption. The adsorbents were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) before and after adsorption. Adsorption of OTC reached its maximum when solution pH increased up to 6 for 0.001 M ionic strength, above which adsorption decreased further when solution pH increased. Freundlich and Langmuir's models best fit the equilibrium data with a strong dependency on OTC adsorption capacity giving its maximum at 36 mg g-1. Binding is postulated for OTC adsorption on pristine kaolinite as a special case of Hill model with independent binding interaction of OTC adsorption onto the clay that affects the adjacent sites on the pristine kaolinite, in contrast with the adsorption of OTC on methoxy-modified kaolinite. Nitrogen peaks of the XPS spectra indicated changes in the oxidation states of C-N bonds in the N1s peaks by forming tertiary amide C-N and methoxy O-CH3 bonds which corroborated with the results from FTIR spectra. Removal efficiencies and spectroscopic results indicate that performance on methoxy-modified kaolinite is a promising modification on the clay for recovering antibiotics from wastewater.


Assuntos
Oxitetraciclina , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Argila , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
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