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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247821, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647066

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine how baseline weight status contributes to differences in postmenopausal weight gain among non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). METHODS: Data were included from 70,750 NHW and NHB postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI OS). Body Mass Index (BMI) at baseline was used to classify women as having normal weight, overweight, obese class I, obese class II or obese class III. Cox proportional hazards was used to estimate the hazard of a 10% or more increase in weight from baseline. RESULTS: In both crude and adjusted models, NHBs were more likely to experience ≥10% weight gain than NHWs within the same category of baseline weight status. Moreover, NHBs who were normal weight at baseline were most likely to experience ≥10% weight gain in both crude and adjusted models. Age-stratified results were consistent with overall findings. In all age categories, NHBs who were normal weight at baseline were most likely to experience ≥10% weight gain. Based on the results of adjusted models, the joint influence of NHB race/ethnicity and weight status on risk of postmenopausal weight gain was both sub-additive and sub-multiplicative. CONCLUSION: NHBs are more likely to experience postmenopausal weight gain than NHWs, and the disparity in risk is most pronounced among those who are normal weight at baseline. To address the disparity in postmenopausal obesity, future studies should focus on identifying and modifying factors that promote weight gain among normal weight NHBs.

2.
Cancer ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a high recurrence risk and poor clinical outcomes. Associations between metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk components and mortality in postmenopausal women with TNBC were examined in the Women's Health Initiative. METHODS: Five hundred forty-four postmenopausal women were diagnosed with nonmetastatic TNBC. Baseline risk components included a high waist circumference (≥88 cm), high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Groups were categorized by the number of MetS risk components: none, 1 or 2, or 3 or 4. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) across groups were computed with multivariable adjusted Cox models. Outcomes included breast cancer-specific mortality and breast cancer overall mortality (breast cancer followed by death from any cause). Variables in the multivariable model included age at TNBC diagnosis; race/ethnicity; income; education; clinical/observational trial status; history of oral contraceptive, hormone, and/or statin use; cancer stage; and chemotherapy and/or radiation treatment status. RESULTS: Of the 544 participants with TNBC, 33% had no MetS risk components (n = 178), 59% had 1 or 2 risk components (n = 323), and 8% had 3 or 4 risk components (n = 43). After a median follow-up from diagnosis of 8.3 years, multivariable results showed that women with 3 or 4 risk components had a nonsignificantly higher risk of breast cancer mortality (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 0.94-4.47 trend P = .114) and a significantly higher risk of overall mortality (HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.22-3.71; trend P = .006) versus women with 0 risk components. CONCLUSIONS: Postmenopausal women with TNBC and 3 or 4 MetS risk components have a nonsignificantly higher breast cancer mortality risk and a significantly higher overall mortality risk, likely because of negative influences of metabolic risk factors on several causes of death.

3.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270373

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Associations between diet, psychosocial stress, and neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), have been reported, but causal relationships are difficult to determine in human studies. METHODS: We used structural magnetic resonance imaging in a well-validated non-human primate model of AD-like neuropathology to examine the longitudinal effects of diet (Mediterranean vs Western) and social subordination stress on brain anatomy, including global volumes, cortical thicknesses and volumes, and 20 individual regions of interest (ROIs). RESULTS: Western diet resulted in greater cortical thicknesses, total brain volumes, and gray matter, and diminished cerebrospinal fluid and white matter volumes. Socially stressed subordinates had smaller whole brain volumes but larger ROIs relevant to AD than dominants. DISCUSSION: The observation of increased size of AD-related brain areas is consistent with similar reports of mid-life volume increases predicting increased AD risk later in life. While the biological mechanisms underlying the findings require future investigation, these observations suggest that Western diet and psychosocial stress instigate pathologic changes that increase risk of AD-associated neuropathology, whereas the Mediterranean diet may protect the brain.

4.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 4(8): nzaa126, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832844

RESUMO

Background: Over 23 million Americans have type 2 diabetes (T2D). Eating habits such as breakfast consumption, time-restricted eating, and limiting daily eating occasions have been explored as behaviors for reducing T2D risk, but prior evidence is inconclusive. Objectives: Our objectives were to examine associations between number of daily eating occasions and T2D risk in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial (WHI-DM) and whether associations vary by BMI, age, or race/ethnicity. Methods: Participants were postmenopausal women in the WHI-DM who comprised a 4.6% subsample completing 24-h dietary recalls (24HRs) at years 3 and 6 as part of trial adherence activities (n = 2159). Numbers of eating occasions per day were obtained from the year 3 24HRs, and participants were grouped into approximate tertiles as 1-3 (n = 795), 4 (n = 713), and ≥5 (n = 651) daily eating occasions as the exposure. Incident diabetes was self-reported on semiannual questionnaires as the outcome. Results: Approximately 15% (15.4%, n = 332) of the WHI-DM 24HR cohort reported incident diabetes at follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression tested associations of eating occasions with T2D adjusted for neighborhood socioeconomic status, BMI, waist circumference, race/ethnicity, family history of T2D, recreational physical activity, Healthy Eating Index-2005, 24HR energy intake, and WHI-DM arm. Compared with women reporting 1-3 meals/d, those consuming 4 meals/d had a T2D HR = 1.38 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.84) without further increases in risk for ≥5 meals/d. In stratified analyses, associations for 4 meals/d compared with 1-3 meals/d were stronger in women with BMI <30.0 kg/m2 (HR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.39) and women aged ≥60 (HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.33). Conclusions: Four meals per day compared with 1-3 meals/d was associated with increased risk of T2D in postmenopausal women, but no dose-response effect was observed for additional eating occasions. Further studies are needed to understand eating occasions in relation to T2D risk.

5.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 183(1): 217-226, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607639

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It has been hypothesized that selenium (Se) can prevent cancer, and that Se deficiency may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. However, findings from epidemiological studies have been inconsistent. The objective of this study was to assess the association between Se intake and risk of breast cancer in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). METHODS: This study included 145,033 postmenopausal women 50-79 years who completed baseline questionnaires between October 1993 and December 1998, which addressed dietary and supplemental Se intake and breast cancer risk factors. The association between baseline Se intake and incident breast cancer was examined in Cox proportional hazards analysis. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 15.5 years, 9487 cases of invasive breast cancer were identified. Total Se (highest versus lowest quartile: HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.92-1.09, Ptrend = 0.66), dietary Se (highest versus lowest quartile: HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.89-1.08, Ptrend = 0.61), and supplemental Se (yes versus no: HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.95-1.03) were not associated with breast cancer incidence. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that Se intake is not associated with incident breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the United States. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings by using biomarkers such as toenail Se to reduce the potential for misclassification of Se status.

6.
Cancer ; 126(16): 3638-3647, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is associated with higher all-cause and cancer-specific mortality in postmenopausal women. However, to the authors' knowledge, information regarding insulin resistance and breast cancer mortality risk is limited. Therefore, the authors examined associations between insulin resistance and breast cancer incidence and mortality in a subsample of Women's Health Initiative participants. METHODS: A total of 22,837 postmenopausal women with fasting baseline glucose and insulin levels were followed for incident breast cancer and breast cancer mortality. Breast cancers were verified by medical record review and serial National Death Index linkage-enhanced mortality findings. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for quartile comparisons. Outcomes included breast cancer incidence, deaths from breast cancer, and deaths after breast cancer (breast cancer followed by death from any cause). RESULTS: During a median of 19.8 years of follow-up of 1328 breast cancer cases, there were 512 deaths reported, 151 of which were from breast cancer. Breast cancer incidence was higher in women in the highest HOMA-IR quartile (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.12-1.61 [P for trend = .003]). Although HOMA-IR was not found to be associated with risk of death from breast cancer (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.60-1.79), women in the highest versus those in the lowest HOMA-IR quartile were at a higher risk of death after breast cancer (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.32-2.39 [P for trend <.001]). CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of insulin resistance in postmenopausal women are associated with higher breast cancer incidence and higher all-cause mortality after breast cancer.

7.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(4): e002766, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation patterns associated with habitual diet have not been well studied. METHODS: Diet quality was characterized using a Mediterranean-style diet score and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index score. We conducted ethnicity-specific and trans-ethnic epigenome-wide association analyses for diet quality and leukocyte-derived DNA methylation at over 400 000 CpGs (cytosine-guanine dinucleotides) in 5 population-based cohorts including 6662 European ancestry, 2702 African ancestry, and 360 Hispanic ancestry participants. For diet-associated CpGs identified in epigenome-wide analyses, we conducted Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to examine their relations to cardiovascular disease risk factors and examined their longitudinal associations with all-cause mortality. RESULTS: We identified 30 CpGs associated with either Mediterranean-style diet score or Alternative Healthy Eating Index, or both, in European ancestry participants. Among these CpGs, 12 CpGs were significantly associated with all-cause mortality (Bonferroni corrected P<1.6×10-3). Hypermethylation of cg18181703 (SOCS3) was associated with higher scores of both Mediterranean-style diet score and Alternative Healthy Eating Index and lower risk for all-cause mortality (P=5.7×10-15). Ten additional diet-associated CpGs were nominally associated with all-cause mortality (P<0.05). MR analysis revealed 8 putatively causal associations for 6 CpGs with 4 cardiovascular disease risk factors (body mass index, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and type 2 diabetes mellitus; Bonferroni corrected MR P<4.5×10-4). For example, hypermethylation of cg11250194 (FADS2) was associated with lower triglyceride concentrations (MR, P=1.5×10-14).and hypermethylation of cg02079413 (SNORA54; NAP1L4) was associated with body mass index (corrected MR, P=1×10-6). CONCLUSIONS: Habitual diet quality was associated with differential peripheral leukocyte DNA methylation levels of 30 CpGs, most of which were also associated with multiple health outcomes, in European ancestry individuals. These findings demonstrate that integrative genomic analysis of dietary information may reveal molecular targets for disease prevention and treatment.

8.
Diabetes Spectr ; 33(2): 113-117, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425447

RESUMO

Conducting and interpreting nutrition research involves consideration of the research question, study design, wide variability of nutrients in foods and dietary patterns, food environment, approaches used to collect and analyze dietary data, and manner in which results are reported. This article reviews all of these considerations with regard to diabetes-related nutrition research.

9.
Oncologist ; 25(8): 712-721, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent clinical trials have evaluated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACEis), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and beta blockers (BBs) in relation to cardiotoxicity in patients with cancer, typically defined by ejection fraction declines. However, these trials have not examined long-term, hard clinical endpoints. Within a prospective study, we examined the risk of heart failure (HF) and coronary heart disease (CHD) events in relation to use of commonly used antihypertensive medications, including ACEis/ARBs, BBs, calcium channel blockers (CCB), and diuretics, comparing women with and without cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cohort of 56,997 Women's Health Initiative study participants free of cardiovascular disease who received antihypertensive treatment, we used multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of developing CHD, HF, and a composite outcome of cardiac events (combining CHD and HF) in relation to use of ACEis/ARBs, CCBs, or diuretics versus BBs, separately in women with and without cancer. RESULTS: Whereas there was no difference in risk of cardiac events comparing ACEi/ARB with BB use among cancer-free women (HR = 0.99 [0.88-1.12]), among cancer survivors ACEi/ARB users were at a 2.24-fold risk of total cardiac events (1.18-4.24); p-interaction = .06). When investigated in relation to CHD only, an increased risk was similarly observed in ACEi/ARB versus BB use for cancer survivors (HR = 1.87 [0.88-3.95]) but not in cancer-free women (HR = 0.91 [0.79-1.06]; p-interaction = .04). A similar pattern was also seen in relation to HF but did not reach statistical significance (p-interaction = .23). CONCLUSION: These results from this observational study suggest differing risks of cardiac events in relation to antihypertensive medications depending on history of cancer. Although these results require replication before becoming actionable in a clinical setting, they suggest the need for more rigorous examination of the effect of antihypertensive choice on long-term cardiac outcomes in cancer survivors. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Although additional research is needed to replicate these findings, these data from a large, nationally representative sample of postmenopausal women indicate that beta blockers are favorable to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in reducing the risk of cardiac events among cancer survivors. This differs from the patterns observed in a noncancer cohort, which largely mirrors what is found in the randomized clinical trials in the general population.

10.
Menopause ; 27(7): 756-762, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This analysis examined whether specific social, physical, and financial factors were associated with diet quality among older, community-dwelling women. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis was conducted in a subset of 6,094 community-dwelling Women's Health Initiative participants who completed a food frequency questionnaire, administered from 2012 to 2013, and a self-administered supplemental questionnaire, administered approximately 1 year later. The supplemental questionnaire included five questions assessing social, physical, and financial factors related to eating. Diet quality was assessed with the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010; range of 0-100; higher score indicates a higher quality diet). The total HEI-2010 score was calculated by summing individual scores representing the intake of nine adequacy components (beneficial food groups) and three moderation components (food groups to limit). Associations of responses to the five questions on the supplemental questionnaire with HEI-2010 scores were examined with multiple linear regression, adjusting for relevant covariates. RESULTS: Mean ±â€Šstandard deviation age of participants was 78.8 ±â€Š6.7 years. Reporting eating fewer than two meals per day, having dental or other mouth problems causing problems with eating, and not always being able to shop, cook, or feed oneself were associated with statistically significantly lower HEI-2010 scores, compared with those not reporting these issues, after multivariable adjustment: 5.37, 2.98, and 2.39 lower scores, respectively (all P values <0.0001). Reporting eating alone most of the time and not always having enough money to buy food were not associated with HEI-2010 scores. CONCLUSIONS: Among older, community-dwelling women, eating fewer than two meals per day, dental and other mouth problems, and diminished ability to shop for food, prepare meals, and feed oneself were associated with lower diet quality. These are potential targets for interventions to improve diet quality in older women. : Video Summary:http://links.lww.com/MENO/A561.

11.
Transl Behav Med ; 10(1): 46-54, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909412

RESUMO

Rates of cardiovascular disease and diabetes are rising in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), but there is a dearth of research devoted to developing and evaluating chronic disease interventions in these settings, particularly in Africa. Lifestyle Africa is a novel, culturally adapted version of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) being evaluated in an ongoing community-based cluster-randomized trial in an underresourced urban community in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to describe the adaptations and adaptation process used to develop the program and to report preliminary implementation findings from the first wave of groups (n = 11; 200 individuals) who participated in the intervention. The RE-AIM model and community advisory boards guided the adaptation process. The program was designed to be delivered by community health workers (CHWs) through video-assisted sessions and supplemented with text messages. Participants in the trial were overweight and obese members of existing chronic disease "support groups" served via CHWs. Implementation outcomes included completion of sessions, session attendance, fidelity of session delivery, and participant satisfaction. Results indicated that 10/11 intervention groups completed all 17 core sessions. Average attendance across all sessions and groups was 54% and the percentage who attended at least 75% of sessions across all groups was 35%. Fidelity monitoring indicated a mean of 84% of all required procedures were completed while overall communication skills were rated as "good" to "excellent". These preliminary results support the feasibility of culturally adapting the DPP for delivery by CHWs in underresourced settings in LMIC.

12.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(1): 289-300, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics profiling has shown promise in elucidating the biological pathways underpinning mortality, but there are limited data in female populations. METHODS: We applied a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics platform to EDTA-plasma to measure 470 metabolites at baseline in a discovery set of 943 postmenopausal women (including 417 incident deaths, median time to death of 10.6 years) with validation in an independent set of 1355 postmenopausal women (including 685 deaths, median time to death of 9.1 years) in the Women's Health Initiative. RESULTS: Eight new metabolites were discovered to be associated with all-cause mortality. Findings included protective effects of increased levels of three amino acids (asparagine, homoarginine and tryptophan) and docosatrienoic acid; and detrimental effects of increased levels of C4-OH-carnitine, hexadecanedioate and two purine/pyrimidines (N2, N2-dimethylguanosine and N4-acetylcytidine). In addition, a set of nine previously published metabolite associations were replicated. A metabolite score comprising 17 metabolites was associated with mortality (P < 10-8) after adjustment for risk factors, with a hazard ratio of 1.95 (95% CI: 1.46-2.62) for women in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of metabolite score. The score was robust among younger women and older women, for both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality, and associated with both early deaths (within the first 10 years of baseline) and later deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our study fills a gap in the literature by identifying eight novel metabolite associations with all-cause mortality in women, using a robust study design involving independent discovery and validation datasets.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Metabolômica/métodos , Pós-Menopausa , Idoso , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Purinas , Pirimidinas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e031400, 2019 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719084

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low and middle-income countries like South Africa are experiencing major increases in burden of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular conditions. However, evidence-based interventions to address behavioural factors related to these diseases are lacking. Our study aims to adapt the CDC's National Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) within the context of an under-resourced urban community in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS/ANALYSIS: The new intervention (Lifestyle Africa) consists of 17 weekly sessions delivered by trained community health workers (CHWs). In addition to educational and cultural adaptations of DPP content, the programme adds novel components of text messaging and CHW training in Motivational Interviewing. We will recruit overweight and obese participants (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) who are members of 28 existing community health clubs served by CHWs. In a 2-year cluster randomised control trial, clubs will be randomly allocated to receive the intervention or usual care. After year 1, usual care participants will also receive the intervention and both groups will be followed for another year. The primary outcome analysis will compare percentage of baseline weight loss at year 1. Secondary outcomes will include diabetes and cardiovascular risk indicators (blood pressure, haemoglobin A1C, lipids), changes in self-reported medication use, diet (fat and fruit and vegetable intake), physical activity and health-related quality of life. We will also assess potential psychosocial mediators/moderators as well as cost-effectiveness of the programme. ETHICS/DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the University of Cape Town and Children's Mercy. Results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and training curricula will be disseminated to local stakeholders. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03342274.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Estilo de Vida , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Entrevista Motivacional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , África do Sul , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , População Urbana
14.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652909

RESUMO

Diet is a modifiable component of lifestyle that could influence breast cancer development. The Mediterranean dietary pattern is considered one of the healthiest of all dietary patterns. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet protects against diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Reported consumption of a Mediterranean diet pattern was associated with lower breast cancer risk for women with all subtypes of breast cancer, and a Western diet pattern was associated with greater risk. In this review, we contrast the available epidemiological breast cancer data, comparing the impact of consuming a Mediterranean diet to the Western diet. Furthermore, we will review the preclinical data highlighting the anticancer molecular mechanism of Mediterranean diet consumption in both cancer prevention and therapeutic outcomes. Diet composition is a major constituent shaping the gut microbiome. Distinct patterns of gut microbiota composition are associated with the habitual consumption of animal fats, high-fiber diets, and vegetable-based diets. We will review the impact of Mediterranean diet on the gut microbiome and inflammation. Outside of the gut, we recently demonstrated that Mediterranean diet consumption led to distinct microbiota shifts in the mammary gland tissue, suggesting possible anticancer effects by diet on breast-specific microbiome. Taken together, these data support the anti-breast-cancer impact of Mediterranean diet consumption.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Dieta Ocidental , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bactérias/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos
16.
Diabetes Care ; 42(9): 1653-1660, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: HELP PD was a clinical trial of 301 adults with prediabetes. Participants were randomized to enhanced usual care (EUC) or to a lifestyle weight loss (LWL) intervention led by community health workers that consisted of a 6-month intensive phase (phase 1) and 18 months of maintenance (phase 2). At 24 months, participants were asked to enroll in phase 3 to assess whether continued group maintenance (GM) sessions would maintain improvements realized in phases 1 and 2 compared with self-directed maintenance (SM) or EUC. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In phase 3, LWL participants were randomly assigned to GM or SM. EUC participants remained in the EUC arm and, along with participants in SM, received monthly newsletters. All participants received semiannual dietitian sessions. Anthropometrics and biomarkers were assessed every 6 months. Mixed-effects models were used to assess changes in outcomes over time. RESULTS: Eighty-two of the 151 intervention participants (54%) agreed to participate in phase 3; 41 were randomized to GM and 41 to SM. Of the 150 EUC participants, 107 (71%) continued. Ninety percent of clinic visits were completed. Over 48 months of additional follow-up, outcomes remained relatively stable in the EUC participants; the GM group was able to maintain body weight, BMI, and waist circumference; and these measures all increased significantly (P < 0.001) in the SM group. CONCLUSIONS: Participants in the GM arm maintained weight loss achieved in phases 1 and 2, while those in the SM arm regained weight. Because group session attendance by the participants in the GM arm was low, it is unclear what intervention components led to successful weight maintenance.


Assuntos
Manutenção do Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Estado Pré-Diabético/terapia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos
17.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(8): 1275-1284, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338998

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize weight loss, treatment engagement, and weight control strategies utilized by African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white participants in the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) Intensive Lifestyle Intervention by racial/ethnic and sex subgroups. METHODS: Weight losses at 1, 4, and 8 years among 2,361 adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes randomized to intervention (31% minority; 42% men) are reported by subgroup. Multivariable models within subgroups examine relative contributions of treatment engagement variables and self-reported weight control behaviors. RESULTS: All subgroups averaged weight losses ≥ 5% in year 1 but experienced regain; losses ≥ 5% were sustained at year 8 by non-Hispanic white participants and minority women (but not men). Session attendance was high (≥ 86%) in year 1 and exceeded protocol-specified minimum levels into year 8. Individual session attendance had stronger associations with weight loss among Hispanic and African American participants than non-Hispanic white participants at 4 years (P = 0.04) and 8 years (P = 0.001). Daily self-weighing uptake was considerable in all subgroups and was a prominent factor associated with year 1 weight loss among African American men and women. Greater meal replacement use was strongly associated with poorer 1-year weight losses among African American women. CONCLUSIONS: Experiences of minority men and women with diabetes in lifestyle interventions fill important gaps in the literature that can inform treatment delivery.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/etnologia , Perda de Peso/etnologia , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/terapia
18.
J Gen Intern Med ; 34(8): 1486-1493, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have examined if food insecurity (FI) leads to increased weight gain, but little is known about how FI affects obese participants. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine if obese, food-insecure adults are more likely to have medical comorbidities than obese, food-secure adults. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study using the 2007-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). PARTICIPANTS: All obese participants (≥ 20 years) in NHANES were eligible. Participants who were pregnant or missing FI data were excluded. MAIN MEASURES: The primary exposure was household FI, and the primary outcome was the total number of obesity-related comorbidities. Secondary outcomes evaluated the association between FI and individual comorbidities. Propensity score weighting was used to improve covariate balance. We used negative binomial regression to test the association between FI and the total number of comorbidities. We used logistic regression to test the association between FI and individual comorbidities. KEY RESULTS: Of the 9203 obese participants, 15.6% were food insecure. FI (ß = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.15; p = 0.01) and very low food security (ß = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.28; p = 0.003) were associated with an increased number of comorbidities. In secondary analyses, FI was associated with increased odds of coronary artery disease (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.0) and asthma (OR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.6). Very low food security was associated with increased odds of coronary artery disease, diabetes, and asthma. CONCLUSION: Obese adults living in food-insecure households were more likely to have an increased number of comorbid conditions than obese adults living in food-secure households. Clinicians should be aware of the association between FI and comorbid medical conditions when treating patients with obesity.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/classificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/psicologia , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
J Nutr ; 149(9): 1493-1502, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Western diets are associated with increased incidences of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia, whereas Mediterranean diets, richer in polyphenols, monounsaturated fats, fruits, vegetables, poultry, and fish, appear to have cardiometabolic health benefits. Previous work has included population-based studies with limited evidence for causation or animal studies focused on single macro- or micronutrients; therefore, primate animal models provide an opportunity to determine potential mechanisms underlying the effects of dietary patterns on health and disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of whole dietary patterns, either a Western or Mediterranean diet, on skeletal muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics in cynomolgus macaques. METHODS: In this study, 22 adult female cynomolgus macaques (∼11-14 y by dentition) were fed either a Western or Mediterranean diet for 30 mo. The Western diet was designed to mimic the diet of a middle-aged American woman and the Mediterranean diet included key aspects of Mediterranean diets studied in humans, such as plant-based proteins and fat, complex carbohydrates, and fiber. Diets were matched on macronutrient composition (16% protein, 54% carbohydrate, and 31% fat) and cholesterol content. Skeletal muscle was collected for high-resolution respirometry, citrate synthase activity, and western blot measurements. Pearson correlation analysis between respirometry measures and measures of carbohydrate metabolism was also performed. RESULTS: We found that consumption of a Western diet resulted in significantly higher mitochondrial respiration with fatty acid oxidation (FAO) (53%), FAO + complex I (52%), complex I + II (31%), max electron transport system (ETS) (31%), and ETS rotenone sensitive (31%) than did consumption of a Mediterranean diet. In addition, measures of respiration in response to fatty acids were significantly and positively correlated with both insulin resistance and plasma insulin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the importance of dietary composition in mitochondrial bioenergetics and that diet can influence skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration independently of other factors such as macronutrient composition.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Dieta Ocidental , Metabolismo Energético , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Macaca fascicularis
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