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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360514

RESUMO

The Maudsley Violence Questionnaire (MVQ) is an instrument specifically developed to evaluate violent thinking through two subscales examining macho attitudes and the acceptance of violence. This study analyzed the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Spanish version of the MVQ questionnaire in a large sample of 1933 Spanish adolescents. An online questionnaire was used to collect variables, such as sociodemographic and sexism data. The factor structure showed good fit indices in Spanish adolescents, which were similar to the original scale. The exploratory analysis yielded a first factor that explained 11.3% of the total variance and a second factor that explained 10.8% of the total variance. The Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) (0.902), Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI) (0.90), Normed Fit Index (NNFI) (0.85), and the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) (0.86) suggested that the model fit the data adequately (with values ≥ 0.90) and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) (≤0.10) values indicative of an adequate fit. This study contributes a Spanish-language validated tool to measure machismo and the acceptance of violence among adolescents.


Assuntos
Idioma , Estudantes , Adolescente , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência
2.
Trauma Violence Abuse ; : 15248380211030242, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hegemonic masculinity has been recognized as contributing to the perpetration of different forms of gender-based violence (GBV). Abandoning hegemonic masculinities and promoting positive masculinities are both strategies used by interventions that foreground a "gender-transformative approach." Preventing GBV among young people could be strengthened by engaging young men. In this article, we aim to systematically review the primary characteristics, methodological quality, and results of published evaluation studies of educational interventions that aim to prevent different forms of GBV through addressing hegemonic masculinities among young people. MAIN BODY: We conducted a systematic review of available literature (2008-2019) using Medline (PubMed), Scopus, Web of Science, PsycInfo, the CINAHL Complete Database, and ERIC as well as Google scholar. The Template for Intervention Description and Replication was used for data extraction, and the quality of the selected studies was analyzed using the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool. More than half of the studies were conducted in Africa (n = 10/15) and many were randomized controlled trials (n = 8/15). Most of the studies with quantitative and qualitative methodologies (n = 12/15) reported a decrease in physical GBV and/or sexual violence perpetration/victimization (n = 6/15). Longitudinal studies reported consistent results over time. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the importance of using a gender-transformative approach in educational interventions to engage young people in critical thinking about hegemonic masculinity and to prevent GBV.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925021

RESUMO

AIMS: To analyze the temporal and geographical distribution of different indicators for the evolution of intimate partner violence against women (IPV) before, during and after the COVID-19 induced lockdown between March and June 2020 in Spain. METHODS: Descriptive ecological study based on numbers of 016-calls, policy reports, women killed, and protection orders (PO) issued due to IPV across Spain as a whole and by province (2015-2020). We calculated quarterly rates for each indicator. A cluster analysis was performed using 016-call rates and protection orders by province in the second quarters of 2019 and 2020. ANOVAs were calculated for clustering by province, unemployment rates by province, and the current IPV prevalence. RESULTS: During the second quarter of 2020, the highest 016-call rate was recorded (12.19 per 10,000 women aged 15 or over). Policy report rates (16.62), POs (2.81), and fatalities (0.19 per 1,000,000 women aged 15 or over) decreased in the second quarter of 2020. In the third quarter, 016-calls decreased, and policy reports and POs increased. Four clusters were identified, and significant differences in unemployment rates between clusters were observed (F = 3.05, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 lockdown fostered a change in IPV-affected women's help-seeking behavior. Differences between the volume of contacts made via 016-call and the policy reports generated provide evidence for the existence of barriers to IPV-service access during the lockdown and the period of remote working. More efforts are needed to reorganize services to cope with IPV in non-presential situations. The provinces with the highest 016-call and PO rates were also those with the highest rates of unemployment, a worrying result given the current socioeconomic crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Adolescente , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia
4.
Gac Sanit ; 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865630

RESUMO

Scientific writing is one of the competences required and requested by health professionals. There are several course formats designed for acquiring these competences, although the improvement after taking part in these courses is not always demonstrated. Through an open and non-randomized experimental design, the SCRIU-B study aims to evaluate the acquisition of competencies in scientific writing after specific training courses (face-to-face and online) as well as the satisfaction of the participants with these courses. A control group with participants from other training workshops not related to scientific writing is included. Through different questionnaires about knowledge, attitudes and skills we will evaluate and compare the improvement of their scientific writing skills. The results of the study will allow us to assess the usefulness of these courses and improve their format and implementation.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825247

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the barriers and facilitators of managing intimate partner violence (IPV) cases, from the perspective of primary health care (PHC) social workers. METHOD: Qualitative study through interviews with 14 social workers working in PHC centres in Spain. A thematic analysis approach was applied to identify barriers and facilitators according to the Tanahashi model. RESULTS: The barriers identified by social workers in providing effective coverage to women suffering from IPV included insufficient practical training, a lack of knowledge from women on social workers' roles, a lack of teamwork, and excess IPV case referrals from other professionals to social workers. The identified facilitators were the existence of electronic protocols and good practices including therapeutic support groups and holistic intervention approaches. CONCLUSIONS: An excess of referrals to social workers of identified IPV cases following consultation by other members of the PHC team, alongside the lack of interdisciplinary teamwork, does not enable a comprehensive and holistic approach to this problem. Compulsory, practical, and interdisciplinary training in IPV for all PHC professionals and students must be a priority for health agencies and universities in order to facilitate a comprehensive and quality approach for all women suffering from IPV.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546373

RESUMO

Dating violence (DV) among adolescents is a public health issue because of its negative health consequences. In this study, we aimed to analyse the prevalence and the psychosocial and socioeconomic risk and protective factors associated DV among male and female adolescents in Europe. It was performed a cross-sectional study based on a non-probabilistic sample of 1555 students aged 13-16 years (2018-2019). The global prevalence of DV victimization was significantly greater among girls than boys (girls: 34.1%, boys: 26.7%; p = 0.012). The prevalence of DV in both girls and boys was greater for those over age 15 (girls: 48.5% p < 0.001; boys: 35.9%; p = 0.019). There was an increased likelihood of DV victimization among girls whose fathers did not have paid employment (p = 0.024), who suffered abuse in childhood, and reported higher Benevolent Sexism [PR (CI 95%): 1.01 (1.00-1.03)] and machismo [1.02 (1.00-1.05)]. In the case of boys, the likelihood of DV increased with abuse in childhood (p = 0.018), lower parental support [0.97 (0.96-0.99)], high hostile sexism scores (p = 0.019), lower acceptance of violence (p = 0.009) and high machismo (p < 0.001). Abuse in childhood was shown to be the main factor associated with being a victim of DV in both population groups, as well as sexism and machismo attitudes. These results may contribute to future DV prevention school programs for both, teenagers and children of elementary school ages.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Aggress Behav ; 47(3): 354-363, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611803

RESUMO

Despite the efforts of recent decades to reduce gender inequality, sexism is still prevalent among adolescents. The objective of this study was to identify the main socioeconomic characteristics, personal experiences, resources, and competencies associated with sexism in a sample of adolescents from different European countries. Baseline data from the Lights4Violence project included 1555 students ages 12-17 from secondary schools in six European countries (Spain, Italy, Romania, United Kingdom, Portugal, and Poland). Linear regression models were carried out, stratified by sex for benevolent (BS) and hostile (HS) dimensions of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. The average age of the sample was 14.3 years (SD = 1.5), 59.3% were girls. Boys scored higher on the measure of sexism (mean BS = 29.7; HS = 29.1) than girls (BS = 27.5, HS = 23.0; p < .001). Girls whose mothers had a university degree reported lower BS (ß = -0.113; p = .023) (reference: lower education). Girls who had experienced dating violence reported higher HS (ß = .080; p = .010) than those who had never been in an intimate relationship. For both sexes, high aggressiveness was associated with high levels of HS, and high aggressiveness was related to high levels of BS in boys. High assertiveness was associated with high levels of BS in both sexes and with high levels of HS in boys. A high level of problem-solving ability was associated with lower HS in both sexes. The study reinforces the need to invest in school programs aimed at preventing dating violence and promoting positive youth development.


Assuntos
Sexismo , Adolescente , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiologia , Espanha , Reino Unido
8.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0246268, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To gather consensus on professional competencies and basic public health content for the degree program in Human Nutrition and Dietetics (HND). DESIGN: In 2018, the Fifth Meeting of University Public Health Professors took place in Zaragoza (Spain). Fourteen lecturers in the HND degree program participated from 11 Spanish universities. They identified competencies and basic content for training for the HND degree using group dynamics and consensus strategies. RESULTS: The professors identified 51 basic competencies, distributed in the areas of "evaluation of population health needs" (n = 20), "development of health policies" (n = 23), and "guaranteeing provision of health care services" (n = 8). In order to reach these competencies, 35 topics were proposed organized into six thematic blocks: foundations of public health, nutritional epidemiology, health problems and diet and nutrition strategies, food security, health in all policies and health promotion and education. CONCLUSION: The consensus reached serves as a reference to orient and update public health education as a part of the HND degree.


Assuntos
Currículo , Dietética/educação , Educação de Pós-Graduação , Saúde Pública/educação , Universidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
J Adolesc Health ; 68(5): 922-929, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067152

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the potential association between social support, experiences of violence, and sociodemographic characteristics of adolescents and the likelihood of acceptance of violence and machismo in different European countries. METHODS: Cross-sectional design. We recruited 1,555 participants ages 13-16 from secondary schools in Alicante (Spain), Rome (Italy), Iasi (Romania), Matosinhos (Portugal), Poznan (Poland), and Cardiff (UK). We used linear regression models to identify how social support from teachers and parents, experiences of violence-dating violence, bullying, cyberbullying, abuse in childhood-and sociodemographic characteristics were associated with violent thinking, specifically: machismo and acceptance of violence. The analysis was stratified by sex. RESULTS: Acceptance of violence was higher for those who had lower perceived social support from parents (ßgirls = -154, p < .001; ßboys = -.114, p = .019) for both sexes. Perpetration of bullying and/or cyberbullying was associated with higher scores for machismo and acceptance of violence for both sexes (ßgirls = .067, p = .035; ßboys = .225, p < .001; (ßgirls = .118, p < .001; ßboys = .210, p < .001). Being the victim of dating violence, having suffered physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood, and lower perceived social support from teachers were associated with higher scores for both machismo and acceptance of violence. These associations differed between girls and boys. CONCLUSIONS: Machismo and acceptance of violence are widely present amongst adolescents in different European countries. Our results suggest the importance of providing educational/psycho-educational interventions with boys and girls to prevent these attitudes and, in turn, prevent interpersonal violence, including bullying and dating violence.

10.
J Interpers Violence ; 36(11-12): 5795-5812, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353765

RESUMO

Acceptability of violence against women (VAW) is a key dimension in addressing this social problem, given its influence on both the violent conduct of aggressors and the decisions of affected women. This study analyzes, for the first time, the magnitude of acceptability of VAW and associated factors in the Roma population in Spain. The Roma population is the largest ethnocultural minority in Europe. Data were analyzed from the Spanish National Health Survey of the Roma Population of 2014, a survey of 1,167 people identified as members of the Roma community. The results indicate that 70.9% of those surveyed completely reject VAW, with lower probability of acceptability among women than men (odds ratio [OR]: 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.51, 0.86]). There is also a decrease in probability as income increases, in people who identify themselves as evangelical (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: [0.36, 0.71]) and among those who report being acquainted with a battered woman (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: [0.48, 0.97]), similarly in women and men. It has to be highlighted that the observed associations between socioeconomic conditions and acceptability of VAW should be considered when designing strategies for raising awareness about the consequences of VAW for the Roma population.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271817

RESUMO

The aim of the article is to show the role of school social support and school social climate in dating violence victimization prevention among adolescents in Europe. Study participants were students from secondary schools (age 13-16) in Spain, Italy, Romania, Portugal, Poland and UK. The analysis in this text concern student with dating experience (n = 993) (57.2% of girls and 66.5% of boys). School social support was measured by School Social Climate, Factor 1 Scale (CECSCE) and by Student Social Support Scale (CASSS), subscales teachers and classmates. The association between school social support and different types of dating victimization (physical and/or sexual dating violence, control dating violence and fear) was measured by calculating the prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals, estimated by Poisson regression models with robust variance. All the models were adjusted by country and by sociodemographic variables. The results show that the average values of all types of social support are significantly lower in young people who have suffered any type of dating violence or were scared of their partner. The likelihood of suffering physical and/or sexual dating violence decreased when school social support increased [PR (CI 95%): 0.96 (0.92; 0.99)]. In the same way, the likelihood of fear decreased when school social climate increased [PR (CI 95%): 0.98 (0.96; 0.99)].There is an association between school social support and school social climate and experiences of being victim of dating violence among adolescents in Europe. Our results suggest that in the prevention of dating violence building a supportive climate at schools and building/using the support of peers and teachers is important.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Vítimas de Crime , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Polônia , Portugal , Romênia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha
12.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260520976213, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289463

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV) and its associated factors may vary according to women's age. In this study, we analyze the effect of age on help-seeking behavior and the associated factors among women exposed to IPV in Spain. Using the Spanish Macrosurvey on Gender Violence of 2014, we analyzed the frequency of help-seeking behavior (police report, formal resources, and informal networks of support) in women who were exposed to lifetime physical/sexual or fear-based IPV (n = 1,567 women). We used Poisson regression models to obtain variables associated with support resources. The analysis was carried out in three age groups: young women (16-29 years old), adults (30-49 years old), and older women (50 years and over). Our results show that informal support networks are the most used resource by all women´s age groups. The probability of filing a police complaint increases among women exposured to physical IPV (PRadult : 1.58; PRelder : 2.17 ). The probability of using formal resources decreased among older women with low family socioeconomic status (PR: 0.80) and in adult women exposed to sexual IPV (PR: 0.78), and increased among young women and adult Spanish women (PRyoung: 1.65; PRadult: 1.34). The use of informal support networks increased among adult women with physical and mental health effects (PR: 1.22). In older women use of informal support networks was associated with the type of IPV (PRphysical: 1.14; PRsexual: 0.88). The presence of minors who witnessed IPV increased help-seeking behavior among adult and older women.In conclusion, the knowledge of the differences in help-seeking strategies by women in different age groups could contribute to designing strategies to promote women's ability to seek formal help when exposed to IPV.

14.
Gac Sanit ; 2020 May 31.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the main academic characteristics and contents of the different master's programs in public health currently offered in Spain. METHOD: A systematic search has been carried out in the Register of Universities, Centers and Degrees of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports. The main academic characteristics and the contents (mandatory and optional) of the programs of 11 official master's degrees with the renewed accreditation in 2018 were analyzed based on the data published on the universities' web pages. RESULTS: Most programs are 60 ECTS (European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System), face-to-face, taught in Spanish, include in their curriculum the completion of a master's thesis but not professional practices. Only contents related to statistics and basic epidemiology, and the training activity of master's thesis, are offers by all programs. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of public health master's programs in Spain shows a certain homogeneity regarding their academic characteristics, but a great heterogeneity in relation to their contents. There is also a great heterogeneity in the credits granted to the different subjects, especially optional subjects. It would be advisable to standardize a common core, especially in the mandatory contents.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260221

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Lights4Violence project was created to promote healthy relationships among adolescents using a school intervention in which participants developed video-capsules where they highlighted skills to resolve situations of dating violence. This study aims to assess the results of the Lights4Violence training program by identifying different types of violence and positive development assets that Spanish adolescents use in their video-capsule scripts. METHODS: A thematic analysis of the Lights4Violence video capsules was carried out. Open coding was used to identify violence patterns. A deductive analysis was used to identify student assets using the "Positive Youth Development Model". FINDINGS: Adolescents describe different patterns of violence, such as psychological violence, sexist violence or verbal violence that is present on the scripts. However, they showed themselves capable of resolving these situations using language and personal empowerment skills as resources. Family, friends and community were identified in adolescents' scenarios as the most frequent assets to address situations of conflict. CONCLUSION: Adolescents can promote healthy relationships using protective factors against violence. Interventions that use this approach can potentially be useful in preventing violence.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Violência , Adolescente , Humanos , Fatores de Proteção , Espanha
16.
Int J Public Health ; 65(3): 273-280, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Roma population in Spain makes up about two percent of the population and has worse health indicators than the general population. We analyzed both populations in 2006 and 2014 to discover whether there are differences in terms of gynecological visits and preventive services for breast and cervical cancer in Spain. METHODS: Cross-sectional study is based on the Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS) of 2006 and 2012 and the National Health Survey of the Roma Population (NHSRP) of 2006 and 2014. RESULTS: Roma women used gynecological visits less than the general population in 2006 (ORa 0.5 [0.4; 0.6] and in 2014 (ORa 0.2 [0.2; 0.3)]. In addition, use of the mammogram was lower in Roma women (ORa 0.7 [0.6; 0.8]), especially in the ages of the screening tests, and they had lower probability of receiving cervical examinations in 2006 (ORa 0.5 [0.4; 0.6]) and in 2014 (ORa 0.7 [0.6; 0.9]). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the inequality gap in gynecological visits and preventive services for breast and cervical cancer in Roma women has persisted during the years studied (2006 and 2014), despite Spanish prevention policies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Exame Ginecológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Roma (Grupo Étnico)/psicologia , Roma (Grupo Étnico)/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Previsões , Exame Ginecológico/tendências , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/tendências , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Trop Med Int Health ; 25(2): 144-158, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713954

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse community intervention programmes for people affected by leprosy in 'global priority countries'. METHODS: Scoping review of articles in the databases PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, Lilacs and Web of Knowledge that made reference to community intervention programmes aimed at people affected by leprosy in global priority countries and which presented an evaluation of results. Analytical variables analysed were methodological characteristics of the study, type of intervention classified according to the Community-Based Rehabilitation Matrix, indicators and results of the evaluation, and the degree of participation of the community, which was graphically represented as a spidergram. RESULTS: Thirty articles met the inclusion criteria. They were mostly related to the health component of the RBC matrix and aimed at the adult population. All evaluated the indicators used positively. The degree of participation generally ranged between mobilisation and collaboration. CONCLUSION: Community intervention programmes for people affected by leprosy have a positive effect on health. There are attempts to include affected people and the community in implementing these programmes, but it is not possible to establish a direct relationship with effects of their participation on health due to the study designs used. Future research using more robust methods that include leprosy patients are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of community participation.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Hanseníase/terapia , Participação Social , Humanos , Características de Residência
18.
Gac Sanit ; 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518411

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has hit Spain particularly hard, despite being a country with a developed economy and being praised for the robustness of its national health system. In order to understand what happened and to identify how to improve the response, we believe that an independent multi-disciplinary evaluation of the health, political and socio-economic spheres is essential. In this piece we propose objectives, principles, methodology and dimensions to be evaluated, as well as outlining the type of results and conclusions expected. Inspired by the requirements formulated by the WHO Independent Panel for Pandemic Preparedness and Response and by experiences in other countries, we detail the multidimensional aspects to be evaluated. The goal is to understand key aspects in the studied areas and their scope for improvement in terms of preparedness, governance, regulatory framework, national health system structures (primary care, hospital, and public health), education sector, social protection schemes, minimization of economic impact, and labour framework and reforms for a more resilient society. We seek to ensure that this exercise serves not only at present, but also that in the future we are better prepared and more agile in terms of our ability to recover from any pandemic threats that may arise.

19.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260519889931, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789092

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health concern that has serious effects on the well-being of women and their children. Being a mother and an immigrant are critical factors that prevent women from seeking to end an abusive relationship. Evidence suggests that immigrant women see their children's well-being and future as paramount while managing an abusive relationship. However, less is known about how women negotiate their children's needs and interests when deciding whether to stay with or leave an abusive partner. Drawing on interviews with IPV service providers in Spain, this study aims to explore providers' understandings of the position of the child in mothers' reflections regarding whether to end an abusive relationship and of the implications of such positioning for mothers' decision-making. The findings indicate that children hold two main positions in this process. In one, children are positioned as a trigger for mothers to stay with abusers. This occurs when women are economically dependent on their partner, when they think that their children need a father figure, or when the abuser plays a role in women's migratory status within Spain. Second, children are positioned as a trigger for mothers to leave abusers when mothers see children as victims of violence or children in need of a mother figure. Framed by positioning theory, we discuss how we can understand the consequences of such positioning for immigrant women who are survivors of IPV and for service provision in this context. The implications of the findings for research, policy making, and professional decision-making are discussed.

20.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0221049, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596869

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The effect of age on intimate partner violence (IPV) against women has received little attention. The objective of this study is to analyze the prevalence, risk factors and health impact of current IPV in different life stages. METHODS: We analyzed a sub-sample of 8,935 ever-partnered women aged 16 years and older from the Spanish Macrosurvey on Gender Violence of 2014. Main outcomes: current physical/ sexual IPV and current psychological-only IPV. The impact of IPV on health was analyzed using the variables self-perceived health, mental health and activity limitations. Risk factors were assessed using the prevalence ratio (PR) from Poisson regression models with robust variance. Analyses were stratified by age (young people, adults, and elderly people). RESULTS: Abuse in childhood increases the likelihood of IPV in any life stage. A higher education level decreases the probability of physical/sexual IPV across all ages. Unemployment increases the probability of IPV in adult women (physical/sexual-IPV, PR:1.7; psychological-IPV, PR:1.3). Being an immigrant increases the likelihood of physical/sexual IPV in adult women (PRwomen:1.91). Women exposed to current physical/sexual IPV have a greater likelihood of reporting poor self-perceived health (PRyoungpeople:2.59; PRadults:1.68; PRelderly:1.28), poor mental health (PRyoungpeople:3.10; PRadults:2.61; PRedlerly:2.17) and activity limitations (PRyoungpeople:2.44; PRadults:1.98). For psychological IPV only, there is an increase in the probability of poor self-perceived health (PRadults:1.37; PRelderly:1.19), poor mental health (PRyoungpeople:2.24; PRadults:2.16; PRelderly:1.69), and activity limitations (PRadults:1.30; PRelderly:1.18). CONCLUSIONS: We found both common factors and differential factors when looking at IPV by age group. This shows the need to link gender violence prevention with the social circumstances of the population across different life stages.


Assuntos
Violência de Gênero , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Saúde Mental , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
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