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4.
Am J Emerg Med ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836349

RESUMO

CONTEXT: In the prehospital setting, early identification of septic shock (SS) with high risk of mortality aims to initiate early treatments and to decide delivery unit (emergency department (ED) or intensive care unit (ICU)). In this context, there is a need for a prognostic measure of severity and death in order to early detect patients with a higher risk of pejorative evolution. In this study, we describe the association between prehospital shock index (SI) and mortality at day 28 of patients with SS initially cared for in the prehospital setting by a mobile intensive care unit (MICU). METHODS: Patients with SS cared for by a MICU between January 2016 and May 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Using propensity score, the association between SI and mortality was assessed by Odd Ratio (OR) with 95 percent confidence interval [95 CI]. RESULTS: One-hundred and fourteen patients among which 78 males (68%) were analysed. The mean age was 71 ± 14 years old. SS was mainly associated with pulmonary (55%), digestive (20%) or urinary (11%) infection. Overall mortality reached 33% (n = 38) at day 28. Median SI [interquartile range] differed between alive and deceased patients: 0.73 [0.61-1.00] vs 0.80 [0.66-1.10], p < 0.001*). After adjusting for confounding factors, the OR of SI > 0.9 was 1.17 [1.03-1.32]. CONCLUSION: In this study, we report an association between prehospital SI and mortality of patients with prehospital SS. A SI > 0.9 is a readily available tool correlated with increased mortality of patients with SS initially cared for in the prehospital setting.

5.
Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim ; 47(6): 492-495, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828247

RESUMO

Objective: In the emergency department (ED), the severity assessment of shock is a fundamental step prior to the admission in the intensive care unit (ICU). As biomarkers are time consuming to evaluate the severity of micro- and macro-circulation alteration, capillary refill time and skin mottling score are two simple, available clinical criteria validated to predict mortality in the ICU. The aim of the present study is to provide clinical evidence that capillary refill time and skin mottling score assessed in the ED also predict ICU admission of patients with septic or haemorrhagic shock. Methods: This trial is an observational, non-randomised controlled study. A total of 1500 patients admitted to the ED for septic or haemorrhagic shock will be enrolled into the study. The primary outcome is the admission to the ICU. Results: The study will not impact the treatments provided to each patient. Capillary refill time and skin mottling score will not be taken into account to decide patient's treatments and/or ICU admission. Patients will be followed up during their hospital stay to determine their precise destination after the ED (home, ICU or ward) and the 28- and 90-day mortality after hospital admission. Conclusion: The results from the present study will provide clinical evidence on the correlation between the ICU admission and the capillary refill time and the skin mottling score in septic or haemorrhagic shock admitted to the ED. The aim of the present study is to provide two simple, reliable and non-invasive tools for the triage and early orientation of these patients.

6.
JAMA ; 322(23): 2303-2312, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846014

RESUMO

Importance: Rocuronium and succinylcholine are often used for rapid sequence intubation, although the comparative efficacy of these paralytic agents for achieving successful intubation in an emergency setting has not been evaluated in clinical trials. Succinylcholine use has been associated with several adverse events not reported with rocuronium. Objective: To assess the noninferiority of rocuronium vs succinylcholine for tracheal intubation in out-of-hospital emergency situations. Design, Setting and Participants: Multicenter, single-blind, noninferiority randomized clinical trial comparing rocuronium (1.2 mg/kg) with succinylcholine (1 mg/kg) for rapid sequence intubation in 1248 adult patients needing out-of-hospital tracheal intubation. Enrollment occurred from January 2014 to August 2016 in 17 French out-of-hospital emergency medical units. The date of final follow-up was August 31, 2016. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to undergo tracheal intubation facilitated by rocuronium (n = 624) or succinylcholine (n = 624). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the intubation success rate on first attempt. A noninferiority margin of 7% was chosen. A per-protocol analysis was prespecified as the primary analysis. Results: Among 1248 patients who were randomized (mean age, 56 years; 501 [40.1%] women), 1230 (98.6%) completed the trial and 1226 (98.2%) were included in the per-protocol analysis. The number of patients with successful first-attempt intubation was 455 of 610 (74.6%) in the rocuronium group vs 489 of 616 (79.4%) in the succinylcholine group, with a between-group difference of -4.8% (1-sided 97.5% CI, -9% to ∞), which did not meet criteria for noninferiority. The most common intubation-related adverse events were hypoxemia (55 of 610 patients [9.0%]) and hypotension (39 of 610 patients [6.4%]) in the rocuronium group and hypoxemia (61 of 616 [9.9%]) and hypotension (62 of 616 patients [10.1%]) in the succinylcholine group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients undergoing endotracheal intubation in an out-of-hospital emergency setting, rocuronium, compared with succinylcholine, failed to demonstrate noninferiority with regard to first-attempt intubation success rate. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02000674.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Rocurônio/administração & dosagem , Succinilcolina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Simples-Cego
8.
Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim ; 47(5): 407-413, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572993

RESUMO

Objective: Cardiac arrest (CA) resuscitation is associated with an 'ischaemia-reperfusion' syndrome characterised by lactic acidosis as assessed by lactate and base deficit (BD). Both biomarkers are usually measured in patients suffering from refractory CA (RCA) subjected to extracorporeal life support (ECLS) to evaluate tissue reperfusion. However, their prognostic value has never been compared. The aim of the present study was to compare the prognostic value of both biomarkers measured at 0 and 3 h after the initiation of ECLS in patients with RCA on mortality. Methods: Patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit with RCA were consecutively included in the study. Results: Sixty-six patients were included. Lactate correlated with BD (R2=0.44, p<0.001). An area under the curve of 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59-0.84) was found for lactate and of 0.60 (95% CI 0.46-0.73) for BD. Using multivariable logistic regression, lactate (odds ratio (OR) 1.22, 95% CI 1.03-1.48) remained associated with mortality on day 28, but not BD (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.86-1.14). Conclusion: We report a difference in the prognostic value of lactate and BD on mortality. Three hours from the initiation of ECLS in patients with RCA, lactate should be preferred to BD to predict the efficiency of ECLS.

9.
Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim ; 47(4): 334-341, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380515

RESUMO

Objective: The outcome of sepsis relies on the early diagnosis and implementation of appropriate treatments. For management of out-of-hospital patients with sepsis, prehospital emergency services, named Service d'Aide Médicale d'Urgence (SAMU) in France, dispatch to the scene an emergency mobile team (EMT) or a mobile intensive care unit (MICU) based on the patient's severity. Therefore, patients are admitted to the emergency department (ED) or to the intensive care unit (ICU). The impact of MICU intervention on patient's prognosis remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to describe the impact of MICU intervention on mortality on day 28 (D28) of patients with sepsis. Methods: We performed a retrospective study on patients with sepsis managed by prehospital teams, MICU or EMT, before admission to the ED or ICU. The primary outcome was mortality on D28. Results: The SAMU received 30,642 calls during the study period with 140 patients with suspected sepsis. The suspected origin of sepsis was mainly pulmonary for 78 (55%) patients. Thirteen (9%) patients died on D28, 12 in the ED and 1 in the ICU. Two patients were admitted to the hospital by a MICU. After adjusting for confounding factors, the relative risk of mortality on D28 for patients admitted to the hospital by a MICU was 0.40. Conclusion: We describe an association between MICU intervention and mortality on D28. MICU intervention for out-of-hospital patients with sepsis is associated with 60% reduced mortality on D28. Larger studies are needed to confirm the impact of the intervention of MICU on mortality of patients with sepsis.

10.
Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim ; 47(1): 48-54, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276111

RESUMO

Objective: During cardiac arrest (CA) resuscitation, an 'ischaemia-reperfusion' syndrome occurs leading to multiorgan failure reflected by an increase in blood lactate. Blood lactate is a diagnosis and prognosis biomarker in extracorporeal life support (ECLS), but its kinetic appears more informative to assess a patient's outcome. The aim of the present study was to describe the prognostic value of blood lactate and lactate clearance (LC) 3 (H3) and 6 h (H6) after the initiation of ECLS in the treatment of refractory CA. Methods: Patients admitted to the intensive care unit for refractory CA were included. Lactate measurements were performed at the initiation of ECLS (H0) and at H3 and H6 upon the initiation of ECLS. LC was measured from 0 to 3 h (LC03), 0 to 6 h (LC06) and 3 to 6 h (LC36). The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality within 28 days. Results: Sixty-six patients were enrolled in the study. Lactate levels were higher in deceased patients. Increased mortality was observed with increasing levels of lactate at H3 and H6 and with decreasing LC03. Using logistic regression, an association was observed between mortality and lactate at H3 with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.21 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.42); LC03, OR of 0.93 (95% CI 0.87-0.99) and LC06, OR of 0.96 (95% CI 0.92-0.99). Conclusion: Blood lactate and LC within the first 3 h of ECLS in refractory CA are associated with mortality. LC is a more relevant parameter than blood lactate, taking into account both the production and elimination of lactate. We suggest to preferentially use LC to assess the patient's outcome.

11.
Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim ; 47(2): 134-141, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080955

RESUMO

Objective: Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS) can help to improve the outcome of refractory cardiac arrest (CA). ECLS allows to maintain blood pressure and tissue perfusion until the cause of CA is treated. The aim of the present study was to describe the mean blood pressure (MBP) during the first 24 h of ECLS for out-of-hospital CA (OHCA). Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive refractory OHCA requiring ECLS admitted to the intensive care unit. MBP was examined after starting ECLS (H0) and every 6 h during the first 24 h (H6, H12, H18 and H24). Results: Forty patients were analysed. MBP significantly differs between survivors and non-survivors since 6 h: 77 vs 44 mm Hg (p=0.002), 51 vs 87 mm Hg at H12 (p=0.008), 57 vs 75 mm Hg at H18 (p=0.015) and 79 vs 53 mm Hg at H24 (p=0.004), whereas no difference was observed at H0: 69 vs 55 mm Hg (p=0.06). An MBP lower than 65 mm Hg since 6 h is associated with a poor outcome (sensitivity and specificity of death of 87% and 66% at H6, 80% and 75% at H12, 100% and 75% at H18 and 70% and 80% at H24, respectively). Conclusion: Despite high levels of catecholamine, the inability to maintain MBP higher than 60 mm Hg after starting ECLS for OHCA is associated with a poor outcome.

13.
Resuscitation ; 138: 222-232, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early prognostication is a major challenge after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). AIMS: We hypothesized that a genome-wide analysis of blood gene expression could offer new prognostic tools and lines of research. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled from an ancillary study of the clinical trial NCT00999583 that tested the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) after OHCA. Blood samples were collected in comatose survivors of OHCA at hospital admission and 1 and 3 days after resuscitation. Gene expression profiles were analyzed (Illumina HumanHT-12 V4 BeadChip; >34,000 genes). Patients were classified into two categories representing neurological favorable outcome (cerebral performance category [CPC] = 1-2) vs unfavorable outcome (CPC > 2) at Day 60 after OHCA. Differential and functional enrichment analyses were performed to compare transcriptomic profiles between these two categories. RESULTS: Among the 69 enrolled patients, 33 and 36 patients were treated or not by EPO, respectively. Among them, 42% had a favorable neurological outcome in both groups. EPO did not affect the transcriptomic response at Day-0 and 1 after OHCA. In contrast, 76 transcripts differed at Day-0 between patients with unfavorable vs favorable neurological outcome. This signature persisted at Day-1 after OHCA. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a down-regulation of adaptive immunity with concomitant up-regulation of innate immunity and inflammation in patients with unfavorable vs favorable neurological outcome. The transcription of many genes of the HLA family was decreased in patients with unfavorable vs favorable neurological outcome. Concomitantly, neutrophil activation and inflammation were observed. Up-stream regulators analysis showed the implication of numerous factors involved in cell cycle and damages. A logistic regression including a set of genes allowed a reliable prediction of the clinical outcomes (specificity = 88%; Hit Rate = 83%). CONCLUSIONS: A transcriptomic signature involving a counterbalance between adaptive and innate immune responses is able to predict neurological outcome very early after hospital admission after OHCA. This deserves confirmation in a larger population.

15.
Am J Emerg Med ; 37(10): 1860-1863, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation can cause deleterious effects on the lung and thus alter patient's prognosis. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of prehospital mechanical ventilation in patients with septic shock requiring mechanical ventilation in the prehospital setting. METHODS: Patients with septic shock subjected to pre-hospital intubation and mechanical ventilation by a mobile intensive care unit were consecutively included and retrospectively analysed. Septic shock was defined according to the international sepsis-3 consensus conference. Patient's characteristics, interventions, prehospital ventilatory parameters and outcome were retrieved from medical records. The association between the tidal volume indexed on ideal body weight (VTIBW) and mortality at day 28 was evaluated. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients were included. Septic shock was mainly associated with pulmonary (64%) infection. Mean pre-hospital VTIBW was 7 ±â€¯1 ml.kg-1 in the overall population. Mortality reached 42%. The AUC of VTIBW was 0.83 [0.72-0.94]. Using logistic regression model including: age, prehospital mean blood pressure, volume infused in the prehospital setting, FiO2 and length of stay in the intensive care unit, the association with mortality remained significant for VTIBW (OR adjusted [CI95] = 4.11 [1.89-10.98]), VTIBW >8 ml·kg-1 (OR adjusted [CI95] = 8.29 [2.35-34.98]) and VTIBW <8 ml·kg-1 (OR adjusted [CI95] = 0.12 [0.03-0.43]). CONCLUSION: In this retrospective study, we observed an association between mortality at day 28 and prehospital VTIBW in pre-hospital mechanically ventilated patients with septic shock. A VTIBW <8 ml·kg-1 was associated with a decrease and a VTIBW >8 ml·kg-1 with an increase in mortality.

17.
Am J Emerg Med ; 37(1): 56-60, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29709397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mechanical ventilation can help improve the prognosis of septic shock. While adequate delivery of oxygen to the tissue is crucial, hyperoxemia may be deleterious. Invasive out-of-hospital ventilation is often promptly performed in life-threatening emergencies. We propose to determine whether the arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) at the intensive care unit (ICU) admission is associated with mortality in patients with septic shock subjected to pre-hospital mechanical ventilation. METHODS: We performed a monocentric retrospective observational study on 77 patients. PaO2 was measured at ICU admission. The primary outcome was mortality at day 28 (D28). RESULTS: Forty-nine (64%) patients were included. The mean PaO2 at ICU admission was 153 ±â€¯77 and 202 ±â€¯82 mm Hg for alive and deceased patients respectively. Mortality concerned 18% of patients for PaO2 < 100, 25% for 100 < PaO2 < 150 and 57% for a PaO2 > 150 mm Hg. PaO2 was significantly associated with mortality at D28 (p = 0.04). Using propensity score analysis including SOFA score, pre-hospital duration, lactate, and prehospital fluid volume expansion, association with mortality at D28 only remained for PaO2 > 150 mm Hg (p = 0.02, OR [CI95] = 1.59 [1.20-2.10]). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we report a significant association between hyperoxemia at ICU admission and mortality in patients with septic shock subjected to pre-hospital invasive mechanical ventilation. The early adjustment of the PaO2 should be considered for these patients to avoid the toxic effects of hyperoxemia. However, blood gas analysis is hard to get in a prehospital setting. Consequently, alternative and feasible measures are needed, such as pulse oximetry, to improve the management of pre-hospital invasive ventilation.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ventilação não Invasiva , Oximetria/métodos , Choque Séptico/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Gasometria , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pressão Parcial , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Séptico/mortalidade , Choque Séptico/fisiopatologia
18.
Am J Emerg Med ; 37(4): 664-671, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The early identification of septic shock patients at high risk of poor outcome is essential to early initiate optimal treatments and to decide on hospital admission. Biomarkers are often used to evaluate the severity. In prehospital settings, the availability of biomarkers, such as lactate, is restricted. In this context, clinical tools such as skin mottling score (SMS) and capillary refill time (CRT) are more suitable. In this study, we describe prehospital SMS and CRT's ability to predict mortality of patients with septic shock initially cared in the prehospital setting by a mobile intensive care unit. METHODS: Patients with septic shock who received prehospital medical care admitted to the intensive care unit were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients were included. The origin of sepsis was mainly pulmonary (67%). Overall mortality reached 36%. No significant difference was observed in the duration of prehospital medical care between alive and deceased patients. Mean prehospital value of SMS was 3 ±â€¯2 and mean prehospital value of CRT was 5 ±â€¯1 s. A significant association was found between mortality and prehospital SMS (p = 0.02, OR[CI95] = 1.50 [1.08-2.15]) and prehospital CRT (p = 0.04, OR[CI95] = 1.53 [1.04-2.37]). After adjusting for confounding factors using propensity score, the relative risk of death was 6.58 for SMS > 2 and 2.03 for CRT > 4 s. CONCLUSION: In this study, we report an association between prehospital SMS and CRT, and mortality of patients with septic shock. SMS and CRT are simple tools that could be used to optimize the triage and to decide early intensive care admission.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Microcirculação , Choque Séptico/diagnóstico , Choque Séptico/fisiopatologia , Pele/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , França , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Choque Séptico/mortalidade , Triagem
20.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 38(2): 199-207, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579941

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pelvic fractures represent 5% of all traumatic fractures and 30% are isolated pelvic fractures. Pelvic fractures are found in 10 to 20% of severe trauma patients and their presence is highly correlated to increasing trauma severity scores. The high mortality of pelvic trauma, about 8 to 15%, is related to actively bleeding pelvic injuries and/or associated injuries to the head, abdomen or chest. Regardless of the severity of pelvic trauma, diagnosis and treatment must proceed according to a strategy that does not delay the management of the most severely injured patients. To date, in France, there are no guidelines issued by healthcare authorities or professional societies that address this subject. DESIGN: A consensus committee of 22 experts from the French Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine (Société Française d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation; SFAR) and the French Society of Emergency Medicine (Société Française de Médecine d'Urgence; SFMU) in collaboration with the French Society of Radiology (Société Française de Radiologie; SFR), French Defence Health Service (Service de Santé des Armées; SSA), French Society of Urology (Association Française d'Urologie; AFU), the French Society of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery (Société Française de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique; SOCFCOT), and the French Society of Digestive Surgery (Société Française de Chirurgie digestive; SFCD) was convened. A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. The entire guidelines process was conducted independently from any industry funding. The authors were advised to follow the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system to guide assessment of quality of evidence. The potential drawbacks of making strong recommendations in the presence of low-quality evidence were emphasised. METHODS: Population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) questions were reviewed and updated as needed, and evidence profiles were generated. The analysis of the literature and the recommendations were then conducted according to the GRADE® methodology. RESULTS: The SFAR Guideline panel provided 22 statements on prehospital and hospital management of the unstable patient with pelvic fracture. After three rounds of discussion and various amendments, a strong agreement was reached for 100% of recommendations. Of these recommendations, 11 have a high level of evidence (Grade 1 ± ), 11 have a low level of evidence (Grade 2 ± ). CONCLUSIONS: Substantial agreement exists among experts regarding many strong recommendations for management of the unstable patient with pelvic fracture.

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