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1.
J Rehabil Med ; 52(2): jrm00019, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995224

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate prognostic factors for physical and emotional functioning following interdisciplinary multimodal pain rehabilitation, by targeting patients' baseline characteristics and health measures. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 2,876 patients from 38 specialist clinics across Sweden, who were completing interdisciplinary multimodal pain rehabilitation programmes, was followed through the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation, from initial assessment to 12-month follow-up. Using logistic regression, baseline data were regressed to predict improvement in Physical functioning and Emotional functioning, fused by principal component analyses using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: Employment status emerged as having the largest effect sizes in both Physical functioning and Emotional functioning; Working: odds ratio (OR) 2.05 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.64-2.56) and OR 1.59 (95% CI 1.27-1.98), respectively. Strong beliefs in restored health, better initial emotional health, lower levels of pain and pain interference, and younger age all predicted Physical functioning. European origin, higher levels of general activity, and sense of life control all predicted Emotional functioning. Worse initial physical and emotional health predicted the corresponding dependent outcomes. CONCLUSION: Employment was consistently found to be an important prognostic factor, suggesting the significance of avoiding delay in interdisciplinary multimodal pain rehabilitation. A positive treatment expectancy was of importance. In general, multidimensional measures indicated that better initial status was more favourable; however, inconsistency implies a complex prognostic picture.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/reabilitação , Emoções/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Suécia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
2.
Pain ; 161(1): 83-95, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568237

RESUMO

Recent research has highlighted a need for the psychometric evaluation of instruments targeting core domains of the pain experience in chronic pain populations. In this study, the measurement properties of Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36),EuroQol 5-dimensions (EQ-5D) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were analyzed within the item response-theory framework based on data from 35,908 patients. To assess the structural validity of these instruments, the empirical representations of several conceptually substantiated latent structures were compared in a cross-validation procedure. The most structurally sound representations were selected from each questionnaire and their internal consistency reliability computed as a summary of their precision. Finally, questionnaire scores were correlated with each other to evaluate their convergent and discriminant validity. Our results supported that SF-36 is an acceptable measure of 2 independent constructs of physical and mental health. By contrast, although the approach to summarize the health-related quality of life construct of EQ-5D as a unidimensional score was valid, its low reliability rendered practical model implementation of doubtful utility. Finally, rather than being separated into 2 subscales of anxiety and depression, HADS was a valid and reliable measure of overall emotional distress. In support of convergent and discriminant validity, correlations between questionnaires showed that theoretically similar traits were highly associated, whereas unrelated traits were not. Our models can be applied to score SF-36 and HADS in chronic pain patients, but we recommend against using the EQ-5D model due to its low reliability. These results are useful for researchers and clinicians involved in chronic pain populations because questionnaires' properties determine their discriminating ability in patient status assessment.

3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 18(1): 483, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modelling and analysing repeated measures data, such as women's experiences of pain during labour, is a complex topic. Traditional end-point analyses such as t-tests, ANOVA, or repeated measures [rANOVA] have known disadvantages. Modern and more sophisticated statistical methods such as mixed effect models provide flexibility and are more likely to draw correct conclusions from data. The aim of this study is to study how labour pain is analysed in repeated measures design studies, and to increase awareness of when and why modern statistical methods are suitable with the aim of encouraging their use in preference of traditional methods. METHODS: Six databases were searched with the English language as a restriction. Study eligibility criteria included: Original studies published between 1999 and 2016, studying pregnant women in labour with the aim to compare at least two methods for labour pain management, with at least two measurements of labour pain separated by time, and where labour pain was analysed. After deduplication, all records (n = 2800) were screened by one of the authors who excluded ineligible publication types, leaving 737 records remaining for full-text screening. A sample of 309 studies was then randomly selected and screened by both authors. RESULTS: Among the 133 (of 309) studies that fulfilled the study eligibility criteria, 7% used mixed effect models, 20% rANOVA, and 73% used end-point analysis to draw conclusions regarding treatment effects for labour pain between groups. The most commonly used end-point analyses to compare groups regarding labour pain were t-tests (57, 43%) and ANOVA (41, 31%). We present a checklist for clinicians to clarify when mixed effect models should be considered as the preferred choice for analysis, in particular when labour pain is measured. CONCLUSIONS: Studies that aim to compare methods for labour pain management often use inappropriate statistical methods, and inaccurately report how the statistical analyses were carried out. The statistical methods used in analyses are often based on assumptions that are not fulfilled or described. We recommend that authors, reviewers, and editors pay greater attention to the analysis when designing and publishing studies evaluating methods for pain relief during labour.


Assuntos
Dor do Parto/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estatística como Assunto , Analgesia Obstétrica , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Dor do Parto/diagnóstico , Trabalho de Parto , Manejo da Dor , Medição da Dor , Gravidez
5.
Acupunct Med ; 35(3): 180-188, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27986648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient characteristics are modulators of pain experience after acupuncture treatment for chronic pain. Whether this also applies to labour pain is unknown. AIM: To examine for associations between maternal characteristics and response to acupuncture in terms of labour pain intensity in close proximity to the treatment (within 60 min) and over a longer time period (up to 240 min), and whether or not epidural analgesia is used, before and after adjustment for obstetric status upon admission to the labour ward. METHODS: Cohort study (n=253) using data collected for a randomised controlled trial. Associations were examined using linear mixed models and logistic regression analyses. Tests of interactions were also applied to investigate whether maternal characteristics were influenced by treatment group allocation. RESULTS: In close proximity to the treatment, advanced age and cervical dilation were associated with lower pain scores (mean difference (MD) -13.2, 95% CI -23.4 to -2.9; and MD -5.0, 95% CI -9.6 to -0.5, respectively). For the longer time period, labour pain was negatively associated with age (MD -11.8, 95% CI -19.6 to -3.9) and positively associated with dysmenorrhoea (MD 5.5, 95% CI 1.6 to 9.5). Previous acupuncture experience and advanced cervical dilatation were associated with higher and lower use of epidural analgesia (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.9; and OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.5, respectively). No interactions with treatment allocation were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not identify any maternal characteristics associated with women's responses to acupuncture during labour. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01197950; Post-results.


Assuntos
Analgesia por Acupuntura , Dor do Parto/terapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 15: 180, 2015 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26066641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a previous randomised controlled trial we showed that acupuncture with a combination of manual- and electrical stimulation (EA) did not affect the level of pain, as compared with acupuncture with manual stimulation (MA) and standard care (SC), but reduced the need for other forms of pain relief, including epidural analgesia. To dismiss an under-treatment of pain in the trial, we did a long-term follow up on the recollection of labour pain and the birth experience comparing acupuncture with manual stimulation, acupuncture with combined electrical and manual stimulation with standard care. Our hypothesis was that despite the lower frequency of use of other pain relief, women who had received EA would make similar retrospective assessments of labour pain and the birth experience 2 months after birth as women who received standard care (SC) or acupuncture with manual stimulation (MA). METHODS: Secondary analyses of data collected for a randomised controlled trial conducted at two delivery wards in Sweden. A total of 303 nulliparous women with normal pregnancies were randomised to: 40 min of MA or EA, or SC without acupuncture. Questionnaires were administered the day after partus and 2 months later. RESULTS: Two months postpartum, the mean recalled pain on the visual analogue scale (SC: 70.1, MA: 69.3 and EA: 68.7) did not differ between the groups (SC vs MA: adjusted mean difference 0.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] -6.3 to 7.9 and SC vs EA: mean difference 1.3 CI 95% -5.5 to 8.1). Positive birth experience (SC: 54.3%, MA: 64.6% and EA: 61.0%) did not differ between the groups (SC vs MA: adjusted Odds Ratio [OR] 1.8, CI 95% 0.9 to 3.7 and SC vs EA: OR 1.4 CI 95% 0.7 to 2.6). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the lower use of other pain relief, women who received acupuncture with the combination of manual and electrical stimulation during labour made the same retrospective assessments of labour pain and birth experience 2 months postpartum as those who received acupuncture with manual stimulation or standard care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01197950.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Estimulação Elétrica , Dor do Parto , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Dor do Parto/epidemiologia , Dor do Parto/terapia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suécia/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 14: 187, 2014 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24913704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acupuncture is commonly used to reduce pain during labour despite contradictory results. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture with manual stimulation and acupuncture with combined manual and electrical stimulation (electro-acupuncture) compared with standard care in reducing labour pain. Our hypothesis was that both acupuncture stimulation techniques were more effective than standard care, and that electro-acupuncture was most effective. METHODS: A longitudinal randomised controlled trial. The recruitment of participants took place at the admission to the labour ward between November 2008 and October 2011 at two Swedish hospitals . 303 nulliparous women with normal pregnancies were randomised to: 40 minutes of manual acupuncture (MA), electro-acupuncture (EA), or standard care without acupuncture (SC). PRIMARY OUTCOME: labour pain, assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). SECONDARY OUTCOMES: relaxation, use of obstetric pain relief during labour and post-partum assessments of labour pain. The sample size calculation was based on the primary outcome and a difference of 15 mm on VAS was regarded as clinically relevant, this gave 101 in each group, including a total of 303 women. RESULTS: Mean estimated pain scores on VAS (SC: 69.0, MA: 66.4 and EA: 68.5), adjusted for: treatment, age, education, and time from baseline, with no interactions did not differ between the groups (SC vs MA: mean difference 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.7-6.9 and SC vs EA: mean difference 0.6 [95% CI] -3.6-4.8). Fewer number of women in the EA group used epidural analgesia (46%) than women in the MA group (61%) and SC group (70%) (EA vs SC: odds ratio [OR] 0.35; [95% CI] 0.19-0.67). CONCLUSIONS: Acupuncture does not reduce women's experience of labour pain, neither with manual stimulation nor with combined manual and electrical stimulation. However, fewer women in the EA group used epidural analgesia thus indicating that the effect of acupuncture with electrical stimulation may be underestimated. These findings were obtained in a context with free access to other forms of pain relief. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01197950.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Dor do Parto/terapia , Adulto , Analgesia Epidural , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Dor , Manejo da Dor , Medição da Dor , Gravidez , Relaxamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22577468

RESUMO

Introduction. Results from previous studies on acupuncture for labour pain are contradictory and lack important information on methodology. However, studies indicate that acupuncture has a positive effect on women's experiences of labour pain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of two different acupuncture stimulations, manual or electrical stimulation, compared with standard care in the relief of labour pain as the primary outcome. This paper will present in-depth information on the design of the study, following the CONSORT and STRICTA recommendations. Methods. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial based on western medical theories. Nulliparous women with normal pregnancies admitted to the delivery ward after a spontaneous onset of labour were randomly allocated into one of three groups: manual acupuncture, electroacupuncture, or standard care. Sample size calculation gave 101 women in each group, including a total of 303 women. A Visual Analogue Scale was used for assessing pain every 30 minutes for five hours and thereafter every hour until birth. Questionnaires were distributed before treatment, directly after the birth, and at one day and two months postpartum. Blood samples were collected before and after the first treatment. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01197950.

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