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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 719023, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512643

RESUMO

There is strong evidence that COVID-19 pathophysiology is mainly driven by a spatiotemporal immune deregulation. Both its phenotypic heterogeneity, spanning from asymptomatic to severe disease/death, and its associated mortality, are dictated by and linked to maladaptive innate and adaptive immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, the etiologic factor of the disease. Deregulated interferon and cytokine responses, with the contribution of immune and cellular stress-response mediators (like cellular senescence or uncontrolled inflammatory cell death), result in innate and adaptive immune system malfunction, endothelial activation and inflammation (endothelitis), as well as immunothrombosis (with enhanced platelet activation, NET production/release and complement hyper-activation). All these factors play key roles in the development of severe COVID-19. Interestingly, another consequence of this immune deregulation, is the production of autoantibodies and the subsequent development of autoimmune phenomena observed in some COVID-19 patients with severe disease. These new aspects of the disease that are now emerging (like autoimmunity and cellular senescence), could offer us new opportunities in the field of disease prevention and treatment. Simultaneously, lessons already learned from the immunobiology of COVID-19 could offer new insights, not only for this disease, but also for a variety of chronic inflammatory responses observed in autoimmune and (auto)inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Humanos
2.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440897

RESUMO

Perinuclear anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (P-ANCA) recognize heterogeneous antigens, including myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactoferrin, elastase, cathepsin-G and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein. Although P-ANCA have diagnostic utility in vasculitides, they may also be found in patients with various other systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs). Nevertheless, the clinical significance and the targets recognized by P-ANCA in such patients remain unclear. For this purpose, herein we investigated the occurrence of ANCA-related antigenic specificities in 82 P-ANCA-positive sera by multiplex ELISA, as well as their association with other autoantibodies. The P-ANCA-positive sera corresponded to patients with vasculitides (n = 24), systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 28), antiphospholipid syndrome (n = 5), Sjögren's syndrome (n = 7), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 3), systemic scleroderma (n = 1), sarcoidosis (n = 1) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n = 13). In most P-ANCA-positive patients studied (51/82, 62.3%), these autoantibodies occurred in high titers (>1:160). The analysis of P-ANCA-positive sera revealed reactivity to MPO in only 50% of patients with vasculitides, whereas it was infrequent in the other disease groups studied. Reactivity to other P-ANCA-related autoantigens was also rarely detected. Our findings support that high P-ANCA titers occur in SARD. The P-ANCA-positive staining pattern is associated with MPO specificity in vasculitides, while in other autoimmune diseases, it mostly involves unknown autoantigens.

3.
J Autoimmun ; 123: 102687, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311142

RESUMO

The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with autoimmune/auto-inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AARD) under immunomodulatory treatment has been a focus of interest during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this observational study, demographic data, disease related features and comorbidities, COVID-19 manifestations and outcome as well as antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 were recorded among 77 consecutive patients with underlying AARD infected by SARS-CoV-2. Analysis of data was performed using univariate and multivariate models. Most patients (68.8%) had a mild COVID-19 course. The predominant clinical manifestations were fatigue (58.4%), low grade fever (45.4%) and upper respiratory tract symptoms (68.8%). About a quarter of patients required hospitalization (23.3%) and the mortality rate was 1.3%. Regarding COVID-19 severity, prior treatment with corticosteroids, mycophenolate mofetil or rituximab was more common in patients who developed a more serious disease course (60.0 vs 29.9%, p = 0.003, 40.0 vs 7.5%, p = 0.003, 10.0 vs 0.0%, p = 0.009, respectively). When disease related features and comorbidities were considered in multivariate models, older age and lung disease in the context of the AARD were found to be independent predictive factors for hospitalization (OR [95%]: 1.09 [1.03-1.15] and 6.43 [1.11-37.19]). Among COVID-19 related features, patients with shortness of breath and high-grade fever were more likely to get hospitalized (OR [95%]: 7.06 [1.36-36.57], 12.04 [2.96-48.86]), while anosmia was independently associated with lower hospitalization risk (OR [95%]: 0.09 [0.01-0.99]). Though the majority of AARD patients displayed a mild COVID-19 course, certain underlying disease features and COVID-19 related manifestations should prompt alertness for the physician to identify patients with AARD at high risk for severe COVID-19 and need for hospitalization.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Comorbidade , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/imunologia , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunoglobulina G/biossíntese , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Inflamação , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Avaliação de Sintomas
4.
Rheumatol Int ; 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189602

RESUMO

Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET) is a standardized, non-invasive procedure assessing pulmonary, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, and skeletal muscle functions during a symptom-limited test. Few studies have examined whether CPET is of prognostic value in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc), a disease characterized by highly increased cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. To examine the prognostic value of CPET in SSc patients without baseline pulmonary hypertension (PH). Sixty-two consecutive SSc patients underwent CPET, Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) and echocardiography at baseline. Four patients with Right Ventricular Systolic Pressure ≥ 40 mmHg, were excluded. Participants repeated PFTs approximately every 3 years. At the end of the follow-up period [median (IQR): 9.79 (2.78) years] patient vital status was recorded. Cox Regression analysis was used to identify predictors of deterioration of PFTs and 10-year survival. Median (IQR) age of 58 patients (90% women) at baseline was 54.0 (15.0) years, whereas 10-year survival was 88%. Baseline respiratory Oxygen uptake (VO2max) predicted PFT deterioration, defined either as a decline in FVC ≥ 10% or a combined decline in FVC 5%-9% plus DLCO ≥ 15%, during follow-up, after correction for age, gender and smoking status (HR: 0.874, 95%CI: 0.779-0.979, p = 0.021). In addition, lower baseline VO2max (HR = 0.861, 95%CI:0.739-1.003, p = 0.054) and DLCO (HR = 0.957, 95%CI: 0.910-1.006 p = 0.088), as well as male gender (HR = 5.68, 95%CI: 1.090-29.610 p = 0.039) and older age (HR = 1.069, 95%CI: 0.990-1.154, p = 0.086) were associated, after adjustment, with an increased risk for death. In the absence of baseline PH, CPET indices may predict pulmonary function deterioration and death in SSc patients during a nearly 10-year follow-up period.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805725

RESUMO

Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are of great research interest for their role in cancer cell metabolism and their potential ability to transport pharmacologically relevant compounds across the membrane. Each member of the MCT family could potentially provide novel therapeutic approaches to various diseases. The major differences among MCTs are related to each of their specific metabolic roles, their relative substrate and inhibitor affinities, the regulation of their expression, their intracellular localization, and their tissue distribution. MCT4 is the main mediator for the efflux of L-lactate produced in the cell. Thus, MCT4 maintains the glycolytic phenotype of the cancer cell by supplying the molecular resources for tumor cell proliferation and promotes the acidification of the extracellular microenvironment from the co-transport of protons. A promising therapeutic strategy in anti-cancer drug design is the selective inhibition of MCT4 for the glycolytic suppression of solid tumors. A small number of studies indicate molecules for dual inhibition of MCT1 and MCT4; however, no selective inhibitor with high-affinity for MCT4 has been identified. In this study, we attempt to approach the structural characteristics of MCT4 through an in silico pipeline for molecular modelling and pharmacophore elucidation towards the identification of specific inhibitors as a novel anti-cancer strategy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/química , Proteínas Musculares/química , Floretina/química , Pirimidinonas/química , Quercetina/química , Reserpina/análogos & derivados , Tiofenos/química , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Animais , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Transporte Biológico , Desenho de Fármacos , Glicólise/fisiologia , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/química , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Floretina/metabolismo , Filogenia , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Isoformas de Proteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoformas de Proteínas/química , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Pirimidinonas/metabolismo , Quercetina/metabolismo , Reserpina/química , Reserpina/metabolismo , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína , Especificidade por Substrato , Tiofenos/metabolismo , Uracila/química , Uracila/metabolismo
7.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 17(2): 127-141, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478279

RESUMO

Introduction: Sjögren's syndrome is a unique systemic autoimmune disease, placed in the center of systemic autoimmunity and at the crossroads of autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation. The diverse clinical picture of the disease, the inefficacy of current biologic treatments, and the co-existence with lymphoma conferring to the patients' morbidity and mortality force the scientific community to review disease pathogenesis and reveal the major implicated cellular and molecular elements.Areas covered: Biomarkers for early diagnosis, prediction, stratification, monitoring, and targeted treatments can serve as a tool to interlink and switch from the clinical phenotyping of the disease into a more sophisticated classification based on the underlying critical molecular pathways and endotypes. Such a transition may define the establishment of the so-called precision medicine era in which patients' management will be based on grouping according to pathogenetically related biomarkers. In the current work, literature on Sjogren's syndrome covering several research fields including clinical, translational, and basic research has been reviewed.Expert opinion: The perspectives of clinical and translational research are anticipated to define phenotypic clustering of high-risk pSS patients and link the clinical picture of the disease with fundamental molecular mechanisms and molecules implicated in pathogenesis.

8.
Acta Reumatol Port ; 45(3): 214-219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139678

RESUMO

Bronchocentric granulomatosis (BcG) is characterized by granulomatous destruction of bronchial or bronchiolar walls and adjacent parenchyma, with debris and exudates filling the airway lumen. Approximately 50% of total cases have been associated with asthma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, while it has been rarely reported in the context of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We describe the case of a 69-year-old female RA patient with BcG presenting as a solitary cavitary pulmonary mass. In addition, we conducted a literature review about the clinical and imaging features of BcG in RA patients. A chronically immunosuppressed 69-year-old female patient with a 16-year history of RA presented with constitutional symptoms (low-grade fever, excessive sweating and malaise) and a sizeable cavitary lung lesion. Open lung biopsy was performed and histopathological findings were consistent with the diagnosis of BcG. Other seven cases of BcG have been previously reported in the context of RA, with clinical and laboratory characteristics described in five of them. Overall, pulmonary nodules or masses were the most frequent imaging finding of BcG, while no clear relationship with disease activity or previous treatment modalities could be established. Surgical resection followed by administration of oral steroids was effective for achieving complete remission of symptoms and radiological stability in most cases.

10.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(1)2020 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963800

RESUMO

Standard echocardiography is important for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) screening in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD), but PAH diagnosis and monitoring require cardiac catheterization. Herein, using cardiac catheterization as reference, we tested the hypothesis that follow-up echocardiography is adequate for clinical decision-making in these patients. We prospectively studied 69 consecutive patients with CTD-associated PAH. Invasive baseline pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) was 60.19 ± 16.33 mmHg (mean ± SD) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was 6.44 ± 2.95WU. All patients underwent hemodynamic and echocardiographic follow-up after 9.47 ± 7.29 months; 27 patients had a third follow-up after 17.2 ± 7.4 months from baseline. We examined whether clinically meaningful hemodynamic deterioration of follow-up catheterization-derived PASP (i.e., > 10% increase) could be predicted by simultaneous echocardiography. Echocardiography predicted hemodynamic PASP deterioration with 59% sensitivity, 85% specificity, and 63/83% positive/negative predictive value, respectively. In multivariate analysis, successful echocardiographic prediction correlated only with higher PVR in previous catheterization (p = 0.05, OR = 1.235). Notably, in patients having baseline PVR > 5.45 WU, echocardiography had both sensitivity and positive predictive values of 73%, and both specificity and negative predictive value of 91% for detecting hemodynamic PASP deterioration. In selected patients with CTD-PAH echocardiography can predict PASP deterioration with high specificity and negative predictive value. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm that better patient selection can increase the ability of standard echocardiography to replace repeat catheterization.

11.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38 Suppl 125(3): 29-39, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The contribution of nailfold video capillaroscopy (NVC) in identifying patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) at risk for systemic sclerosis (SSc) is well established. Herein we comparatively assess the performance of different capillaroscopic parameters in diagnosing SSc among patients with RP and evaluate the prognostic capacity of NVC in SSc. METHODS: At baseline we clinically and capillaroscopically evaluated 242 consecutive patients referred to our department for NVC (138 with SSc); 175 were reevaluated after 3.38±1.47 years. Sixty-two healthy volunteers served as controls. Capillaroscopy pattern (normal/early/active/late) was qualitatively defined. Capillary loss, dilated, giant or ramified capillaries and micro-haemorrhages were scored semi-quantitatively. RESULTS: Capillary loss score had the highest diagnostic accuracy at discriminating patients with an SSc-spectrum disorder from patients with RP of different etiology and controls, as defined by ROC curve analysis [AUC (95% CI)=0.905 (0.869-0.942)], followed by dilatation score [0.863 (0.818-0.907)] and giant score [0.835 (0.787-0.884)]. By contrast, micro-haemorrhages [0.720 (0.662-0.779)] and ramifications scores [0.604 (0.539-0.670)] performed worse. Multivariate analysis in 94 SSc patients indicated that active (OR=3.305, p=0.043) and late (OR=6.900, p=0.023) baseline capillaroscopy pattern predicted occurrence of a combined adverse disease outcome [forced vital capacity (FVC) deterioration>10% and/or DLCO deterioration>15% and/or mRSS deterioration>3.5 and/or first occurrence of digital ulcers and/or death)] at 3 year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Dilatation score performs best of all semi-quantitative NVC parameters in diagnosing SSc. In addition, our study confirms earlier reports that worse capillaroscopy pattern at baseline correlates with higher likelihood for adverse prognosis.


Assuntos
Doença de Raynaud , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Capilares , Humanos , Angioscopia Microscópica , Unhas , Prognóstico
13.
Clin Rheumatol ; 38(1): 125-132, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30145635

RESUMO

Myositis-specific (MSAs) or-associated autoantibodies (MAAs) have been linked to particular clinical phenotypes of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and appear to aid diagnosis. The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of MSAs and MAAs and their possible clinical associations in Greek IIM patients. This study comprised 95 IIM patients classified based on the 2017 EULAR/ACR classification criteria. All patients had MSAs and MAAs measured in their sera by line immunoblot assay. Dermatomyositis was the most prevalent IIM clinical subtype. MSAs were found in 44% of the patients, whereas MAAs in 23%. The most frequently detected MSA was anti-Jo-1 (22%), while the most frequently detected MAA was anti-Ro-52 (30%). The distributions of MSAs/MAAs did not differ between the five IIM subgroups, except for anti-Mi-2 which was only detected in dermatomyositis patients. Patients with at least one MSA and/or MAA positivity showed more frequently IIM characteristic skin rashes, while those presenting solely MAA positivity had more often puffy hands and Raynaud's phenomenon. Anti-Jo1-positive patients presented more frequently lung disease, while anti-Ro52 positivity related to mechanic's hands. Anti-Ro-52 and anti-Jo-1 strongly associated with one another. Prevalence of IIM subtypes and of MSAs/MAAs in our patients is in line with published reports in populations of similar geographic distribution. While MSA and/or MAA positivity did associate with particular clinical manifestations, it did not predict in our cohort specific IIM subgroup as defined by the latest EULAR/ACR classification criteria. Future studies are warranted to conclusively decide if these autoantibodies, measured with a standardized method, should or not be incorporated in every day clinical practice to aid IIM diagnosis.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Miosite/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Autoanticorpos/classificação , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Clin Rheumatol ; 37(3): 737-747, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28914375

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to estimate the frequency of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in Greek patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and describe the related clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes of these patients. Medical charts of all ANCA-associated vasculitis patients were retrospectively reviewed, and GPA patients with CNS involvement were identified. Demographics, serological, and clinical features throughout the disease course were recorded. Comparisons of disease characteristics and long-term outcomes were performed between GPA patients with and without CNS involvement. Seventy-seven GPA patients were studied. Of these, 9 (11.7%) developed CNS manifestations. At the time of CNS involvement, all patients had increased acute phase reactants, and all but one had vasculitic manifestations in multiple systems and increased ANCA titers. CNS manifestations included the following: sensor/sensorimotor symptomatology (33.3%), severe headache and hearing loss (33.3%), delirium/seizures (22.2%), diplopia (11.1%), and cerebellar symptoms (11.1%). At initial GPA diagnosis, patients with CNS involvement, compared to those without, had ENT involvement more frequently (77.8 versus 25.4%, p = 0.004) along with a lower disease activity (BVAS) while during the overall disease course, they experienced lung vasculitis less frequently (44.4 vs. 79.4%, p = 0.02). Comparisons between the two groups did not reveal any differences regarding the long-term outcomes, including relapse rate, treatment-related adverse events, and patient survival. CNS involvement was recorded in 11.7% of our GPA patients. At disease onset, ENT involvement and lower BVAS scores were more common in GPA patients with CNS manifestations. Based on our results, CNS involvement did not affect the long-term outcomes of GPA patients.


Assuntos
Granulomatose com Poliangiite/complicações , Cefaleia/complicações , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/complicações , Convulsões/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/imunologia , Cefaleia/imunologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/imunologia
15.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 76(11): 1897-1905, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28835464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the causes of death and risk factors in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Between 2000 and 2011, we examined the death certificates of all French patients with SSc to determine causes of death. Then we examined causes of death and developed a score associated with all-cause mortality from the international European Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) database. Candidate prognostic factors were tested by Cox proportional hazards regression model by single variable analysis, followed by a multiple variable model stratified by centres. The bootstrapping technique was used for internal validation. RESULTS: We identified 2719 French certificates of deaths related to SSc, mainly from cardiac (31%) and respiratory (18%) causes, and an increase in SSc-specific mortality over time. Over a median follow-up of 2.3 years, 1072 (9.6%) of 11 193 patients from the EUSTAR sample died, from cardiac disease in 27% and respiratory causes in 17%. By multiple variable analysis, a risk score was developed, which accurately predicted the 3-year mortality, with an area under the curve of 0.82. The 3-year survival of patients in the upper quartile was 53%, in contrast with 98% in the first quartile. CONCLUSION: Combining two complementary and detailed databases enabled the collection of an unprecedented 3700 deaths, revealing the major contribution of the cardiopulmonary system to SSc mortality. We also developed a robust score to risk-stratify these patients and estimate their 3-year survival. With the emergence of new therapies, these important observations should help caregivers plan and refine the monitoring and management to prolong these patients' survival.


Assuntos
Escleroderma Sistêmico/mortalidade , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Bases de Dados Factuais , Atestado de Óbito , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 35(4): 579-585, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28281458

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To directly assess the prevalence of inflammatory rheumatic disease under treatment with biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (b-DMARDs) and compare treatment patterns between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthropathy (SpA), including psoriatic arthritis. METHODS: The obligatory country-wide prescription electronic database covering 10.223.000 Greek citizens (95.1% of the population, 99.5% Caucasian), all of whom with fully reinbursed access to b-DMARDs, was used to retrospectively capture all patients under b-DMARDs for RA/SpA between June 2014-May 2015. Age, gender and medications for RA/SpA and co-morbid classical cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes) were retrieved and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 9.824 RA (61.2±14.0 years, 79% women) and 9.279 SpA patients (51.4±13.1 years, 41% women) using pharmacy-dispensed prescriptions for b-DMARDs were identified (overall prevalence 0.19%). Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors were used in 73% and 99% of RA and SpA patients, respectively. B-DMARD monotherapy (RA: 18.71%, SpA: 52.11%), b-DMARD switching during 12 months (RA: 7.73%, SpA: 6.26%), and use of methotrexate (RA: 50.25%, SpA: 27.35%) and corticosteroids (RA: 55.8%, SpA: 23.63%) differed between the two patient subgroups. In both subgroups, women received more often than men methotrexate, leflunomide, hydroxychloroquine and corticosteroids, and less often b-DMARD monotherapy. After adjustments for age, gender and concomitant drugs, the probability for anti-hypertensive and lipid-lowering drug prescription was higher in SpA than RA [OR=1.41 (95%CI: 1.29-1.54) and 1.24 (1.14-1.36), respectively, p<0.001], whereas for anti-diabetics it was similar. CONCLUSIONS: In the first country-wide study that examines the characteristics of rheumatic disease patients under b-DMARD we show that their exact prevalence is 0.19%, with RA patients being older by 10 years, only slightly more numerous, and less likely to receive treatment for hypertension and dyslipidaemia than their demographically matched SpA counterparts. Longitudinal studies should assess the implications of these novel findings on the differential financial burden of rheumatic diseases, as well as on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of these patients.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Espondiloartropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Leflunomida , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Espondiloartropatias/epidemiologia
17.
Front Genet ; 8: 20, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28289428

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of almost half human population. It has evolved to escape immune surveillance, establishes lifelong inflammation, predisposing to genomic instability and DNA damage, notably double strand breaks. The epithelial host cell responds by activation of DNA damage repair (DDR) machinery that seems to be compromised by the infection. It is therefore now accepted that genetic damage is a major mechanism operating in cases of H. pylori induced carcinogenesis. Here, we review the data on the molecular pathways involved in DNA damage and DDR activation during H. pylori infection.

18.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 35(2): 192-200, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28094760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, devastating disease. Treat-to-target strategy (T2T) more than the usual care, reduces disease activity by using aggressively all therapeutic options. The aim of the study was to evaluate our hypothesis that T2T strategy using biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs), when needed, is also safer than the usual care characterised by delayed initiation of bDMARDs. METHODS: Disease activity was regularly measured by DAS-28 until the end of treatment with the first bDMARD. All adverse events (AEs) and their severity were recorded. Cox proportional-hazards models were performed examining the association of treatment groups, with the risk of first AE. RESULTS: There were 113 patients in T2T and 250 patients in usual care group. The likelihood (adjusted hazard ratio, HR) of achieving remission or LDA was 71% higher in the T2T group than in the usual care group, as it has been already shown by others. The novel finding of our work was that AEs, including cancers, were less frequent in the T2T group with the corresponding HRs being less than 0.50 for serious AEs, infections and serious infections (significant or marginally non-significant results). There were 15 new cancer cases in usual care and 1 in T2T group (IR 1.99 vs. 0.4, p=0.027). CONCLUSIONS: Treat-to-target treatment with bDMARDs offers a safer, rapid and better long-term outcome to patients with RA.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto , Idoso , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Produtos Biológicos/efeitos adversos , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Autoimmun ; 65: 1-18, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26515757

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a heterogeneous disease with a complex and yet not fully understood pathophysiology, where numerous different cell-types contribute to a destructive process of the joints. This complexity results into a considerable interpatient variability in clinical course and severity, which may additionally involve genetics and/or environmental factors. After three decades of focused efforts scientists have now achieved to apply in clinical practice, for patients with RA, the "treat to target" approach with initiation of aggressive therapy soon after diagnosis and escalation of the therapy in pursuit of clinical remission. In addition to the conventional synthetic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, biologics have greatly improved the management of RA, demonstrating efficacy and safety in alleviating symptoms, inhibiting bone erosion, and preventing loss of function. Nonetheless, despite the plethora of therapeutic options and their combinations, unmet therapeutic needs in RA remain, as current therapies sometimes fail or produce only partial responses and/or develop unwanted side-effects. Unfortunately the mechanisms of 'nonresponse' remain unknown and most probable lie in the unrevealed heterogeneity of the RA pathophysiology. In this review, through the effort of unraveling the complex pathophysiological pathways, we will depict drugs used throughout the years for the treatment of RA, the current and future biological therapies and their molecular or cellular targets and finally will suggest therapeutic algorithms for RA management. With multiple biologic options, there is still a need for strong predictive biomarkers to determine which drug is most likely to be effective, safe, and durable in a given individual. The fact that available biologics are not effective in all patients attests to the heterogeneity of RA, yet over the long term, as research and treatment become more aggressive, efficacy, toxicity, and costs must be balanced within the therapeutic equation to enhance the quality of life in patients with RA.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/economia , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/efeitos adversos , Produtos Biológicos/economia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Membrana Sinovial/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
20.
J Autoimmun ; 65: 30-7, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26283469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Platelet factor 4 tetramers (CXCL4 chemokine) form complexes with ß2glycoprotein I (ß2GPI), recognized by anti-ß2GPI antibodies leading to platelet activation in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), either primary (PAPS) or secondary (SAPS). Increased plasma levels of CXCL4 may favor this process; therefore we measured plasma levels of CXCL4, a CXCL4 variant (CXCL4L1) and as controls, platelet-derived chemokines CXCL7 (NAP-2) and CCL5 (RANTES), in APS, and disease controls such as patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) coronary artery disease (CAD) and healthy donors (HDs). METHODS: Plasma samples and platelets were isolated from patients with APS (n = 87), SLE (n = 29), CAD (n = 14) and 54 HDs. Plasma levels of CXCL4, CXCL4L1, CXCL7 and CCL5 as well as intracellular platelet CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 were measured using ELISA. Platelet CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 RNA levels were determined by RT-PCR. RESULTS: CXCL4, CXCL7 (NAP-2) and CCL5 (RANTES) plasma levels were significantly higher in patients with APS compared to both control groups (SLE, CAD) and HDs. CXCL4L1 plasma levels were also significantly higher in APS than in SLE and HDs, but lower from that of CAD patients. Statistically significant concordance was detected between CXCL4 and CXCL7 (p < 0.0001) or CCL5 (p < 0.0001) plasma levels in patients with APS, either PAPS or SAPS. CXCL4L1 plasma levels were inversely correlated with CXCL4 (P = 0.0027), CXCL7 (p = 0.012) and CCL5 (p = 0.023) in PAPS and positively with CXCL4 (p = 0.0191), CCL5 (p < 0.0001) and CXCL7 (P < 0.0001), in SAPS. Levels of CXCL4, CXCL4L1, CXCL7 and CCL5 were divided in "high" (exceeding a level defined as the mean of HDs and 3 SD) and "low" (below this level); The "CXCL4L1 high" group was characterized by increased IgG aCL, (p = 0.0215), double antibody positivity (either aCL or anti-ß2GPI plus LA), (p = 0.0277), triple antibody positivity (aCL plus anti-ß2GPI plus LA), (p = 0.0073) and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.0061), as well as with at least 1 thrombotic event or the last 5 years (p = 0.0001), or more than 3 thrombotic events ever (p = 0.0151). CONCLUSIONS: Chemokines associated with platelet activation and immune cell chemotaxis were found to be elevated in APS patients' plasma and may contribute to the pathogenesis of the syndrome. High CXCL4L1 plasma levels are associated with the clinical expression of APS and should be prospectively evaluated as a biomarker.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/sangue , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/imunologia , Plaquetas/imunologia , Quimiocinas/imunologia , beta 2-Glicoproteína I/imunologia , Alelos , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Quimiocina CCL5/sangue , Quimiocina CCL5/imunologia , Quimiocinas/sangue , Quimiotaxia/imunologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Ativação Plaquetária/imunologia , Fator Plaquetário 4/sangue , Fator Plaquetário 4/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , beta 2-Glicoproteína I/sangue , beta 2-Glicoproteína I/metabolismo , beta-Tromboglobulina/análise , beta-Tromboglobulina/imunologia
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