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1.
Plant J ; 101(2): 455-472, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529539

RESUMO

We sequenced the genome of the highly heterozygous almond Prunus dulcis cv. Texas combining short- and long-read sequencing. We obtained a genome assembly totaling 227.6 Mb of the estimated almond genome size of 238 Mb, of which 91% is anchored to eight pseudomolecules corresponding to its haploid chromosome complement, and annotated 27 969 protein-coding genes and 6747 non-coding transcripts. By phylogenomic comparison with the genomes of 16 additional close and distant species we estimated that almond and peach (Prunus persica) diverged around 5.88 million years ago. These two genomes are highly syntenic and show a high degree of sequence conservation (20 nucleotide substitutions per kb). However, they also exhibit a high number of presence/absence variants, many attributable to the movement of transposable elements (TEs). Transposable elements have generated an important number of presence/absence variants between almond and peach, and we show that the recent history of TE movement seems markedly different between them. Transposable elements may also be at the origin of important phenotypic differences between both species, and in particular for the sweet kernel phenotype, a key agronomic and domestication character for almond. Here we show that in sweet almond cultivars, highly methylated TE insertions surround a gene involved in the biosynthesis of amygdalin, whose reduced expression has been correlated with the sweet almond phenotype. Altogether, our results suggest a key role of TEs in the recent history and diversification of almond and its close relative peach.

3.
Analyst ; 144(1): 152-156, 2018 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30489574

RESUMO

In this study, Fe3O4-based composite magnetic nanoparticles were found to separate volatile compounds directly in the gas phase for the first time. The phenomenon of H2Se sorption on the magnetic nanoparticles was studied in detail and applied for separation and preconcentration. The developed approach was applied for the determination of selenium in dietary supplement samples after microwave digestion by ETA-AAS as a proof-of-concept example.

4.
EMBO J ; 37(16)2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006452

RESUMO

Even though transcription factors (TFs) are central players of gene regulation and have been extensively studied, their regulatory trans-activation domains (tADs) often remain unknown and a systematic functional characterization of tADs is lacking. Here, we present a novel high-throughput approach tAD-seq to functionally test thousands of candidate tADs from different TFs in parallel. The tADs we identify by pooled screening validate in individual luciferase assays, whereas neutral regions do not. Interestingly, the tADs are found at arbitrary positions within the TF sequences and can contain amino acid (e.g., glutamine) repeat regions or overlap structured domains, including helix-loop-helix domains that are typically annotated as DNA-binding. We also identified tADs in the non-native reading frames, confirming that random sequences can function as tADs, albeit weakly. The identification of tADs as short protein sequences sufficient for transcription activation will enable the systematic study of TF function, which-particularly for TFs of different transcription activating functionalities-is still poorly understood.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Transativadores , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proteínas de Drosophila/biossíntese , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster , Domínios Proteicos , Transativadores/biossíntese , Transativadores/genética
5.
Nat Med ; 24(6): 868-880, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785028

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a frequent hematological neoplasm in which underlying epigenetic alterations are only partially understood. Here, we analyze the reference epigenome of seven primary CLLs and the regulatory chromatin landscape of 107 primary cases in the context of normal B cell differentiation. We identify that the CLL chromatin landscape is largely influenced by distinct dynamics during normal B cell maturation. Beyond this, we define extensive catalogues of regulatory elements de novo reprogrammed in CLL as a whole and in its major clinico-biological subtypes classified by IGHV somatic hypermutation levels. We uncover that IGHV-unmutated CLLs harbor more active and open chromatin than IGHV-mutated cases. Furthermore, we show that de novo active regions in CLL are enriched for NFAT, FOX and TCF/LEF transcription factor family binding sites. Although most genetic alterations are not associated with consistent epigenetic profiles, CLLs with MYD88 mutations and trisomy 12 show distinct chromatin configurations. Furthermore, we observe that non-coding mutations in IGHV-mutated CLLs are enriched in H3K27ac-associated regulatory elements outside accessible chromatin. Overall, this study provides an integrative portrait of the CLL epigenome, identifies extensive networks of altered regulatory elements and sheds light on the relationship between the genetic and epigenetic architecture of the disease.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , Epigenômica , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos
6.
F1000Res ; 72018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568489

RESUMO

As a part of the ELIXIR-EXCELERATE efforts in capacity building, we present here 10 steps to facilitate researchers getting started in genome assembly and genome annotation. The guidelines given are broadly applicable, intended to be stable over time, and cover all aspects from start to finish of a general assembly and annotation project. Intrinsic properties of genomes are discussed, as is the importance of using high quality DNA. Different sequencing technologies and generally applicable workflows for genome assembly are also detailed. We cover structural and functional annotation and encourage readers to also annotate transposable elements, something that is often omitted from annotation workflows. The importance of data management is stressed, and we give advice on where to submit data and how to make your results Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR).

8.
Genome Biol ; 18(1): 60, 2017 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28356141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modern civilization depends on only a few plant species for its nourishment. These crops were derived via several thousands of years of human selection that transformed wild ancestors into high-yielding domesticated descendants. Among cultivated plants, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important grain legume. Yet, our understanding of the origins and concurrent shaping of the genome of this crop plant is limited. RESULTS: We sequenced the genomes of 29 accessions representing 12 Phaseolus species. Single nucleotide polymorphism-based phylogenomic analyses, using both the nuclear and chloroplast genomes, allowed us to detect a speciation event, a finding further supported by metabolite profiling. In addition, we identified ~1200 protein coding genes (PCGs) and ~100 long non-coding RNAs with domestication-associated haplotypes. Finally, we describe asymmetric introgression events occurring among common bean subpopulations in Mesoamerica and across hemispheres. CONCLUSIONS: We uncover an unpredicted speciation event in the tropical Andes that gave rise to a sibling species, formerly considered the "wild ancestor" of P. vulgaris, which diverged before the split of the Mesoamerican and Andean P. vulgaris gene pools. Further, we identify haplotypes strongly associated with genes underlying the emergence of domestication traits. Our findings also reveal the capacity of a predominantly autogamous plant to outcross and fix loci from different populations, even from distant species, which led to the acquisition by domesticated beans of adaptive traits from wild relatives. The occurrence of such adaptive introgressions should be exploited to accelerate breeding programs in the near future.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Genoma de Planta , Phaseolus/classificação , Phaseolus/genética , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Genômica , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Filogenia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais/genética , Seleção Genética , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Genome Biol ; 17(1): 251, 2016 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27964752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genomic studies of endangered species provide insights into their evolution and demographic history, reveal patterns of genomic erosion that might limit their viability, and offer tools for their effective conservation. The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid and a unique example of a species on the brink of extinction. RESULTS: We generate the first annotated draft of the Iberian lynx genome and carry out genome-based analyses of lynx demography, evolution, and population genetics. We identify a series of severe population bottlenecks in the history of the Iberian lynx that predate its known demographic decline during the 20th century and have greatly impacted its genome evolution. We observe drastically reduced rates of weak-to-strong substitutions associated with GC-biased gene conversion and increased rates of fixation of transposable elements. We also find multiple signatures of genetic erosion in the two remnant Iberian lynx populations, including a high frequency of potentially deleterious variants and substitutions, as well as the lowest genome-wide genetic diversity reported so far in any species. CONCLUSIONS: The genomic features observed in the Iberian lynx genome may hamper short- and long-term viability through reduced fitness and adaptive potential. The knowledge and resources developed in this study will boost the research on felid evolution and conservation genomics and will benefit the ongoing conservation and management of this emblematic species.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Genoma , Lynx/genética , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
DNA Res ; 23(3): 181-92, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26951068

RESUMO

The turbot is a flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) with increasing commercial value, which has prompted active genomic research aimed at more efficient selection. Here we present the sequence and annotation of the turbot genome, which represents a milestone for both boosting breeding programmes and ascertaining the origin and diversification of flatfish. We compare the turbot genome with model fish genomes to investigate teleost chromosome evolution. We observe a conserved macrosyntenic pattern within Percomorpha and identify large syntenic blocks within the turbot genome related to the teleost genome duplication. We identify gene family expansions and positive selection of genes associated with vision and metabolism of membrane lipids, which suggests adaptation to demersal lifestyle and to cold temperatures, respectively. Our data indicate a quick evolution and diversification of flatfish to adapt to benthic life and provide clues for understanding their controversial origin. Moreover, we investigate the genomic architecture of growth, sex determination and disease resistance, key traits for understanding local adaptation and boosting turbot production, by mapping candidate genes and previously reported quantitative trait loci. The genomic architecture of these productive traits has allowed the identification of candidate genes and enriched pathways that may represent useful information for future marker-assisted selection in turbot.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Linguados/genética , Genoma , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico
11.
Genome Biol ; 17: 32, 2016 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26911872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Legumes are the third largest family of angiosperms and the second most important crop class. Legume genomes have been shaped by extensive large-scale gene duplications, including an approximately 58 million year old whole genome duplication shared by most crop legumes. RESULTS: We report the genome and the transcription atlas of coding and non-coding genes of a Mesoamerican genotype of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., BAT93). Using a comprehensive phylogenomics analysis, we assessed the past and recent evolution of common bean, and traced the diversification of patterns of gene expression following duplication. We find that successive rounds of gene duplications in legumes have shaped tissue and developmental expression, leading to increased levels of specialization in larger gene families. We also find that many long non-coding RNAs are preferentially expressed in germ-line-related tissues (pods and seeds), suggesting that they play a significant role in fruit development. Our results also suggest that most bean-specific gene family expansions, including resistance gene clusters, predate the split of the Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools. CONCLUSIONS: The genome and transcriptome data herein generated for a Mesoamerican genotype represent a counterpart to the genomic resources already available for the Andean gene pool. Altogether, this information will allow the genetic dissection of the characters involved in the domestication and adaptation of the crop, and their further implementation in breeding strategies for this important crop.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Phaseolus/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia , Sementes/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(45): 13970-5, 2015 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26483466

RESUMO

Phenotypic plasticity is important in adaptation and shapes the evolution of organisms. However, we understand little about what aspects of the genome are important in facilitating plasticity. Eusocial insect societies produce plastic phenotypes from the same genome, as reproductives (queens) and nonreproductives (workers). The greatest plasticity is found in the simple eusocial insect societies in which individuals retain the ability to switch between reproductive and nonreproductive phenotypes as adults. We lack comprehensive data on the molecular basis of plastic phenotypes. Here, we sequenced genomes, microRNAs (miRNAs), and multiple transcriptomes and methylomes from individual brains in a wasp (Polistes canadensis) and an ant (Dinoponera quadriceps) that live in simple eusocial societies. In both species, we found few differences between phenotypes at the transcriptional level, with little functional specialization, and no evidence that phenotype-specific gene expression is driven by DNA methylation or miRNAs. Instead, phenotypic differentiation was defined more subtly by nonrandom transcriptional network organization, with roles in these networks for both conserved and taxon-restricted genes. The general lack of highly methylated regions or methylome patterning in both species may be an important mechanism for achieving plasticity among phenotypes during adulthood. These findings define previously unidentified hypotheses on the genomic processes that facilitate plasticity and suggest that the molecular hallmarks of social behavior are likely to differ with the level of social complexity.


Assuntos
Formigas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Hierarquia Social , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Comportamento Social , Vespas/genética , Animais , Formigas/fisiologia , Sequência de Bases , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/genética , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , MicroRNAs/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Transcriptoma/genética , Vespas/fisiologia
13.
J Org Chem ; 80(1): 375-85, 2015 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25457175

RESUMO

A combination of computational and experimental methods was used to examine the structure-reactivity relationships in the reactions of C-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazoles with electrophiles. The global nucleophilicity of 3-amino- and 3,5-diamino-1H-1,2,4-triazoles was predicted to be higher than that of 5-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazoles. Fukui functions and molecular electrostatic potential indicate that reactions involving an amino group should occur more easily for the 3-amino- than for the 5-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazoles. Increasing electrophile hardness should increase the probability of attack at the N-4 atom of the triazole ring, whereas increasing softness should enhance the probability of attack at the N-2 atom and 3-NH2 group. Calculated transition state energies of model SN2 reactions and experimental studies showed that quaternization of 1-substituted 3-amino- and 3,5-diamino-1H-1,2,4-triazoles by many alkyl halides proceeds with low selectivity and can involve the N-2 and N-4 atoms as well as the 3-NH2 group as reaction centers. A new method for the selective synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted 3-amino- and 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazoles based on quaternization of readily available 1-substituted 3-acetylamino-1,2,4-triazoles with subsequent removal of the acetyl protecting group by acid hydrolysis was developed.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Halogenados/química , Teoria Quântica , Triazóis/química , Triazóis/síntese química , Alquilação , Estrutura Molecular
14.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 41(Database issue): D1167-71, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23161682

RESUMO

The Plant Resistance Genes database (PRGdb; http://prgdb.org) is a comprehensive resource on resistance genes (R-genes), a major class of genes in plant genomes that convey disease resistance against pathogens. Initiated in 2009, the database has grown more than 6-fold to recently include annotation derived from recent plant genome sequencing projects. Release 2.0 currently hosts useful biological information on a set of 112 known and 104 310 putative R-genes present in 233 plant species and conferring resistance to 122 different pathogens. Moreover, the website has been completely redesigned with the implementation of Semantic MediaWiki technologies, which makes our repository freely accessed and easily edited by any scientists. To this purpose, we encourage plant biologist experts to join our annotation effort and share their knowledge on resistance-gene biology with the rest of the scientific community.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Internet , Modelos Genéticos
15.
BMC Genomics ; 8: 209, 2007 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17605782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To identify as many different transcripts/genes in the Atlantic salmon genome as possible, it is crucial to acquire good cDNA libraries from different tissues and developmental stages, their relevant sequences (ESTs or full length sequences) and attempt to predict function. Such libraries allow identification of a large number of different transcripts and can provide valuable information on genes expressed in a particular tissue at a specific developmental stage. This data is important in constructing a microarray chip, identifying SNPs in coding regions, and for future identification of genes in the whole genome sequence. An important factor that determines the usefulness of generated data for biologists is efficient data access. Public searchable databases play a crucial role in providing such service. DESCRIPTION: Twenty-three Atlantic salmon cDNA libraries were constructed from 15 tissues, yielding nearly 155,000 clones. From these libraries 58,109 ESTs were generated, of which 57,212 were used for contig assembly. Following deletion of mitochondrial sequences 55,118 EST sequences were submitted to GenBank. In all, 20,019 unique sequences, consisting of 6,424 contigs and 13,595 singlets, were generated. The Norwegian Salmon Genome Project Database has been constructed and annotation performed by the annotation transfer approach. Annotation was successful for 50.3% (10,075) of the sequences and 6,113 sequences (30.5%) were annotated with Gene Ontology terms for molecular function, biological process and cellular component. CONCLUSION: We describe the construction of cDNA libraries from juvenile/pre-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), EST sequencing, clustering, and annotation by assigning putative function to the transcripts. These sequences represents 97% of all sequences submitted to GenBank from the pre-smoltification stage. The data has been grouped into datasets according to its source and type of annotation. Various data query options are offered including searches on function assignments and Gene Ontology terms. Data delivery options include summaries for the datasets and their annotations, detailed self-explanatory annotations, and access to the original BLAST results and Gene Ontology annotation trees. Potential presence of a relatively high number of immune-related genes in the dataset was shown by annotation searches.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Salmo salar/genética , Animais , Biblioteca Gênica , RNA Mensageiro
16.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 7: 22, 2006 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16417643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trace or chromatogram files (raw data) are produced by automatic nucleic acid sequencing equipment or sequencers. Each file contains information which can be interpreted by specialised software to reveal the sequence (base calling). This is done by the sequencer proprietary software or publicly available programs. Depending on the size of a sequencing project the number of trace files can vary from just a few to thousands of files. Sequencing quality assessment on various criteria is important at the stage preceding clustering and contig assembly. Two major publicly available packages--Phred and Staden are used by preAssemble to perform sequence quality processing. RESULTS: The preAssemble pre-assembly sequence processing pipeline has been developed for small to large scale automatic processing of DNA sequencer chromatogram (trace) data. The Staden Package Pregap4 module and base-calling program Phred are utilized in the pipeline, which produces detailed and self-explanatory output that can be displayed with a web browser. preAssemble can be used successfully with very little previous experience, however options for parameter tuning are provided for advanced users. preAssemble runs under UNIX and LINUX operating systems. It is available for downloading and will run as stand-alone software. It can also be accessed on the Norwegian Salmon Genome Project web site where preAssemble jobs can be run on the project server. CONCLUSION: preAssemble is a tool allowing to perform quality assessment of sequences generated by automatic sequencing equipment. preAssemble is flexible since both interactive jobs on the preAssemble server and the stand alone downloadable version are available. Virtually no previous experience is necessary to run a default preAssemble job, on the other hand options for parameter tuning are provided. Consequently preAssemble can be used as efficiently for just several trace files as for large scale sequence processing.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Algoritmos , Animais , Automação , Cromatografia , Análise por Conglomerados , Gráficos por Computador , DNA/química , Sistemas de Gerenciamento de Base de Dados , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados , Genoma , Salmão/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Software
17.
Proteins ; 61(4): 763-8, 2005 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16231310

RESUMO

We describe a new method for polyproline II-type (PPII) secondary structure prediction based on tetrapeptide conformation properties using data obtained from all globular proteins in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). This is the first method for PPII prediction with a relatively high level of accuracy (approximately 60%). Our method uses only frequencies of different conformations among oligopeptides without any additional parameters. We also attempted to predict alpha-helices and beta-strands using the same approach. We find that the application of our method reveals interrelation between sequence and structure even for very short oligopeptides (tetrapeptides).


Assuntos
Oligopeptídeos/química , Peptídeos/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica
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