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1.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(23): 234001, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958775

RESUMO

We implement stochastic many-body perturbation theory for systems with 2D periodic boundary conditions. The method is used to compute quasiparticle excitations in twisted bilayer phosphorene. Excitation energies are studied using stochastic [Formula: see text] and partially self-consistent [Formula: see text] approaches. The approach is inexpensive; it is used to study twisted systems with unit cells containing >2700 atoms (>13 500 valence electrons), which corresponds to a minimum twisting angle of [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]. Twisted bilayers exhibit band splitting, increased localization and formation of localized Moiré impurity states, as documented by band-structure unfolding. Structural changes in twisted structures lift band degeneracies. Energies of the impurity states vary with the twisting angle due to an interplay between non-local exchange and polarization effects. The mechanisms of quasiparticle energy (de)stabilization due to twisting are likely applicable to a wide range of low-dimensional Moiré superstructures.

2.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 15(11): 6254-6266, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557012

RESUMO

New stochastic approaches for the computation of electronic excitations are developed within the many-body perturbation theory. Three approximations to the electronic self-energy are considered: G0W0, G0W0tc, and G0W0tcΓX. All three methods are formulated in the time domain, and the latter two incorporate nonlocal vertex corrections. In the case of G0W0tcΓX, the vertex corrections are included both in the screened Coulomb interaction and in the expression for the self-energy. The implementation of the three approximations is verified by comparison to deterministic results for a set of small molecules. The performance of the fully stochastic implementation is tested on acene molecules, C60 and PC60BM. The vertex correction appears crucial for the description of unoccupied states. Unlike conventional (deterministic) approaches, all three stochastic methods scale linearly with the number of electrons.

3.
J Chem Phys ; 150(18): 184118, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091914

RESUMO

We develop a stochastic approach to time-dependent density functional theory with optimally tuned range-separated hybrids containing nonlocal exchange, for calculating optical spectra. The attractive electron-hole interaction, which leads to the formation of excitons, is included through a time-dependent linear-response technique with a nonlocal exchange interaction which is computed very efficiently through a stochastic scheme. The method is inexpensive and scales quadratically with the number of electrons, at almost the same (low) cost of time dependent Kohn-Sham with local functionals. Our results are in excellent agreement with experimental data, and the efficiency of the approach is demonstrated on large finite phosphorene sheets containing up to 1958 valence electrons.

4.
J Chem Phys ; 149(17): 174107, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409020

RESUMO

We show that a rigid scissors-like GW self-consistency approach, labeled here Δ ¯ G W 0 , can be trivially implemented at zero additional cost for large scale one-shot G 0 W 0 calculations. The method significantly improves one-shot G 0 W 0 and for large systems is very accurate. Δ ¯ G W 0 is similar in spirit to evGW 0 where the self-consistency is only applied on the eigenvalues entering Green's function, while both W and the eigenvectors of Green's function are held fixed. Δ ¯ G W 0 further assumes that the shift of the eigenvalues is rigid scissors-like so that all occupied states are shifted by the same amount and analogously for all the unoccupied states. We show that this results in a trivial modification of the time-dependent G 0 W 0 self-energy, enabling an a posteriori self-consistency cycle. The method is applicable for our recent stochastic-GW approach, thereby enabling self-consistent calculations for giant systems with thousands of electrons. The accuracy of Δ ¯ G W 0 increases with the system size. For molecules, it is up to 0.4-0.5 eV away from coupled-cluster single double triple (CCSD(T)), but for tetracene and hexacene, it matches the ionization energies from both CCSD(T) and evGW 0 to better than 0.05 eV. For solids, as exemplified here by periodic supercells of semiconductors and insulators with 6192 valence electrons, the method matches evGW 0 quite well and both methods are in good agreement with the experiment.

5.
Faraday Discuss ; 212(0): 547-567, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226507

RESUMO

Splittings of the translation-rotation (TR) eigenstates of the solid light-molecule endofullerenes M@C60 (M = H2, H2O, HF) attributed to the symmetry breaking have been observed in the infrared (IR) and inelastic neutron scattering spectra of these species in the past couple of years. In a recent paper [Felker et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2017, 19, 31274], we established that the electrostatic, quadrupolar interaction between the guest molecule M and the twelve nearest-neighbor C60 cages of the solid is the main source of the symmetry breaking. The splittings of the three-fold degenerate ground states of the endohedral ortho-H2, ortho-H2O and the j = 1 level of HF calculated using this model were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental results. Utilizing the same electrostatic model, this theoretical study investigates the effects of the symmetry breaking on the excited TR eigenstates of the three species, and how they manifest in their simulated low-temperature (5-6 K) near-IR (NIR) and far-IR (FIR) spectra. The TR eigenstates are calculated variationally for both the major P and minor H crystal orientations. For the H orientation, the calculated splittings of all of the TR levels of these species are less than 0.1 cm-1. For the dominant P orientation, the splittings vary strongly depending on the character of the excitations involved. In all of the species, the splittings of the higher rotationally excited levels are comparable in magnitude to those for the j = 1 levels. For the levels corresponding to purely translational excitations, the calculated splittings are about an order of magnitude smaller than those of the purely rotational eigenstates. Based on the computed TR eigenstates, the low-temperature NIR (for M = H2) and FIR (for M = HF and H2O) spectra are simulated for both the P and H orientations, and also combined as their weighted sum (0.15H + 0.85P). The weighted sum spectra computed for M = H2 and HF match quantitatively the corresponding measured spectra, while for M = H2O, the weighted sum FIR spectrum predicts features that can potentially be observed experimentally.

6.
iScience ; 7: 120-131, 2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267674

RESUMO

Neutral zinc alkoxide complexes show high activity toward the ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters and carbonates, to generate biodegradable plastics applicable in several areas. Herein, we use a ferrocene-chelating heteroscorpionate complex in redox-switchable polymerization reactions, and we show that it is a moderately active catalyst for the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide, ɛ-caprolactone, trimethylene carbonate, and δ-valerolactone. Uniquely for this type of catalyst, the oxidized complex has a similar polymerization activity as the corresponding reduced compound, but displays significantly different rates of reaction in the case of trimethylene carbonate and δ-valerolactone. Investigations of the oxidized compound suggest the presence of an organic radical rather than an Fe(III) complex. Electronic structure and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to support the proposed electronic states of the catalytic complex and to help explain the observed reactivity differences. The catalyst was also compared with a monomeric phenoxide complex to show the influence of the phosphine-zinc interaction on catalytic properties.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(17): 5173-5178, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30129761

RESUMO

One of the outstanding puzzles in the photoelectron spectroscopy of water anion clusters, which serve as precursors to the hydrated electron, is that the excess electron has multiple vertical detachment energies (VDEs), with different groups seeing different distributions of VDEs. We have studied the photoelectron spectroscopy of water cluster anions using simulation techniques designed to mimic the different ways that water cluster anions are produced experimentally. Our simulations take advantage of density functional theory-based Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics with an optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functional that is shown to give outstanding accuracy for calculating electron binding energies for this system. We find that our simulations are able to accurately reproduce the experimentally observed VDEs for cluster anions of different sizes, with different VDE distributions observed depending on how the water cluster anions are prepared. For cluster anion sizes up to 20 water molecules, we see that the excess electron always resides on the surface of the cluster and that the different discrete VDEs result from the discrete number of hydrogen bonds made to the electron by water molecules on the surface. Clusters that are less thermally equilibrated have surface waters that tend to make single H-bonds to the electron, resulting in lower VDEs, while clusters that are more thermally equilibrated have surface waters that prefer to make two H-bonds to the electron, resulting in higher VDEs.

8.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(46): 31274-31283, 2017 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29148552

RESUMO

Symmetry breaking has been recently observed in the endofullerenes M@C60 (M = H2, HF, H2O), manifesting in the splittings of the three-fold degenerate ground states of the endohedral ortho-H2, ortho-H2O and the j = 1 level of HF. The nature of the interaction causing the symmetry breaking is established in this study. A fragment of the solid C60 is considered, comprised of the central C60 molecule surrounded by twelve nearest-neighbor (NN) C60 molecules. The fullerenes have either P (major) or H (minor) orientational orderings, and are assumed to be rigid with Ih symmetry. Only the central C60 is occupied by the guest molecule M, while the NN fullerenes are all empty. The key proposition of the study is that the electrostatic interactions between the charge densities on the NN C60 molecules and that on M inside the central C60 give rise to the symmetry breaking responsible for the measured level splittings. Using this model, the M@C60 level splittings of interest are calculated variationally and using perturbation theory, for both the P and H orientations. Those obtained for the dominant P orientation are in excellent agreement with the experimental results, with respect to the splitting magnitudes and patterns, for all three M@C60 systems considered, pointing strongly to the quadrupolar M-NN interactions as the main cause of the symmetry breaking. The level splittings calculated for the H orientation are about 30 times smaller than the ones in the P orientation.

9.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 13(10): 4997-5003, 2017 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28876912

RESUMO

Quasiparticle (QP) excitations are extremely important for understanding and predicting charge transfer and transport in molecules, nanostructures, and extended systems. Since density functional theory (DFT) within the Kohn-Sham (KS) formulation does not provide reliable QP energies, many-body perturbation techniques such as the GW approximation are essential. The main practical drawback of GW implementations is the high computational scaling with system size, prohibiting its use in extended, open boundary systems with many dozens of electrons or more. Recently, a stochastic formulation of GW (sGW) was presented (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2014, 113, 076402) with a near-linear-scaling complexity, illustrated for a series of silicon nanocrystals reaching systems of more than 3000 electrons. This advance provides a route for many-body calculations on very large systems that were impossible with previous approaches. While earlier we have shown the gentle scaling of sGW, its accuracy was not extensively demonstrated. Therefore, we show that this new sGW approach is very accurate by calculating the ionization energies of a group of sufficiently small molecules where a comparison to other GW codes is still possible. Using a set of 10 such molecules, we demonstrate that sGW provides reliable vertical ionization energies in close agreement with benchmark deterministic GW results (J. Chem. Theory Comput, 2015, 11, 5665), with mean (absolute) deviation of 0.05 and 0.09 eV. For completeness, we also provide a detailed review of the sGW theory and numerical implementation.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 116(18): 186401, 2016 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27203334

RESUMO

Charge carrier localization in extended atomic systems has been described previously as being driven by disorder, point defects, or distortions of the ionic lattice. Here we show for the first time by means of first-principles computations that charge carriers can spontaneously localize due to a purely electronic effect in otherwise perfectly ordered structures. Optimally tuned range-separated density functional theory and many-body perturbation calculations within the GW approximation reveal that in trans-polyacetylene and polythiophene the hole density localizes on a length scale of several nanometers. This is due to exchange-induced translational symmetry breaking of the charge density. Ionization potentials, optical absorption peaks, excitonic binding energies, and the optimally tuned range parameter itself all become independent of polymer length as it exceeds the critical localization length. Moreover, we find that lattice disorder and the formation of a polaron result from the charge localization in contrast to the traditional view that lattice distortions precede charge localization. Our results can explain experimental findings that polarons in conjugated polymers form instantaneously after exposure to ultrafast light pulses.

11.
J Chem Phys ; 142(3): 034107, 2015 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25612689

RESUMO

In exact density functional theory, the total ground-state energy is a series of linear segments between integer electron points, a condition known as "piecewise linearity." Deviation from this condition is indicative of poor predictive capabilities for electronic structure, in particular of ionization energies, fundamental gaps, and charge transfer. In this article, we take a new look at the deviation from linearity (i.e., curvature) in the solid-state limit by considering two different ways of approaching it: a large finite system of increasing size and a crystal represented by an increasingly large reference cell with periodic boundary conditions. We show that the curvature approaches vanishing values in both limits, even for functionals which yield poor predictions of electronic structure, and therefore cannot be used as a diagnostic or constructive tool in solids. We find that the approach towards zero curvature is different in each of the two limits, owing to the presence of a compensating background charge in the periodic case. Based on these findings, we present a new criterion for functional construction and evaluation, derived from the size-dependence of the curvature, along with a practical method for evaluating this criterion. For large finite systems, we further show that the curvature is dominated by the self-interaction of the highest occupied eigenstate. These findings are illustrated by computational studies of various solids, semiconductor nanocrystals, and long alkane chains.

12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 109(11): 4070-3, 2012 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22375035

RESUMO

Earth's magnetic field is sustained by magnetohydrodynamic convection within the metallic liquid core. In a thermally advecting core, the fraction of heat available to drive the geodynamo is reduced by heat conducted along the core geotherm, which depends sensitively on the thermal conductivity of liquid iron and its alloys with candidate light elements. The thermal conductivity for Earth's core is very poorly constrained, with current estimates based on a set of scaling relations that were not previously tested at high pressures. We perform first-principles electronic structure computations to determine the thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity for Fe, Fe-Si, and Fe-O liquid alloys. Computed resistivity agrees very well with existing shock compression measurements and shows strong dependence on light element concentration and type. Thermal conductivity at pressure and temperature conditions characteristic of Earth's core is higher than previous extrapolations. Conductive heat flux near the core-mantle boundary is comparable to estimates of the total heat flux from the core but decreases with depth, so that thermally driven flow would be constrained to greater depths in the absence of an inner core.

13.
J Morphol ; 271(10): 1204-18, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20623522

RESUMO

The tribosphenic molar is a dental apomorphy of mammals and the molar type from which all derived types originated. Its enamel coat is expected to be ancestral: a thin, evenly distributed layer of radial prismatic enamel. In the bat Myotis myotis, we reinvestigated the 3D architecture of the dental enamel using serial sectioning combined with scanning electron microscopy analyses, biometrics of enamel prisms and crystallites, and X-ray diffraction. We found distinct heterotopies in enamel thickness (thick enamel on the convex sides of the crests, thin on the concave ones), angularity of enamel prisms, and in distribution of particular enamel types (prismatic, interprismatic, aprismatic) and demonstrated structural relations of these heterotopies to the cusp and crest organization of the tribosphenic molar. X-ray diffraction demonstrated that the crystallites composing the enamel are actually the aggregates of much smaller primary crystallites. The differences among particular enamel types in degree of crystallite aggregation and the variation in structural microstrain of the primary crystallites (depending upon the duration and the mechanical context of mineralization) represent factors not fully understood as yet that may contribute to the complexity of enamel microarchitecture in a significant way.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/ultraestrutura , Dente Molar/ultraestrutura , Esmalte Dentário/química , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Dente Molar/química , Difração de Raios X
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