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1.
J Orthop Trauma ; 36(Suppl 1): S14-S20, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924514

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Optimal timing and procedure selection that define staged treatment strategies can affect outcomes dramatically and remain an area of major debate in the treatment of multiply injured orthopaedic trauma patients. Decisions regarding timing and choice of orthopaedic procedure(s) are currently based on the physiologic condition of the patient, resource availability, and the expected magnitude of the intervention. Surgical decision-making algorithms rarely rely on precision-type data that account for demographics, magnitude of injury, and the physiologic/immunologic response to injury on a patient-specific basis. This study is a multicenter prospective investigation that will work toward developing a precision medicine approach to managing multiply injured patients by incorporating patient-specific indices that quantify (1) mechanical tissue damage volume; (2) cumulative hypoperfusion; (3) immunologic response; and (4) demographics. These indices will formulate a precision injury signature, unique to each patient, which will be explored for correspondence to outcomes and response to surgical interventions. The impact of the timing and magnitude of initial and staged surgical interventions on patient-specific physiologic and immunologic responses will be evaluated and described. The primary goal of the study will be the development of data-driven models that will inform clinical decision-making tools that can be used to predict outcomes and guide intervention decisions.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 770343, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859018

RESUMO

Background: Characterization of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) endotypes may help explain variable clinical presentations and response to treatments. While risk factors for COVID-19 have been described, COVID-19 endotypes have not been elucidated. Objectives: We sought to identify and describe COVID-19 endotypes of hospitalized patients. Methods: Consensus clustering (using the ensemble method) of patient age and laboratory values during admission identified endotypes. We analyzed data from 528 patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to telemetry capable beds at Columbia University Irving Medical Center and discharged between March 12 to July 15, 2020. Results: Four unique endotypes were identified and described by laboratory values, demographics, outcomes, and treatments. Endotypes 1 and 2 were comprised of low numbers of intubated patients (1 and 6%) and exhibited low mortality (1 and 6%), whereas endotypes 3 and 4 included high numbers of intubated patients (72 and 85%) with elevated mortality (21 and 43%). Endotypes 2 and 4 had the most comorbidities. Endotype 1 patients had low levels of inflammatory markers (ferritin, IL-6, CRP, LDH), low infectious markers (WBC, procalcitonin), and low degree of coagulopathy (PTT, PT), while endotype 4 had higher levels of those markers. Conclusions: Four unique endotypes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were identified, which segregated patients based on inflammatory markers, infectious markers, evidence of end-organ dysfunction, comorbidities, and outcomes. High comorbidities did not associate with poor outcome endotypes. Further work is needed to validate these endotypes in other cohorts and to study endotype differences to treatment responses.

3.
J Surg Res ; 270: 547-554, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical characterization of the biological status of complex wounds remains a considerable challenge. Digital photography provides a non-invasive means of obtaining wound information and is currently employed to assess wounds qualitatively. Advances in machine learning (ML) image processing provide a means of identifying "hidden" features in pictures. This pilot study trains a convolutional neural network (CNN) to predict gene expression based on digital photographs of wounds in a canine model of volumetric muscle loss (VML). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Images of volumetric muscle loss injuries and tissue biopsies were obtained in a canine model of VML. A CNN was trained to regress gene expression values as a function of the extracted image segment (color and spatial distribution). Performance of the CNN was assessed in a held-back test set of images using Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). RESULTS: The CNN was able to predict the gene expression of certain genes based on digital images, with a MAPE ranging from ∼10% to ∼30%, indicating the presence and identification of distinct, and identifiable patterns in gene expression throughout the wound. CONCLUSIONS: These initial results suggest promise for further research regarding this novel use of ML regression on medical images. Specifically, the use of CNNs to determine the mechanistic biological state of a VML wound could aid both the design of future mechanistic interventions and the design of trials to test those therapies. Future work will expand the CNN training and/or test set, with potential expansion to predicting functional gene modules.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 754127, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777366

RESUMO

COVID-19 presentations range from mild to moderate through severe disease but also manifest with persistent illness or viral recrudescence. We hypothesized that the spectrum of COVID-19 disease manifestations was a consequence of SARS-CoV-2-mediated delay in the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) response, including dampened type I interferon signaling, thereby shifting the balance of the immune response to be dominated by damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) signaling. To test the hypothesis, we constructed a parsimonious mechanistic mathematical model. After calibration of the model for initial viral load and then by varying a few key parameters, we show that the core model generates four distinct viral load, immune response and associated disease trajectories termed "patient archetypes", whose temporal dynamics are reflected in clinical data from hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The model also accounts for responses to corticosteroid therapy and predicts that vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies and cellular memory will be protective, including from severe COVID-19 disease. This generalizable modeling framework could be used to analyze protective and pathogenic immune responses to diverse viral infections.


Assuntos
Alarminas/imunologia , COVID-19 , Modelos Biológicos , SARS-CoV-2 , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Carga Viral
5.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 65, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a multi-organ, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent acute inflammatory response. METHODS: Using network analysis, we defined the spatiotemporal dynamics of 20, LPS-induced, protein-level inflammatory mediators over 0-48 h in the heart, gut, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, and systemic circulation, in both C57BL/6 (wild-type) and TLR4-null mice. RESULTS: Dynamic Network Analysis suggested that inflammation in the heart is most dependent on TLR4, followed by the liver, kidney, plasma, gut, lung, and spleen, and raises the possibility of non-TLR4 LPS signaling pathways at defined time points in the gut, lung, and spleen. Insights from computational analyses suggest an early role for TLR4-dependent tumor necrosis factor in coordinating multiple signaling pathways in the heart, giving way to later interleukin-17A-possibly derived from pathogenic Th17 cells and effector/memory T cells-in the spleen and blood. CONCLUSIONS: We have derived novel, systems-level insights regarding the spatiotemporal evolution acute inflammation.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9703, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958628

RESUMO

Systemic inflammation is complex and likely drives clinical outcomes in critical illness such as that which ensues following severe injury. We obtained time course data on multiple inflammatory mediators in the blood of blunt trauma patients. Using dynamic network analyses, we inferred a novel control architecture for systemic inflammation: a three-way switch comprising the chemokines MCP-1/CCL2, MIG/CXCL9, and IP-10/CXCL10. To test this hypothesis, we created a logical model comprising this putative architecture. This model predicted key qualitative features of systemic inflammation in patient sub-groups, as well as the different patterns of hospital discharge of moderately vs. severely injured patients. Thus, a rational transition from data to data-driven models to mechanistic models suggests a novel, chemokine-based mechanism for control of acute inflammation in humans and points to the potential utility of this workflow in defining novel features in other complex diseases.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Ferimentos e Lesões/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
J Immunother ; 44(5): 185-192, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935273

RESUMO

Despite its increased application in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), complete response to neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) is rare. Given the critical role of host immunity in regulating cancer, we sought to correlate baseline inflammatory profiles to significant response to NAT. PDAC patients receiving NAT were classified as responders (R) or nonresponders (NR) by carbohydrate antigen 19-9 response, pathologic tumor size, and lymph node status in the resected specimen. Baseline (treatment-naive) plasma was analyzed to determine levels of 27 inflammatory mediators. Logistic regression was used to correlate individual mediators with response. Network analysis and Pearson correlation maps were derived to determine baseline inflammatory mediator profiles. Forty patients (20R and 20NR) met study criteria. The R showed significantly higher overall survival (59.4 vs. 21.25 mo, P=0.002) and disease-free survival (50.97 vs. 10.60 mo, P=0.005), compared with NR. soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha was a significant predictor of no response to NAT (P=0.045). Analysis of inflammatory profiles using the Pearson heat map analysis followed by network analysis depicted increased inflammatory network complexity in NR compared with R (1.69 vs. 1), signifying a more robust baseline inflammatory status of NR. A panel of inflammatory mediators identified by logistic regression and Fischer score analysis was used to create a potential decision tree to predict NAT response. We demonstrate that baseline inflammatory profiles are associated with response to NAT in PDAC, and that an upregulated inflammatory status is associated with a poor response to NAT. Further analysis into the role of inflammatory mediators as predictors of chemotherapy response is warranted.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251110, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956875

RESUMO

The α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) are essential for anti-inflammatory responses. The human-specific CHRFAM7A gene and its 2bp deletion polymorphism (Δ2bp variant) encodes a structurally-deficient α7nAChRs that may impact the anti-inflammatory function. We studied 45 spinal cord injury (SCI) patients for up to six weeks post SCI to investigate the role of the Δ2bp variant on multiple circulating inflammatory mediators and two outcome measures (neuropathic pain and risk of pressure ulcers). The patient's SCI were classified as either severe or mild. Missing values were imputed. Overall genetic effect was conducted with independent sample t-test and corrected with false discovery rate (FDR). Univariate analysis and regression analysis were applied to evaluate the Δ2bp effects on temporal variation of inflammatory mediators post SCI and their interaction with outcome measures. In severe SCI, the Δ2bp carriers showed higher levels of circulating inflammatory mediators than the Δ2bp non-carriers in TNF-α (FDR = 9.6x10-4), IFN-γ (FDR = 1.3x10-3), IL-13 (FDR = 1.6x10-3), CCL11 (FDR = 2.1x10-3), IL-12p70 (FDR = 2.2x10-3), IL-8 (FDR = 2.2x10-3), CXCL10 (FDR = 3.1x10-3), CCL4 (FDR = 5.7x10-3), IL-12p40 (FDR = 7.1x10-3), IL-1b (FDR = 0.014), IL-15 (FDR = 0.024), and IL-2 (FDR = 0.037). IL-8 and CCL2 were negatively associated with days post injury (DPI) for the Δ2bp carriers (P = 2x10-7 and P = 2x10-8, respectively) and IL-5 was positively associated with DPI for the Δ2bp non-carriers (P = 0.015). Neuropathic pain was marginally positively associated with IL-13 for the Δ2bp carriers (P = 0.056). In mild SCI, the Δ2bp carriers had lower circulating levels of IL-15 (FDR = 0.04) than the Δ2bp non-carriers. Temporal variation of inflammatory mediators post SCI was not associated with the Δ2bp variant. For the mild SCI Δ2bp carriers, risk of pressure ulcers was positively associated with circulating levels of IFN-γ, CXCL10, and CCL4 and negatively associated with circulating levels of IL-12p70. These findings support an important role for the human-specific CHRFAM7A Δ2bp gene variant in modifying anti-inflammatory function of α7nAChRs following SCI.


Assuntos
Mielite/genética , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mielite/etiologia , Mielite/patologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 591154, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34017323

RESUMO

Systems-level insights into inflammatory events after vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) are critical to the success of immunomodulatory strategies of these complex procedures. To date, the effects of tacrolimus (TAC) immunosuppression on inflammatory networks in VCA, such as in acute rejection (AR), have not been investigated. We used a systems biology approach to elucidate the effects of tacrolimus on dynamic networks and principal drivers of systemic inflammation in the context of dynamic tissue-specific immune responses following VCA. Lewis (LEW) rat recipients received orthotopic hind limb VCA from fully major histocompatibility complex-mismatched Brown Norway (BN) donors or matched LEW donors. Group 1 (syngeneic controls) received LEW limbs without TAC, and Group 2 (treatment group) received BN limbs with TAC. Time-dependent changes in 27 inflammatory mediators were analyzed in skin, muscle, and peripheral blood using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Dynamic Bayesian Network (DyBN) inference, and Dynamic Network Analysis (DyNA) to define principal characteristics, central nodes, and putative feedback structures of systemic inflammation. Analyses were repeated on skin + muscle data to construct a "Virtual VCA", and in skin + muscle + peripheral blood data to construct a "Virtual Animal." PCA, DyBN, and DyNA results from individual tissues suggested important roles for leptin, VEGF, various chemokines, the NLRP3 inflammasome (IL-1ß, IL-18), and IL-6 after TAC treatment. The chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1α; and IP-10 were associated with AR in controls. Statistical analysis suggested that 24/27 inflammatory mediators were altered significantly between control and TAC-treated rats in peripheral blood, skin, and/or muscle over time. "Virtual VCA" and "Virtual Animal" analyses implicated the skin as a key control point of dynamic inflammatory networks, whose connectivity/complexity over time exhibited a U-shaped trajectory and was mirrored in the systemic circulation. Our study defines the effects of TAC on complex spatiotemporal evolution of dynamic inflammation networks in VCA. We also demonstrate the potential utility of computational analyses to elucidate nonlinear, cross-tissue interactions. These approaches may help define precision medicine approaches to better personalize TAC immunosuppression in VCA recipients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Mediadores da Inflamação , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Alotransplante de Tecidos Compostos Vascularizados , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Membro Posterior/transplante , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Transplante de Órgãos , Ratos , Tacrolimo/administração & dosagem , Alotransplante de Tecidos Compostos Vascularizados/métodos
10.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 35(16): 1393-1406, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860683

RESUMO

Significance: The immunoinflammatory responses that follow trauma contribute to clinical trajectory and patient outcomes. While remarkable advances have been made in trauma services and injury management, clarity on how the immune system in humans responds to trauma is lagging. Recent Advances: Multiplexing platforms have transformed our ability to analyze comprehensive immune mediator responses in human trauma. In parallel, with the establishment of large data sets, computational methods have been adapted to yield new insights based on mediator patterns. These efforts have added an important data layer to the emerging multiomic characterization of the human response to injury. Critical Issues: Outcome after trauma is greatly affected by the host immunoinflammatory response. Excessive or sustained responses can contribute to organ damage. Hence, understanding the pathophysiology behind traumatic injury is of vital importance. Future Directions: This review summarizes our work in the study of circulating immune mediators in trauma patients. Our foundational studies into dynamic patterns of inflammatory mediators represent an important contribution to the concepts and computational challenges that these large data sets present. We hope to see further integration and understanding of multiomics strategies in the field of trauma that can aid in patient endotyping and in potentially identifiying certain therapeutic targets in the future. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 35, 1393-1406.

11.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 6(1): e000619, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748428

RESUMO

Background: Trauma elicits a complex inflammatory response that, among multiple presenting factors, is greatly impacted by the magnitude of injury severity. Herein, we compared the changes in circulating levels of mediators with known proinflammatory roles to those with known protective/reparative actions as a function of injury severity in injured humans. Methods: Clinical and biobank data were obtained from 472 (trauma database-1 (TD-1), University of Pittsburgh) and 89 (trauma database-2 (TD-2), Indiana University) trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and who survived to discharge. Injury severity was estimated based on the Injury Severity Score (ISS), and this was used as both a continuous variable and for the purpose of grouping patients into severity-based cohorts. Samples within the first 24 hours were obtained from all patients and then daily up to day 7 postinjury in TD-1. Sixteen cytokines were assayed using Luminex and were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (p<0.05). Results: Patients with higher ISSs had longer ICU and hospital stays, days on mechanical ventilation and higher rates of nosocomial infection when compared with the mild and moderate groups. Time course analysis and correlations with ISS showed that 11 inflammatory mediators correlated positively with injury severity, consistent with previous reports. However, five mediators (interleukin (IL)-9, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23 and IL-17E/25) were suppressed in patients with high ISS and inversely correlated with ISS. Discussion: These findings suggest that severe injury is associated with a suppression of a subset of cytokines known to be involved in tissue protection and regeneration (IL-9, IL-22 and IL-17E/25) and lymphocyte differentiation (IL-21 and IL-23), which in turn correlates with adverse clinical outcomes. Thus, patterns of proinflammatory versus protective/reparative mediators diverge with increasing ISS.

12.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 6(1): e000648, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634214

RESUMO

Background: Prehospital plasma administration during air medical transport reduces the endotheliopathy of trauma, circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, and 30-day mortality among traumatically injured patients at risk of hemorrhagic shock. No clinical data currently exists evaluating the age of thawed plasma and its association with clinical outcomes and biomarker expression post-injury. Methods: We performed a secondary analysis from the prehospital plasma administration randomized controlled trial, PAMPer. We dichotomized the age of thawed plasma creating three groups: standard-care, YOUNG (day 0-1) plasma, and OLD (day 2-5) plasma. We generated HRs and 95% CIs for mortality. Among all patients randomized to plasma, we compared predicted biomarker values at hospital admission (T0) and 24 hours later (T24) controlling for key difference between groups with a multivariable linear regression. Analyses were repeated in a severely injured subgroup. Results: Two hundred and seventy-one patients were randomized to standard-care and 230 to plasma (40% YOUNG, 60% OLD). There were no clinically or statistically significant differences in demographics, injury, admission vital signs, or laboratory values including thromboelastography between YOUNG and OLD. Compared with standard-care, YOUNG (HR 0.66 (95% CI 0.41 to 1.07), p=0.09) and OLD (HR 0.64 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.96), p=0.03) plasma demonstrated reduced 30-day mortality. Among those randomized to plasma, plasma age did not affect mortality (HR 1.04 (95% CI 0.60 to 1.82), p=0.90) and/or adjusted serum markers by plasma age at T0 or T24 (p>0.05). However, among the severely injured subgroup, OLD plasma was significantly associated with increased adjusted inflammatory and decreased adjusted endothelial biomarkers at T0. Discussion: Age of thawed plasma does not result in clinical outcome or biomarker expression differences in the overall PAMPer study cohort. There were biomarker expression differences in those patients with severe injury. Definitive investigation is needed to determine if the age of thawed plasma is associated with biomarker expression and outcome differences following traumatic injury. Level of evidence: II.

13.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 105: 106295, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The NIH consensus statement on cancer-related symptoms concluded the most common and debilitating were depression, pain and fatigue [1-6]. Although the comorbidity of these symptoms is well known and may have similar underlying biological mechanisms no intervention has been developed to reduce these symptoms concurrently. The novel web-based stepped collaborative care intervention delivered by telemedicine is the first to be tested in people diagnosed with cancer. METHODS: We plan to test a web-based stepped collaborative care intervention with 450 cancer patients and 200 caregivers in the context of a randomized controlled trial. The primary endpoint is quality of life with other primary outcomes including patient-reported depression, pain, fatigue. Secondary outcomes include patient serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and disease progression. We also will assess informal caregiver stress, depression, and metabolic abnormalities to determine if improvements in patients' symptoms also relate to improvement in caregiver outcomes. RESULTS: The trial is ongoing and a total of 382 patients have been randomized. Preliminary analyses of the screening tools used for study entry suggest that Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CESD) scale has good sensitivity and specificity (0.81 and 0.813) whereas the scale used to assess pain (0.47 and 0.91) and fatigue (0.11 and 0.91) had poor sensitivity but excellent specificity. Using the AUROC, the best cut point for the CES-D was 19, for pain was 4.5; and for fatigue was 2.5. Outcomes not originally proposed included health care utilization and healthcare charges. The first 100 patients who have been followed a year post-treatment, and who were less than 75 years and randomized to the web-based stepped collaborative care intervention, had lower rates of complications after surgery [χ2 = 5.45, p = 0.02]. For patients who survived 6 months or less and were randomized to the web-based stepped collaborative care intervention, had lower rates of 90-day readmissions when compared to patients randomized to the screening and referral arm [χ2 = 4.0, p = 0.046]. Patients randomized to the collaborative care intervention arm had lower overall health care activity-based costs of $16,758 per patient per year when compared to the screening and referral arm. DISCUSSION: This novel web-based stepped stepped collaborative care intervention, delivered via telemedicine, is expected to provide a new strategy to improve the quality of life in those diagnosed with cancer and their caregivers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.govNCT02939755.


Assuntos
Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Neoplasias , Telemedicina , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Fadiga/terapia , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Qualidade de Vida
14.
Res Sq ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442677

RESUMO

Alterations in lipid metabolism have the potential to be markers as well as drivers of the pathobiology of acute critical illness. Here, we took advantage of the temporal precision offered by trauma as a common cause of critical illness to identify the dynamic patterns in the circulating lipidome in critically ill humans. The major findings include an early loss of all classes of circulating lipids followed by a delayed and selective lipogenesis in patients destined to remain critically ill. Early in the clinical course, Fresh Frozen Plasma administration led to improved survival in association with preserved lipid levels that related to favorable changes in coagulation and inflammation biomarkers. Late over-representation of phosphatidylethanolamines with critical illness led to the validation of a Lipid Reprogramming Score that was prognostic not only in trauma but also severe COVID-19 patients. Our lipidomic findings provide a new paradigm for the lipid response underlying critical illness.

15.
J Am Coll Surg ; 232(3): 276-287.e1, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma is the leading cause of death and disability for individuals under age 55. Many severely injured trauma patients experience complicated clinical courses despite appropriate initial therapy. We sought to identify novel circulating metabolomic signatures associated with clinical outcomes following trauma. STUDY DESIGN: Untargeted metabolomics and circulating plasma immune mediator analysis was performed on plasma collected during 3 post-injury time periods (<6 hours [h], 6 h-24h, day 2-day 5) in critically ill trauma patients enrolled between April 2004 and May 2013 at UPMC Presbyterian Hospital in Pittsburgh, PA. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 18 years, blunt mechanism, ICU admission, and expected survival ≥ 24 h. Exclusion criteria were isolated head injury, spinal cord injury, and pregnancy. Exploratory endpoints included length of stay (overall and ICU), ventilator requirements, nosocomial infection, and Marshall organ dysfunction (MOD) score. The top 50 metabolites were isolated using repeated measures ANOVA and multivariate empirical Bayesian analysis for further study. RESULTS: Eighty-six patients were included for analysis. Sphingolipids were enriched significantly (chi-square, p < 10-6) among the top 50 metabolites. Clustering of sphingolipid patterns identified 3 patient subclasses: nonresponders (no time-dependent change in sphingolipids, n = 41), sphingosine/sphinganine-enhanced (n = 24), and glycosphingolipid-enhanced (n = 21). Compared with the sphingolipid-enhanced subclasses, nonresponders had longer mean length of stay, more ventilator days, higher MOD scores, and higher circulating levels of proinflammatory immune mediators IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MCP1/CCL2, IP10/CXCL10, and MIG/CXCL9 (all p < 0.05), despite similar Injury Severity Scores (p = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolomic analysis identified broad alterations in circulating plasma sphingolipids after blunt trauma. Circulating sphingolipid signatures and their association with both clinical outcomes and circulating inflammatory mediators suggest a possible link between sphingolipid metabolism and the immune response to trauma.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Esfingolipídeos/sangue , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/imunologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Hepatology ; 73(6): 2494-2509, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) induces local and systemic inflammation in which neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are major drivers. IRI markedly augments metastatic growth, which is consistent with the notion that the liver IRI can serve as a premetastatic niche. Exercise training (ExT) confers a sustainable protection, reducing IRI in some animal models, and has been associated with improved survival in patients with cancer; however, the impact of ExT on liver IRI or development of hepatic metastases is unknown. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Mice were randomized into exercise (ExT) and sedentary groups before liver IRI and tumor injection. Computerized dynamic network analysis of 20 inflammatory mediators was used to dissect the sequence of mediator interactions after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) that induce injury. ExT mice showed a significant decrease in hepatic IRI and tissue necrosis. This coincided with disassembly of complex networks among inflammatory mediators seen in sedentary mice. Neutrophil infiltration and NET formation were decreased in the ExT group, which suppressed the expression of liver endothelial cell adhesion molecules. Concurrently, ExT mice revealed a distinct population of infiltrating macrophages expressing M2 phenotypic genes. In a metastatic model, fewer metastases were present 3 weeks after I/R in the ExT mice, a finding that correlated with a marked increase in tumor-suppressing T cells within the tumor microenvironment. CONCLUSIONS: ExT preconditioning mitigates the inflammatory response to liver IRI, protecting the liver from injury and metastases. In light of these findings, potential may exist for the reduction of liver premetastatic niches induced by liver IRI through the use of ExT as a nonpharmacologic therapy before curative surgical approaches.

17.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(3): 441-450, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiply injured patients (MIPs) are at risk of complications including infections, and acute and prolonged organ dysfunction. The immunologic response to injury has been shown to affect outcomes. Recent advances in computational capabilities have shown that early dynamic coordination of the immunologic response is associated with improved outcomes after trauma. We hypothesized that patients who were sensitive or tolerant of hemorrhage would demonstrate differences in dynamic immunologic orchestration within hours of injury. METHODS: We identified two groups of MIPs who demonstrated distinct clinical tolerance to hemorrhage (n = 10) or distinct clinical sensitivity to hemorrhage (n = 9) from a consecutive cohort of 100 MIPs. Hemorrhage was quantified by integrating elevated shock index values for 24 hours after injury (shock volume). Clinical outcomes were quantified by average Marshall Organ Dysfunction Scores from days 2 to 5 after injury. Shock-sensitive patients had high cumulative organ dysfunction after lower magnitude hemorrhage. Shock-tolerant (ST) patients had low cumulative organ dysfunction after higher magnitude hemorrhage. Computational methods were used to analyze a panel of 20 immunologic mediators collected serially over the initial 72 hours after injury. RESULTS: Dynamic network analysis demonstrated the ST patients had increased orchestration of cytokines that are reparative and protective including interleukins 9, 17E/25, 21, 22, 23, and 33 during the initial 0- to 8-hour and 8- to 24-hour intervals after injury. Shock-sensitive patients had delayed immunologic orchestration of a network of largely proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators. Elastic net linear regression demonstrated that a group of five mediators could discriminate between shock-sensitive and ST patients. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary evidence from this study suggests that early immunologic orchestration discriminates between patients who are notably tolerant or sensitive to hemorrhage. Early orchestration of a group of reparative/protective mediators was amplified in shock-tolerant patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prospective clinical outcomes study, level III.


Assuntos
Traumatismo Múltiplo/imunologia , Traumatismo Múltiplo/metabolismo , Choque Hemorrágico/diagnóstico , Choque Hemorrágico/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Cuidados Críticos , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismo Múltiplo/complicações , Respiração Artificial , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia
18.
JCI Insight ; 6(2)2021 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320841

RESUMO

Immune dysfunction is an important factor driving mortality and adverse outcomes after trauma but remains poorly understood, especially at the cellular level. To deconvolute the trauma-induced immune response, we applied single-cell RNA sequencing to circulating and bone marrow mononuclear cells in injured mice and circulating mononuclear cells in trauma patients. In mice, the greatest changes in gene expression were seen in monocytes across both compartments. After systemic injury, the gene expression pattern of monocytes markedly deviated from steady state with corresponding changes in critical transcription factors, which can be traced back to myeloid progenitors. These changes were largely recapitulated in the human single-cell analysis. We generalized the major changes in human CD14+ monocytes into 6 signatures, which further defined 2 trauma patient subtypes (SG1 vs. SG2) identified in the whole-blood leukocyte transcriptome in the initial 12 hours after injury. Compared with SG2, SG1 patients exhibited delayed recovery, more severe organ dysfunction, and a higher incidence of infection and noninfectious complications. The 2 patient subtypes were also recapitulated in burn and sepsis patients, revealing a shared pattern of immune response across critical illness. Our data will be broadly useful to further explore the immune response to inflammatory diseases and critical illness.


Assuntos
Ferimentos e Lesões/genética , Ferimentos e Lesões/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Queimaduras/sangue , Queimaduras/genética , Queimaduras/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA-Seq , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/genética , Sepse/imunologia , Choque Hemorrágico/sangue , Choque Hemorrágico/genética , Choque Hemorrágico/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única , Fatores de Tempo , Transcriptoma , Ferimentos e Lesões/classificação , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Immunol ; 206(2): 398-409, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239421

RESUMO

IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is a transcription factor that is activated by multiple pattern-recognition receptors. We demonstrated previously that IRF3 plays a detrimental role in a severe mouse model of sepsis, induced by cecal ligation and puncture. In this study, we found that IRF3-knockout (KO) mice were greatly protected from sepsis in a clinically relevant version of the cecal ligation and puncture model incorporating crystalloid fluids and antibiotics, exhibiting improved survival, reduced disease score, lower levels of serum cytokines, and improved phagocytic function relative to wild-type (WT) mice. Computational modeling revealed that the overall complexity of the systemic inflammatory/immune network was similar in IRF3-KO versus WT septic mice, although the tempo of connectivity differed. Furthermore, the mediators driving the network differed: TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 predominated in WT mice, whereas MCP-1 and IL-6 predominated in IRF3-KO mice. Network analysis also suggested differential IL-6-related inflammatory programs in WT versus IRF3-KO mice. We created bone marrow chimeras to test the role of IRF3 within leukocytes versus stroma. Surprisingly, chimeras with IRF3-KO bone marrow showed little protection from sepsis, whereas chimeras with IRF3-KO stroma showed a substantial degree of protection. We found that WT and IRF3-KO macrophages had a similar capacity to produce IL-6 and phagocytose bacteria in vitro. Adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated that the genotype of the host environment affected the capacity of monocytes to produce IL-6 during sepsis. Thus, IRF3 acts principally within the stromal compartment to exacerbate sepsis pathogenesis via differential impacts on IL-6-related inflammatory programs.

20.
Cytokine ; 139: 154344, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954675

RESUMO

Acute inflammation following sterile injury is both inevitable and necessary to restore homeostasis and promote tissue repair. However, when excessive, inflammation can jeopardize the viability of organs and cause detrimental systemic effects. Identifying key-regulators of the immune cascade induced by surgery is vital to attenuating excessive inflammation and its subsequent effects. In this review, we describe the emerging role of IL-17A as a key-regulator in acute inflammation. The role of IL-17A in chronic disease states, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and cancer has been well documented, but its significance in acute inflammation following surgery, sepsis, or traumatic injury has not been well studied. We aim to highlight the role of IL-17A in acute inflammation caused by trauma, liver ischemia, and organ transplantation, as well as in post-operative surgical infections. Further investigation of the roles of this cytokine in acute inflammation may stimulate novel therapies or diagnostic modalities.

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