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1.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium is now recognised as an important bacterial sexually transmitted infection. We summarised data from studies of mutations associated with macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance in M genitalium to establish the prevalence of resistance. We also investigated temporal trends in resistance and aimed to establish the association between resistance and geographical location. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE for studies that included data for the prevalence of mutations associated with macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance in M genitalium published in any language up to Jan 7, 2019. We defined prevalence as the proportion of M genitalium samples positive for key mutations associated with azithromycin resistance (23S rRNA gene, position 2058 or 2059) or moxifloxacin resistance (S83R, S83I, D87N, or D87Y in parC), or both, among all M genitalium samples that were successfully characterised. We used random-effects meta-analyses to calculate summary estimates of prevalence. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses by WHO region and time period were done. This study was registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016050370. RESULTS: Overall, 59 studies from 21 countries met the inclusion criteria for our study: 57 studies of macrolide resistance (8966 samples), 25 of fluoroquinolone resistance (4003 samples), and 22 of dual resistance to macrolides and fluoroquinolones (3280 samples). The summary prevalence of mutations associated with macrolide resistance among M genitalium samples was 35·5% (95% CI 28·8-42·5); prevalence increased from 10·0% (95% CI 2·6-20·1%) before 2010, to 51·4% (40·3-62·4%) in 2016-17 (p<0·0001). Prevalence of mutations associated with macrolide resistance was significantly greater in samples in the WHO Western Pacific and Americas regions than in those from the WHO European region. The overall prevalence of mutations associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in M genitalium samples was 7·7% (95% CI 4·5-11·4%). Prevalence did not change significantly over time, but was significantly higher in the Western Pacific region than in the European region. Overall, the prevalence of both mutations associated with macrolide resistance and those associated with fluoroquinolone resistance among M genitalium samples was 2·8% (1·3-4·7%). The prevalence of dual resistance did not change significantly over time, and did not vary significantly by geographical region. INTERPRETATION: Global surveillance and measures to optimise the efficacy of treatments-including resistance-guided strategies, new antimicrobials, and antimicrobial combination approaches-are urgently needed to ensure cure in a high proportion of M genitalium infections and to prevent further spread of resistant strains. FUNDING: Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.

2.
Sex Health ; 17(3): 279-287, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571477

RESUMO

Background The kissing practices of heterosexual men are not well understood, despite the potential of kissing to be a significant risk factor for gonorrhoea transmission. This study aimed to explore kissing and sex practices among heterosexual men. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey among heterosexual men attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in 2016-2017 was conducted. Men were asked to report their number of kissing-only (in the absence of sex), sex-only (in the absence of kissing) and kissing-with-sex partners in the last 3 months. The mean number of each partner type was calculated, and multivariable negative binomial regression was used to investigate associations between the number of different types of partners and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Of the 2351 heterosexual men, men reported a mean of 2.98 kissing-only, 0.54 sex-only and 2.64 kissing-with-sex partners in the last 3 months. Younger men had a mean higher number of kissing-only partners than older men (4.52 partners among men aged ≤24 years compared with 1.75 partners among men ≥35 years, P < 0.001). Men born in Europe had the most kissing-only partners (mean: 5.16 partners) and men born in Asia had the fewest kissing-only partners (mean: 1.61 partners). Men recently arrived in Australia, including travellers from overseas, had significantly more kissing-only partners (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR): 1.53; 95% CI: 1.31-1.80) than local men. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel data about kissing practices of heterosexual men. Studies assessing oropharyngeal gonorrhoea should include measurements of kissing until studies can clarify its contribution to transmission risk.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231547, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Victorian legislation prohibits sex workers from working when they have visible anogenital herpes or warts. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of asymptomatic female sex workers (FSW) diagnosed with anogenital herpes or warts by genital examination. METHODS: We analysed all computerised medical records of consultations with FSW at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) in 2018. All asymptomatic sex workers were offered screening sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and a genital examination to identify visible anogenital herpes or warts at MSHC. FSW consultations were categorised into either 'asymptomatic' or 'symptomatic' based on the presence of symptoms reported by the FSW to the triage nurse. The proportion of asymptomatic FSW diagnosed with visible anogenital herpes or warts during a routine screening examination was calculated. RESULTS: In 2018, 4055 consultations were provided to 1979 FSW. 3406 of these consultations were asymptomatic and all were examined by an experienced clinician for signs of STIs. Of these 3406 asymptomatic consultations, seven FSW (0.21%, 95% CI: 0.08% to 0.42%) were diagnosed with visible anogenital herpes and/or warts following a genital examination. Four were diagnosed with warts (0.12%, 95% CI: 0.03% to 0.30%), two with herpes (0.06%, 95% CI: 0.01% to 0.21%) and one with both herpes and warts (0.03%, 95% CI: 0.001% to 0.16%). CONCLUSION: Based on these data, approximately 500 asymptomatic FSW would need to be examined to identify one case of anogenital herpes or warts. Genital examinations consume considerable clinical resources, increase the duration of consultations and provide essentially no significant benefit to the mandated testing for gonorrhoea, chlamydia, HIV and syphilis. Our clinic will use self-collected samples and no longer examine FSW who are asymptomatic.


Assuntos
Condiloma Acuminado/diagnóstico , Genitália Feminina/patologia , Herpes Genital/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Exame Físico/métodos , Profissionais do Sexo , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas , Condiloma Acuminado/patologia , Feminino , Herpes Genital/patologia , Humanos , Exame Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Profissionais do Sexo/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores de Tempo , Vitória
4.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and appraise published data, to determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) in men who have sex with men (MSM) tested at each anatomical site, that is, at the urethra, rectum and/or pharynx. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Ovid Medline, PubMed, Embase were searched for articles from 1st January 1981 (the year MG was first identified) to 1st June 2018. REVIEW METHODS: Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported MG prevalence in MSM tested at the urethra, rectum and/or pharynx, in at least 50 MSM, using nucleic acid amplification testing. Data were extracted by anatomical site, symptom and HIV status. Summary estimates (95% CIs) were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were performed to assess heterogeneity between studies. RESULTS: Forty-six studies met inclusion criteria, with 34 reporting estimates of MG prevalence at the urethra (13 753 samples), 25 at the rectum (8629 samples) and 7 at the pharynx (1871 samples). MG prevalence was 5.0% (95% CI 3.5 to 6.8; I2=94.0) at the urethra; 6.2% (95% CI 4.6 to 8.1; I2=88.1) at the rectum and 1.0% (95% CI 0.0 to 5.1; I2=96.0) at the pharynx. The prevalence of MG was significantly higher at urethral and rectal sites in symptomatic versus asymptomatic MSM (7.1% vs 2.2%, p<0.001; and 16.1% vs 7.5%, p=0.039, respectively). MG prevalence at the urethra was significantly higher in HIV-positive compared with HIV-negative MSM (7.0% vs 3.4%, p=0.006). CONCLUSION: MG was common in MSM, particularly at urethral and rectal sites (5% to 6%). MG was more commonly detected in symptomatic men at both sites, and more common in HIV-positive men at the urethra. MG was uncommonly detected in the pharynx. Site-specific estimates are similar to those for chlamydia and will be helpful in informing testing practices in MSM. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017058326.

5.
Sex Health ; 17(2): 149-154, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135076

RESUMO

Background Previous studies have shown that there is a peak in sexually transmissible infection (STI) cases and sexual activities around summer, but there has been no study examining whether kissing also follows a similar seasonal pattern. The aim of this study was to examine the seasonal patterns of kissing and sex partners among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: A short cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between March 2016 and February 2017. Participants were asked to report the number of kissing-only, sex-only and kissing-with-sex male partners in the last 3 months. The mean number of male partners was calculated and stratified by Australia's seasons. The seasonal trend in the number of partners was assessed by negative binomial regression models. RESULTS: In total, 4391 MSM were included in the analysis. The number of kissing-only and sex-only partners increased significantly from autumn to summer among MSM in Melbourne (Ptrend <0.001). MSM reported the highest number of male partners for kissing-only (mean: 4.91; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 4.78-5.04) and sex-only (mean: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.83-1.99) around summer compared with other seasons. However, the number of kissing-with-sex partners remained stable across seasons. CONCLUSIONS: The study data suggest that there is a peak in kissing-only and sex-only partners among MSM around summer and holiday seasons.

6.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(4): 265-270, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of hepatitis A are being reported more commonly among men who have sex with men (MSM) globally. Australia has also reported a sharp increase in the number of cases of hepatitis A in 2017. This study aimed to determine the level of immunity to hepatitis A among MSM attending a large urban sexual health clinic in Victoria in the lead up to recent outbreak. METHODS: This was a retrospective audit of serological testing data from first-time MSM attendees at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) in Australia from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2018. We determined the proportion of MSM who were tested and who had serological detection of hepatitis A IgG, stratified by age and calendar year. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression to investigate factors associated with testing for and detection of hepatitis A IgG. RESULTS: There were 16 609 first-time MSM attendees at MSHC over the 7-year period, of which 9718 (59%, 95% CI 58% to 60%) were tested for hepatitis A IgG. There was a 2% annual increase in the proportion of men tested (from 60% in 2012 to 69% in 2018; OR=1.02, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.03, p=0.025). Men born outside of Australia/New Zealand, and younger men <30 years had higher odds of being tested. Of those tested, 44% (n=4304, 95% CI 43% to 45%) had hepatitis A IgG detected at their first visit, with no change over time (OR=1.01, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.03, p=0.210). Detection of hepatitis A IgG was associated with being aged 30 years or older (adjusted OR=2.06, 95% CI 1.89 to 2.24, p<0.001) or being born overseas versus Australia/New Zealand (AOR=1.21, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.31, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Hepatitis A immunity among MSM remains below the estimated 70% required to prevent outbreaks. Measures including increased testing and higher vaccination coverage are needed to prevent outbreaks and to limit the number of cases and deaths.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite A/sangue , Hepatite A/imunologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vitória , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Infect Dis ; 221(3): 454-463, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gardnerella vaginalis is detected in women with and without bacterial vaginosis (BV). Identification of 4 G. vaginalis clades raised the possibility that pathogenic and commensal clades exist. We investigated the association of behavioral practices and Nugent Score with G. vaginalis clade distribution in women who have sex with women (WSW). METHODS: Longitudinal self-collected vaginal specimens were analyzed using established G. vaginalis species-specific and clade-typing polymerase chain reaction assays. Logistic regression assessed factors associated with detection of G. vaginalis clades, and multinomial regression assessed factors associated with number of clades. RESULTS: Clades 1, 2, and 3 and multiclade communities (<2 clades) were associated with Nugent-BV. Clade 1 (odds ratio [OR], 3.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-6.84) and multiclade communities (relative risk ratio [RRR], 9.51; 95% CI, 4.36-20.73) were also associated with Lactobacillus-deficient vaginal microbiota. Clade 4 was neither associated with Nugent-BV nor Lactobacillus-deficient microbiota (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.67-3.33). Specific clades were associated with differing behavioral practices. Clade 1 was associated with increasing number of recent sexual partners and smoking, whereas clade 2 was associated with penile-vaginal sex and sharing of sex toys with female partners. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that G. vaginalis clades have varying levels of pathogenicity in WSW, with acquisition occurring through sexual activity. These findings suggest that partner treatment may be an appropriate strategy to improve BV cure.

8.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(2): 110-114, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In 2017, an outbreak of hepatitis A among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) was reported in Victoria, Australia. In 2018, the Victorian government implemented a free hepatitis A vaccination programme targeting all Victorian MSM. This study aimed to determine hepatitis A vaccine uptake among MSM in a sexual health clinic in Melbourne. METHODS: All MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) in 2018 were included. Chart review was performed to determine the proportion of men vaccinated for at least one dose of hepatitis A and to examine why men did not receive the vaccine. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to examine the factors associated with vaccine uptake. Vaccine uptake was defined as receipt of at least one dose of hepatitis A vaccine. RESULTS: Of the 9582 MSM who attended MSHC in 2018, 61.3% (95% CI 60.3% to 62.2%) self-reported already being immune to hepatitis A. Of the 3713 remaining eligible men, 62.7% (95% CI 61.1% to 64.2%) received at least one dose of the hepatitis A vaccine on the day of attendance. Compared with MSM not living with HIV and not taking pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), MSM taking PrEP (adjusted OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.62) were more likely to receive the vaccine. 1386 men (37.3%) did not receive the vaccine and 55.4% were not offered the vaccine by their treating clinician. 300 men (21.6%) were identified as non-immune after serological testing but did not return for vaccination. By the end of 2018, 85.5% of MSHC attendees (8196/9582) were immune to hepatitis A. CONCLUSION: The critical vaccination threshold for hepatitis A has been estimated at >70%. Continuation of the targeted hepatitis A vaccination programme will improve immunity among the MSM population to prevent ongoing transmission and the likelihood of future outbreaks.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19749, 2019 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874964

RESUMO

Women-who-have-sex-with-women (WSW) are at increased risk of bacterial vaginosis (BV). We investigated the impact of practices and past BV on the vaginal microbiota within a two-year longitudinal cohort of Australian WSW. Self-collected vaginal swabs were used to characterise the vaginal microbiota using 16S-rRNA gene sequencing. Hierarchical clustering defined community state types (CSTs). Bacterial diversity was calculated using the Shannon diversity index and instability of the vaginal microbiota was assessed by change of CST and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity. Sex with a new partner increased the bacterial diversity (adjusted-coefficient = 0.41, 95%CI: 0.21,0.60, p < 0.001) and instability of the vaginal microbiota, in terms of both change of CST (adjusted-odds-ratio = 2.65, 95%CI: 1.34,5.22, p = 0.005) and increased Bray-Curtis dissimilarity (adjusted-coefficient = 0.21, 95%CI: 0.11,0.31, p < 0.001). Women reporting sex with a new partner were more likely than women reporting no new partner to have a vaginal microbiota characterised by Gardnerella vaginalis (adjusted-relative-risk-ratio[aRRR] = 3.45, 95%CI: 1.42,8.41, p = 0.006) or anaerobic BV-associated bacteria (aRRR = 3.62, 95%CI: 1.43,9.14, p = 0.007) relative to a Lactobacillus crispatus dominated microbiota. Sex with a new partner altered the vaginal microbiota of WSW by increasing the diversity and abundance of BV-associated bacteria. These findings highlight the influence of practices on the development of a non-optimal vaginal microbiota and provide microbiological support for the sexual exchange of bacteria between women.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Macrolide-resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) exceeds 50% in many regions and quinolone-resistance is increasing. We recently reported that resistance-guided therapy (RGT) using doxycycline followed by sitafloxacin or 2.5g-azithromycin cured 92% and 95% of macrolide-resistant and macrolide-susceptible infections, respectively. We now present the data on RGT using doxycycline-moxifloxacin, the regimen recommended in international guidelines, and extend the data on the efficacy of doxyxycline-2.5g azithromycin and subsequent de novo macrolide-resistance. METHODS: Patients attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between 2017-2018 with STI-related syndromes were treated with doxycycline for 7 days and recalled if positive for MG. Macrolide-susceptible cases then received 2.5g azithromycin (1g, then 500mg daily for 3 days) and resistant cases received moxifloxacin (400 mg daily, 7 days). Test of cure (TOC) was recommended 14-28 days post-completion of antimicrobials. Adherence and adverse effects were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 383 patients (81 females/106 heterosexual males/196 men-who-have-sex-with-men) were included. Microbial cure following doxycycline-azithromycin was 95.4% (95% CI 89.7-98.0) and doxycycline-moxifloxacin was 92.0%(88.1-94.6). De novo macrolide-resistance was detected in 4.6% of cases. Combining doxycycline-azithromycin data with our prior RGT study (n=186) yielded a pooled cure of 95.7% (91.6-97.8). ParC mutations implicated in moxifloxacin failure were present in 15-22% of macrolide-resistant cases at baseline. CONCLUSION: These findings support the inclusion of moxifloxacin in resistance-guided strategies and extend the evidence for use of 2.5g azithromycin, and presumptive use of doxycycline. These data provide an evidence-base for current UK, Australian and European guidelines for the treatment of MG, an STI which is increasingly challenging to cure.

12.
Sex Transm Dis ; 46(11): 743-747, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been very limited studies of oropharyngeal gonorrhea in heterosexuals. Routine screening of oropharyngeal gonorrhea is not recommended in heterosexual contacts of gonorrhea. This study aimed to examine oropharyngeal gonorrhea positivity among heterosexuals reporting contact with a partner with gonorrhea. METHODS: At the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC), all heterosexual individuals reporting contact with sexual partners with gonorrhea are tested for genital gonorrhea. In May 2017, MSHC also included screening for oropharyngeal gonorrhea in heterosexual contacts of gonorrhea. All contacts of gonorrhea among women and heterosexual men between May 2017 and November 2018 were reviewed. Site-specific gonorrhea positivity was also calculated. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-one gonorrhea contacts (102 heterosexual men and 89 women) were reviewed. The median age was 28 (interquartile range, 24-33) years. The gonorrhea positivity in males was significantly higher at the oropharynx compared with urethra (18%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11% to 26% vs 2%; 95% CI, 0% to 7%; P < 0.001); and higher at the oropharynx compared with cervicovaginal site in women (46%; 95% CI, 35% to 57% vs 36%; 95% CI, 26% to 47%; P = 0.056). Of the 100 men who did not have genital gonorrhea, 17 (18%; 95% CI, 10% to 26%) tested positive at the oropharynx. Of the 55 women who did not have genital gonorrhea, 21 (24%; 95% CI, 15% to 34%) tested positive at the oropharynx. Infection at both the oropharynx and genital sites was not associated with sex worker status in women. Overall, 89% and 40% of gonorrhea in heterosexual men and women were only in the oropharynx, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Oropharyngeal gonorrhea testing among heterosexual contacts of gonorrhea may be indicated given a substantial proportion of gonorrhea contacts are only infected at this site.

13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(4): 719-727, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882306

RESUMO

During 2016-2017, we tested asymptomatic men who have sex with men (MSM) in Melbourne, Australia, for Mycoplasma genitalium and macrolide resistance mutations in urine and anorectal swab specimens by using PCR. We compared M. genitalium detection rates for those asymptomatic men to those for MSM with proctitis and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) over the same period. Of 1,001 asymptomatic MSM, 95 had M. genitalium; 84.2% were macrolide resistant, and 17% were co-infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis. Rectal positivity for M. genitalium was 7.0% and urine positivity was 2.7%. M. genitalium was not more commonly detected in the rectums of MSM (n = 355, 5.6%) with symptoms of proctitis over the same period but was more commonly detected in MSM (n = 1,019, 8.1%) with NGU. M. genitalium is common and predominantly macrolide-resistant in asymptomatic MSM. M. genitalium is not associated with proctitis in this population.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Coinfecção , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Avaliação de Sintomas
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3555, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837554

RESUMO

We conducted a pilot open-label randomised controlled trial of combined (oestrogen-progesterone) oral contraceptive pill (COCP)-exposure aimed to examine its effect on BV-recurrence following first-line antibiotics compared to antibiotics alone. Ninety-five women with symptomatic BV were prescribed antibiotic therapy, randomised to COCP-exposure (intervention) or current non-hormonal contraceptive practices (control) and followed monthly for six-months or until BV-recurrence. Modified intention-to-treat methods requiring either ≥1 clinical (primary/Amsel-outcome) or ≥1 microbiological (secondary/Nugent-outcome) BV-recurrence assessment were applied to determine cumulative recurrence rates. Secondary Cox regression analyses assessed factors associated with recurrence in all women. 92/95 women randomised provided baseline requirements. BV-recurrence rates were similar in women randomised to the COCP (primary/Amsel-outcome: 10/100PY, 95%CI: 6,19/100PY) compared to controls (14/100PY, 95%CI: 9, 21/100PY, p = 0.471). In secondary analyses sex with the same pre-treatment regular sexual partner (RSP; Amsel: Adjusted Hazard Ratio [AHR] = 3.13, 95%CI: 1.41, 6.94, p = 0.005; Nugent: AHR = 2.97, 95%CI: 1.49, 5.83, p = 0.002) and BV-history (Amsel: AHR = 3.03, 95%CI: 1.14, 6.28; Nugent: AHR = 2.78, 95%CI: 1.22, 6.33) were associated with increased BV-recurrence. This pilot RCT of COCP-exposure did not improve BV cure but found sex with an RSP and BV-history were associated with recurrence, although impacted by sample size and attrition. These data indicate reinfection from an untreated RSP and persistence of BV-associated bacteria are integral to the pathogenesis of recurrence and may overwhelm potential beneficial effects of hormonal contraception on the vaginal microbiota.

15.
Sex Transm Dis ; 46(2): 73-79, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited published data describing clinical features and therapeutic response in women meeting the criteria for presumptive treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease associated with Mycoplasma genitalium (MG-PID). The MG-PID has been reported to respond poorly to standard PID treatment regimens and while moxifloxacin is recommended in several treatment guidelines, published data to support its use are scant. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of women at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between 2006 and 2017, who met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for presumptive treatment of PID, and had MG detected as the sole pathogen. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of MG-PID were compared to cases of chlamydial PID (CT-PID) by multivariable analysis. Microbiological and clinical cure following moxifloxacin and standard PID treatment was determined for women with MG-PID who returned for test of cure between 14 and 120 days. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients with MG-PID were compared with 92 women with CT-PID. The MG-PID was associated with increased lower abdominal tenderness (adjusted odds ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-4.60), but a lesser vaginal polymorphonuclear response compared to CT-PID by multivariable analysis. Of the 92 women with MG-PID, 54/92 (59%) received moxifloxacin (10-14 days) and 37/54 had a test of cure between 14 and 120 days; 27/37 (73%) cases had a median of 7 days of a standard regimen containing doxycycline and metronidazole +/- azithromycin before moxifloxacin. Microbial cure following moxifloxacin was 95% (95% CI, 82-99%) and did not differ from standard therapy (P = 0.948), however clinical cure was significantly higher following moxifloxacin (89%; 95% CI, 75-97%; P = 0.004)] although adverse effects were more common. CONCLUSIONS: Women meeting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for presumptive treatment of MG-PID did not significantly differ to those with CT-PID. Moxifloxacin was associated with higher rates of symptom resolution in women with PID, and although microbial cure was high, it did not differ between regimens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/microbiologia , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comportamento Sexual , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 35(3): 219-228, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638028

RESUMO

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common yet poorly understood vaginal condition that has become a major focus of HIV transmission and immunology research. Varied terminologies are used by clinicians and researchers to describe microbial communities that reside in the female reproductive tract (FRT), which is driven, in part, by microbial genetic and metabolic complexity, evolving diagnostic and molecular techniques, and multidisciplinary perspectives of clinicians, epidemiologists, microbiologists, and immunologists who all appreciate the scientific importance of understanding mechanisms that underlie BV. This Perspectives article aims to clarify the varied terms used to describe the cervicovaginal microbiota and its "nonoptimal" state, under the overarching term of BV. The ultimate goal is to move toward language standardization in future literature that facilitates a better understanding of the impact of BV on FRT immunology and risk of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças/microbiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Vaginose Bacteriana/imunologia , Adulto , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Lactobacillus/imunologia , Microbiota/genética , Microbiota/imunologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Risco , Terminologia como Assunto , Vagina/imunologia , Vagina/microbiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209779, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-consensual removal of condoms, colloquially referred to as 'stealthing', is the removal of a condom during sex by a sexual partner when consent has been given for sex with a condom only. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine how commonly women and men who have sex with men (MSM) attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre had experienced stealthing, and analysed situational factors associated with the event. Responses were linked to demographic information extracted from patient files. RESULTS: 1189 of 2883 women (41.2%), and 1063 of 3439 MSM (30.9%) attending the clinic during the study period completed the survey. Thirty-two percent of women (95% CI: 29%,35%) and 19% of MSM (95% CI: 17%,22%) reported having ever experienced stealthing. Women who had been stealthed were more likely to be a current sex worker (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.87, 95% CI: 2.01,4.11, p <0.001). MSM who had experienced stealthing were more likely to report anxiety or depression (AOR 2.13, 95% CI: 1.25,3.60, p = 0.005). Both female and male participants who had experienced stealthing were three times less likely to consider it to be sexual assault than participants who had not experienced it (OR 0.29, 95% CI: 0.22,0.4 and OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.21,0.45 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of women and MSM attending a sexual health service reported having experienced stealthing. While further investigation is needed into the prevalence of stealthing in the general community, clinicians should be aware of this practice and consider integrating this question into their sexual health consultation. Understanding situational factors would assist in the development of preventive strategies, particularly female sex workers and MSM.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Sexual , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 37(11): 2117-2122, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109584

RESUMO

Spontaneous resolution of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) without treatment has previously been described, but a limitation of these reports is that DNA or RNA-based amplification tests used do not differentiate between viable infection and non-viable DNA. We modified a previously published CT mRNA detection (omp2) method to differentiate between viable infection and non-viable DNA in a sample of CT DNA PCR positive women. We modified a CT mRNA detection (omp2) method from reverse transcriptase qPCR (RTqPCR) to digital PCR (dPCR) and evaluated it in samples from CT DNA positive women. Firstly, CT infected McCoy B cells treated with azithromycin in vitro identified detectable mRNA levels disappeared <2 days, while DNA persisted up to 6 days. We used 55 self-collected vaginal swabs from a cohort of women diagnosed as DNA positive for chlamydia obtained pre- and 7 days of post-azithromycin treatment. Concordance with DNA results was higher for dPCR than RTqPCR (74.5% versus 65.5%). At visit 1, there was a strong linear relationship between DNA and mRNA (r = 0.9, p < 0.000); 24 samples had both mRNA and DNA detected (82.8%) and 5 had only DNA detected with a potential false positive proportion of 17.2% (95%CI: 5.8, 35.8). At visit 2, there was poor correlation between DNA and mRNA (r = 0.14, p = 0.55); eight specimens had only DNA detected (42.1%; 95%CI: 20.25, 66.50) and one had mRNA detected. DNA detection methods alone may detect non-viable DNA. Consideration should be given to further develop mRNA assays as ancillary tests to improve detection of viable chlamydia.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , RNA Bacteriano , RNA Mensageiro , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Carga Bacteriana , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Viabilidade Microbiana
19.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0190199, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recurrence following recommended treatment for bacterial vaginosis is unacceptably high. While the pathogenesis of recurrence is not well understood, recent evidence indicates re-infection from sexual partners is likely to play a role. The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and tolerability of topical and oral antimicrobial therapy in male partners of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV), and to investigate the impact of dual-partner treatment on the vaginal and penile microbiota. METHODS: Women with symptomatic BV (Nugent Score of 4-10 and ≥3 Amsel criteria) and their regular male sexual partner were recruited from Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Melbourne, Australia. Women received oral metronidazole 400mg twice daily (or intra-vaginal 2% clindamycin cream, if contraindicated) for 7-days. Male partners received oral metronidazole 400mg twice daily and 2% clindamycin cream topically to the penile skin twice daily for 7-days. Couples provided self-collected genital specimens and completed questionnaires at enrolment and then weekly for 4-weeks. Genital microbiota composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Changes in genital microbiota composition were assessed by Bray-Curtis index. Bacterial diversity was measured by the Shannon Diversity Index. RESULTS: Twenty-two couples were recruited. Sixteen couples (76%) completed all study procedures. Adherence was high; most participants took >90% of prescribed medication. Medication, and particularly topical clindamycin in males, was well tolerated. Dual-partner treatment had an immediate and sustained effect on the composition of vaginal microbiota (median Bray-Curtis score day 0 versus day 8 = 0.03 [IQR 0-0.15], day 0 vs day 28 = 0.03 [0.02-0.11]). We observed a reduction in bacterial diversity of the vaginal microbiota and a decrease in the prevalence and abundance of BV-associated bacteria following treatment. Treatment had an immediate effect on the composition of the cutaneous penile microbiota (median Bray-Curtis score day 0 vs day 8 = 0.09 [0.04-0.17]), however this was not as pronounced at day 28 (median Bray-Curtis score day 0 vs day 28 = 0.38 [0.11-0.59]). A decrease in the prevalence and abundance of BV-associated bacteria in the cutaneous penile microbiota was observed immediately following treatment at day 8. CONCLUSION: Combined oral and topical treatment of male partners of women with BV is acceptable and well tolerated. The combined acceptability and microbiological data presented in this paper supports the need for larger studies with longer follow up to characterize the sustained effect of dual partner treatment on the genital microbiota of couples and assess the impact on BV recurrence.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Pênis/microbiologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Vagina/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Projetos Piloto , Pele/microbiologia
20.
Sex Transm Infect ; 94(3): 212-215, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27686883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Literature surrounding the healthcare needs of transgender individuals is limited in Australia. This study aimed to investigate the demographic characteristics, risk behaviours and HIV/STI positivity among male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) transgender individuals attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC), Australia, between 2011 and 2014. METHOD: A retrospective cohort analysis for 133 transgender individuals was conducted based on the first visit of individuals to MSHC during the study period. Demographic characteristics, sexual behaviours and HIV/STI positivity were examined. RESULTS: The majority of transgender individuals were single or never married (74%; n=99). Almost half of the individuals (47%; n=62) had ever engaged in sex work during their lifetime. The median number of male sexual partners (MSP) reported in the last 3 months was 1 (IQR: 1-2) and with female sexual partners (FSP) was 2 (IQR: 1-4). For those who reported having sexual partners in the previous 3 months, always using condoms with MSP was 31% (n=22), and that with FSP was 18% (n=2). HIV/STI positivity during the study period was 7% (n=8) for chlamydia, 5% (n=6) for gonorrhoea, 5% (n=5) for syphilis and 1% (n=1) for HIV. Hormone use for reassignment was reported by 63% (n=90) of individuals and reassignment surgery was reported by 27% (n=29+6=35). CONCLUSIONS: Transgender individuals in this study were found to be a diverse group, with a history of sex work being a common feature. These findings indicate that transgender individuals' sexual healthcare needs differ substantially from those in other countries, including the US and Canada. Attention to differences in MTF and FTM transgender persons must be considered in healthcare settings in Australia.


Assuntos
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Trabalho Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hormônios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cirurgia de Readequação Sexual , Adulto Jovem
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