Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 79
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Tipo de estudo
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Am J Pathol ; 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539519

RESUMO

Hyalinosis is a vascular lesion affecting the renal vasculature and contributing to ageing-related renal function decline. We assessed whether arteriolar hyalinosis is caused by Klotho deficiency - a state known to induce both renal and vascular phenotypes associated with ageing. Histochemistry was used to assess hyalinosis in Klotho-/- kidneys, compared to Klotho+/- and wild-type littermates. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate vascular lesion composition and the different layers of the vascular wall. Finally, spironolactone was used to inhibit calcification in kl/kl mice and vascular lesions were characterized in the kidney. Arteriolar hyalinosis was detected in Klotho-/- mice, which was present up to the afferent arterioles. Hyalinosis was accompanied by loss of α-smooth muscle actin expression, while the endothelial lining was mostly intact. Hyalinous lesions were positive for IgM and iC3b/c/d, indicating subendothelial leakage of plasma proteins. The presence of extracellular matrix proteins suggested increased production by smooth muscle cells. Finally, in Klotho-/- mice with marked vascular calcification, treatment with spironolactone allowed for replacement of calcification by hyalinosis. Klotho deficiency potentiates both endothelial hyperpermeability and smooth muscle cell de-differentiation. Absent a calcification-inducing stimulus, smooth muscle cells assume a synthetic phenotype in response to subendothelial leakage of plasma proteins. In the kidney, this results in arteriolar hyalinosis, which contributes to the decline in renal function. Klotho may play a role in preventing ageing-related arteriolar hyalinosis.

2.
Cell Signal ; : 109414, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505229

RESUMO

Elevated transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFß1) levels are frequently observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. TGFß1 contributes to development of medial vascular calcification during hyperphosphatemia, a pathological process promoted by osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Vasorin is a transmembrane glycoprotein highly expressed in VSMCs, which is able to bind TGFß to inhibit TGFß signaling. Thus, the present study explored the effects of vasorin on osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation and calcification of VSMCs. Primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs) were treated with recombinant human TGFß1 or ß-glycerophosphate without or with recombinant human vasorin or vasorin gene silencing by siRNA. As a result, TGFß1 down-regulated vasorin mRNA expression in HAoSMCs. Vasorin supplementation inhibited TGFß1-induced pathway activation, SMAD2 phosphorylation and downstream target genes expression in HAoSMCs. Furthermore, treatment with exogenous vasorin blunted, while vasorin knockdown augmented TGFß1-induced osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of HAoSMCs. In addition, phosphate down-regulated vasorin mRNA expression in HAoSMCs. Phosphate-induced TGFß1 expression was not affected by addition of exogenous vasorin. Nonetheless, the phosphate-induced TGFß1 signaling, osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation and calcification of HAoSMCs were all blunted by vasorin. Conversely, silencing of vasorin aggravated osteoinduction in HAoSMCs during high phosphate conditions. Aortic vasorin expression was reduced in the hyperphosphatemic klotho-hypomorphic mouse model of CKD-related vascular calcification. In conclusion, vasorin, which suppresses TGFß1 signaling and protects against osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation and calcification of VSMCs, is reduced by pro-calcifying conditions. Thus, vasorin is a novel key regulator of VSMC calcification and may represent a potential therapeutic target for vascular calcification during CKD.

3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(15): 5445-5462, 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377747

RESUMO

Medial vascular calcification occurs during the aging process and is strongly accelerated by chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with vascular calcification, cardiovascular events and mortality in CKD patients. CRP is an important promoter of vascular inflammation. Inflammatory processes are critically involved in initiation and progression of vascular calcification. Thus, the present study explored a possible impact of CRP on vascular calcification. We found that CRP promoted osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation and aggravated phosphate-induced osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation and calcification of primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs). These effects were paralleled by increased cellular oxidative stress and corresponding pro-calcific downstream-signaling. Antioxidants or p38 MAPK inhibition suppressed CRP-induced osteo-/chondrogenic signaling and mineralization. Furthermore, silencing of Fc fragment of IgG receptor IIa (FCGR2A) blunted the pro-calcific effects of CRP. Vascular CRP expression was increased in the klotho-hypomorphic mouse model of aging as well as in HAoSMCs during calcifying conditions. In conclusion, CRP augments osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells through mechanisms involving FCGR2A-dependent induction of oxidative stress. Thus, systemic inflammation may actively contribute to the progression of vascular calcification.

4.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 97(10): 1465-1475, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385016

RESUMO

Compromised renal phosphate elimination in chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to hyperphosphatemia, which in turn triggers osteo-/chondrogenic signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and vascular calcification. Osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of VSMCs leads to upregulation of the transcription factors MSX2, CBFA1, and SOX9 as well as tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (ALPL) which fosters calcification by degrading the calcification inhibitor pyrophosphate. Osteo-/chondrogenic signaling in VSMCs involves the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK1. As shown in other cell types, SGK1 is a powerful stimulator of ORAI1, a Ca2+-channel accomplishing store-operated Ca2+-entry (SOCE). ORAI1 is stimulated following intracellular store depletion by the Ca2+ sensor STIM1. The present study explored whether phosphate regulates ORAI1 and/or STIM1 expression and, thus, SOCE in VSMCs. To this end, primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs) were exposed to the phosphate donor ß-glycerophosphate. Transcript levels were estimated by qRT-PCR, protein abundance by western blotting, ALPL activity by colorimetry, calcification by alizarin red S staining, cytosolic Ca2+-concentration ([Ca2+]i) by Fura-2-fluorescence, and SOCE from increase of [Ca2+]i following re-addition of extracellular Ca2+ after store depletion with thapsigargin. As a result, ß-glycerophosphate treatment increased ORAI1 and STIM1 transcript levels and protein abundance as well as SOCE in HAoSMCs. Additional treatment with ORAI1 inhibitor MRS1845 or SGK1 inhibitor GSK650394 virtually disrupted the effects of ß-glycerophosphate on SOCE. Moreover, the ß-glycerophosphate-induced MSX2, CBFA1, SOX9, and ALPL mRNA expression and activity in HAoSMCs were suppressed in the presence of the ORAI1 inhibitor and upon ORAI1 silencing. In conclusion, enhanced phosphate upregulates ORAI1 and STIM1 expression and store-operated Ca2+-entry, which participate in the orchestration of osteo-/chondrogenic signaling of VSMCs. KEY MESSAGES: • In aortic SMC, phosphate donor ß-glycerophosphate upregulates Ca2+ channel ORAI1. • In aortic SMC, ß-glycerophosphate upregulates ORAI1-activator STIM1. • In aortic SMC, ß-glycerophosphate upregulates store-operated Ca2+-entry (SOCE). • The effect of ß-glycerophosphate on SOCE is disrupted by ORAI1 inhibitor MRS1845. • Stimulation of osteogenic signaling is disrupted by MRS1845 and ORAI1 silencing.

5.
JCI Insight ; 4(10)2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092728

RESUMO

Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbimortality worldwide, promising new drug candidates are lacking. We compared the arterial high-resolution proteome of patients with advanced versus early-stage CVD to predict, from a library of small bioactive molecules, drug candidates able to reverse this disease signature. Of the approximately 4000 identified proteins, 100 proteins were upregulated and 52 were downregulated in advanced-stage CVD. Arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF3), a cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) inhibitor was predicted as the top drug able to reverse the advanced-stage CVD signature. Vascular cPLA2 expression was increased in patients with advanced-stage CVD. Treatment with AACOCF3 significantly reduced vascular calcification in a cholecalciferol-overload mouse model and inhibited osteoinductive signaling in vivo and in vitro in human aortic smooth muscle cells. In conclusion, using a systems biology approach, we have identified a potentially new compound that prevented typical vascular calcification in CVD in vivo. Apart from the clear effect of this approach in CVD, such strategy should also be able to generate novel drug candidates in other complex diseases.

6.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens ; 28(4): 289-296, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985336

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) facilitates a unique environment to strongly accelerate vascular calcification - the pathological deposition of calcium-phosphate in the vasculature. These calcifications are associated with the excessive cardiovascular mortality of CKD patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Vascular calcification is a multifaceted active process, mediated, at least partly, by vascular smooth muscle cells. These cells are able to transdifferentiate into cells with osteo/chondrogenic properties, which exert multiple effects to facilitate vascular tissue mineralization. As the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology increases, first therapeutic concepts begin to emerge. SUMMARY: This brief review provides an overview on the so far known mechanisms involved in the initiation and progression of vascular calcification in CKD.

7.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(11): 2077-2091, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887097

RESUMO

Medial vascular calcification has emerged as a putative key factor contributing to the excessive cardiovascular mortality of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hyperphosphatemia is considered a decisive determinant of vascular calcification in CKD. A critical role in initiation and progression of vascular calcification during elevated phosphate conditions is attributed to vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which are able to change their phenotype into osteo-/chondroblasts-like cells. These transdifferentiated VSMCs actively promote calcification in the medial layer of the arteries by producing a local pro-calcifying environment as well as nidus sites for precipitation of calcium and phosphate and growth of calcium phosphate crystals. Elevated extracellular phosphate induces osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of VSMCs through complex intracellular signaling pathways, which are still incompletely understood. The present review addresses critical intracellular pathways controlling osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of VSMCs and, thus, vascular calcification during hyperphosphatemia. Elucidating these pathways holds a significant promise to open novel therapeutic opportunities counteracting the progression of vascular calcification in CKD.


Assuntos
Hiperfosfatemia/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Calcificação Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Fosfatos de Cálcio/metabolismo , Transdiferenciação Celular , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Condrócitos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hiperfosfatemia/complicações , Hiperfosfatemia/genética , Hiperfosfatemia/patologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/patologia , Ligante RANK/genética , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B/genética , Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Calcificação Vascular/complicações , Calcificação Vascular/genética , Calcificação Vascular/patologia
8.
Pflugers Arch ; 471(6): 889-899, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706178

RESUMO

The serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) is a key regulator of osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation and subsequent calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The phenotypical transdifferentiation of VSMCs is associated with increased interleukin-18 (IL-18) levels and generalized inflammation. Therefore, the present study investigated the possible involvement of SGK1 in IL-18-induced vascular calcification. Experiments were performed in primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs) treated with recombinant human IL-18 protein in control or high phosphate conditions and following SGK1 knockdown by siRNA or pharmacological inhibition of SGK1, PI3K, and PDK1. As a result, IL-18 treatment increased SGK1 mRNA and protein expression in HAoSMCs. IL-18 upregulated SGK1 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was paralleled by upregulation of the mRNA expression of MSX2 and CBFA1, osteogenic transcription factors, and of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), an osteogenic enzyme, as markers of increased osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation. Phosphate treatment increased SGK1 and osteogenic markers mRNA expression as well as ALPL activity and induced calcification of HAoSMCs, all effects significantly augmented by additional treatment with IL-18. Conversely, silencing of SGK1 or cotreatment with the SGK1 inhibitor EMD638683 blunted the effects of IL-18 on osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation and calcification of HAoSMCs. The procalcific effects of IL-18 were similarly suppressed in the presence of PI3K or PDK1 inhibitors. In conclusion, SGK1 expression is upregulated by IL-18 in VSMCs and SGK1 participates in the intracellular signaling of IL-18-induced osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of VSMCs. Thus, SGK1 may serve as therapeutic target to limit the progression of medial vascular calcification during vascular inflammation.

9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(20): e010025, 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371289

RESUMO

Background Mechanical stimulation of acute ischemic myocardium by shock wave therapy ( SWT ) is known to improve cardiac function by induction of angiogenesis. However, SWT in chronic heart failure is poorly understood. We aimed to study whether mechanical stimulation upon SWT improves heart function in chronic ischemic heart failure by induction of angiogenesis and postnatal vasculogenesis and to dissect underlying mechanisms. Methods and Results SWT was applied in a mouse model of chronic myocardial ischemia. To study effects of SWT on postnatal vasculogenesis, wild-type mice received bone marrow transplantation from green fluorescence protein donor mice. Underlying mechanisms were elucidated in vitro in endothelial cells and murine aortic rings. Echocardiography and pressure/volume measurements revealed improved left ventricular ejection fraction, myocardial contractility, and diastolic function and decreased myocardial fibrosis after treatment. Concomitantly, numbers of capillaries and arterioles were increased. SWT resulted in enhanced expression of the chemoattractant stromal cell-derived factor 1 in ischemic myocardium and serum. Treatment induced recruitment of bone marrow-derived endothelial cells to the site of injury. In vitro, SWT resulted in endothelial cell proliferation, enhanced survival, and capillary sprouting. The effects were vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and heparan sulfate proteoglycan dependent. Conclusions SWT positively affects heart function in chronic ischemic heart failure by induction of angiogenesis and postnatal vasculogenesis. SWT upregulated pivotal angiogenic and vasculogenic factors in the myocardium in vivo and induced proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on endothelial cells in vitro. Mechanistically, these effects depend on vascular endothelial growth factor signaling and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. SWT is a promising treatment option for regeneration of ischemic myocardium.

10.
Physiol Rep ; 6(17): e13841, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187671

RESUMO

Gαi2 , a heterotrimeric G-protein subunit, regulates various cell functions including ion channel activity, cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Platelet-expressed Gαi2 is decisive for the extent of tissue injury following ischemia/reperfusion. However, it is not known whether Gαi2 plays a role in the regulation of platelet apoptosis, which is characterized by caspase activation, cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation to the platelet surface. Stimulators of platelet apoptosis include thrombin and collagen-related peptide (CoRP), which are further known to enhance degranulation and activation of αIIb ß3-integrin and caspases. Using FACS analysis, we examined the impact of agonist treatment on activation and apoptosis in platelets drawn from mice lacking Gαi2 and their wild-type (WT) littermates. As a result, treatment with either thrombin (0.01 U/mL) or CoRP (2 µg/mL or 5 µg/mL) significantly upregulated PS-exposure and significantly decreased forward scatter, reflecting cell size, in both genotypes. Exposure to CoRP triggered a significant increase in active caspase 3, ceramide formation, surface P-selectin, and αIIb ß3-integrin activation. These molecular alterations were significantly less pronounced in Gαi2 -deficient platelets as compared to WT platelets. In conclusion, our data highlight a previously unreported role of Gαi2 signaling in governing platelet activation and apoptosis.

11.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 132(17): 1995-1997, 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220652

RESUMO

Systemic acid-base balance is tightly controlled within a narrow range of pH. Disturbances in systemic acid-base homeostasis are associated with diverse detrimental effects. The kidney is a key regulator of acid-base balance, capable of excreting HCO3- or H+, and chronic kidney disease invariably leads to acidosis. However, the regulatory pathways underlying the fine-tuned acid-base sensing and regulatory mechanisms are still incompletely understood. In the article published recently in Clinical Science (vol 132 (16) 1779-1796), Poulson and colleagues investigated the role of adenylyl cyclase 6 (AC6) in acid-base homeostasis. They uncovered a complex role of AC6, specifically affecting acid-base balance during HCO3- load, which causes pronounced alkalosis in AC6-deficient mice. However, the phenotype of AC6-deficient mice appears much more complex, involving systemic effects associated with increased energy expenditure. These observations remind us that there is much to be learned about the intricate signaling pathways involved in renal control of acid-base balance and the complex ramifications of acid-base regulation.

12.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 43(4): 1212-1221, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hyperphosphatemia promotes medial vascular calcification, at least partly, by induction of osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The complex signaling pathways regulating this process are still incompletely understood. The present study investigated the role of cytosolic serine hydroxymethyl transferase 1 (SHMT1) in phosphate-induced vascular calcification. METHODS: Endogenous expression of SHMT1 was suppressed by silencing in primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs) followed by treatment without and with phosphate or antioxidants. RESULTS: In HAoSMCs, SHMT1 mRNA expression was up-regulated by phosphate. Silencing of SHMT1 alone was sufficient to induce osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of HAoSMCs, as shown by increased tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (ALPL) activity and osteogenic markers MSX2, CBFA1 and ALPL mRNA expression. Furthermore, phosphate-induced ALPL mRNA expression and activity as well as calcification were augmented in SHMT1 silenced HAoSMCs as compared to negative control siRNA transfected HAoSMCs. Silencing of SHMT1 decreased total antioxidant capacity and up-regulated NADH/NADPH oxidase system components NOX4 and CYBA mRNA expression in HAoSMCs, effects paralleled by increased mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase MMP2 as well as BAX/BCL2 ratio. More importantly, additional treatment with antioxidants TEMPOL or TIRON blunted the increased osteogenic markers mRNA expression in SHMT1 silenced HAoSMCs. CONCLUSION: Silencing of SHMT1 promotes osteo-/chondrogenic signaling in VSMCs, at least in part, by inducing cellular oxidative stress. It thus aggravates phosphate-induced calcification of VSMCs. The present findings support a regulatory role of SHMT1 in vascular calcification during conditions of hyperphosphatemia such as chronic kidney disease.


Assuntos
Calcinose , Glicina Hidroximetiltransferase/fisiologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Fosfatos/efeitos adversos , Aorta/citologia , Calcinose/induzido quimicamente , Células Cultivadas , Condrogênese , Inativação Gênica/fisiologia , Glicina Hidroximetiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Hiperfosfatemia , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Osteogênese , Estresse Oxidativo
13.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 503(3): 2068-2074, 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30119888

RESUMO

Medial vascular calcification is a highly regulated process involving osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Both, protein kinase B (PKB) and serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) are involved in the intracellular signaling of vascular calcification and both phosphorylate and inactivate glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). The present study explored whether PKB/SGK-dependent phosphorylation of GSK-3α/ß is involved in vascular calcification. Experiments were performed in Gsk-3α/ß double knockin mice lacking functional PKB/SGK phosphorylation sites (gsk-3KI) and corresponding wild-type mice (gsk-3WT) following high-dosed cholecalciferol treatment as well as ex vivo in aortic ring explants from gsk-3KI and gsk-3WT mice treated without and with phosphate. In gsk-3WT mice, high-dosed cholecalciferol induced vascular calcification and aortic osteo-/chondrogenic signaling, shown by increased expression of osteogenic markers Msx2, Cbfa1 and tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (Alpl). All these effects were suppressed in aortic tissue from gsk-3KI mice. Cholecalciferol decreased aortic Gsk-3α/ß phosphorylation (Ser21/9) in gsk-3WT mice, while no phosphorylation was observed in gsk-3KI mice. Moreover, the mRNA expression of type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter (Pit1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (Pai1) was increased following cholecalciferol treatment in aortic tissue of gsk-3WT mice, effects again blunted in gsk-3KI mice. In addition, phosphate treatment induced mineral deposition and osteogenic markers expression in aortic ring explants from gsk-3WT mice, effects reduced in aortic ring explants from gsk-3KI mice. In conclusion, vascular PKB/SGK-dependent phosphorylation of GSK-3α/ß contributes to the osteoinductive signaling leading to vascular calcification.

14.
Atherosclerosis ; 276: 140-147, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Preclinical experiments on animal models are essential to understand the mechanisms of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Metabolomics allows access to the metabolic perturbations associated with CVD in heart and vessels. Here we assessed which potential animal CVD model most closely mimics the serum metabolite signature of increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in humans, a clinical parameter widely accepted as a surrogate of CVD. METHODS: A targeted mass spectrometry assay was used to quantify and compare a series of blood metabolites between 1362 individuals (KORA F4 cohort) and 5 animal CVD models: ApoE-/-, Ldlr-/-, and klotho-hypomorphic mice (kl/kl) and SHRSP rats with or without salt feeding. The metabolite signatures were obtained using linear regressions adjusted for various co-variates. RESULTS: In human, increased cIMT [quartile Q4 vs. Q1] was associated with 26 metabolites (9 acylcarnitines, 2 lysophosphatidylcholines, 9 phosphatidylcholines and 6 sphingomyelins). Acylcarnitines correlated preferentially with serum glucose and creatinine. Phospholipids correlated preferentially with cholesterol (total and LDL). The human signature correlated positively and significantly with Ldlr-/- and ApoE-/- mice, while correlation with kl/kl mice and SHRP rats was either negative and non-significant. Human and Ldlr-/- mice shared 11 significant metabolites displaying the same direction of regulation: 5 phosphatidylcholines, 1 lysophosphatidylcholines, 5 sphingomyelins; ApoE-/- mice shared 10. CONCLUSIONS: The human cIMT signature was partially mimicked by Ldlr-/- and ApoE-/- mice. These animal models might help better understand the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the vessel metabolic perturbations associated with, and contributing to metabolic disorders in CVD.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29977226

RESUMO

Clinical and experimental studies indicate a possible link between high serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), phosphate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH), deficiency of active vitamin D (1,25D) and klotho with the development of pathological cardiac remodeling, i.e., left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis, but a causal link has not been established so far. Here, we investigated the cardiac phenotype in klotho hypomorphic (kl/kl) mice and Hyp mice, two mouse models of elevated FGF23 levels and klotho deficiency, but differing in parameters of mineral metabolism, by using histology, quantitative real-time PCR, immunoblot analysis, and serum and urine biochemistry. Additionally, the specific impact of calcium, phosphate, PTH, and 1,25D on hypertrophic growth of isolated neonatal rat cardiac myocytes was investigated in vitro. Kl/kl mice displayed high serum Fgf23 levels, increased relative heart weight, enhanced cross-sectional area of individual cardiac myocytes, activated cardiac Fgf23/Fgf receptor (Fgfr) 4/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) signaling, and induction of pro-hypertrophic NFAT target genes including Rcan1, bMHC, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) as compared to corresponding wild-type (WT) mice. Investigation of fibrosis-related molecules characteristic for pathological cardiac remodeling processes demonstrated ERK1/2 activation and enhanced expression of Tgf-ß1, collagen I, and Mmp2 in kl/kl mice than in WT mice. In contrast, despite significantly elevation of serum and cardiac Fgf23, and reduced renal klotho expression, Hyp mice showed no signs of pathological cardiac remodeling. Kl/kl mice showed enhanced serum calcium and phosphate levels, while Hyp mice showed unchanged serum calcium levels, lower serum phosphate, and elevated serum iPTH concentrations compared to corresponding WT mice. In cultured cardiac myocytes, treatment with both calcium or phosphate significantly upregulated endogenous Fgf23 mRNA expression and stimulated hypertrophic cell growth and expression of pro-hypertrophic genes. The treatment with PTH induced hypertrophic cell growth only, and stimulation with 1,25D had no significant effects. In conclusion, our data indicate that Hyp mice, in contrast to kl/kl mice appear to be protected from pathological cardiac remodeling during conditions of high FGF23 levels and klotho deficiency, which may be due, at least in part, to differences in mineral metabolism alterations, i.e., hypophosphatemia and lack of hypercalcemia.

16.
J Clin Invest ; 128(7): 3024-3040, 2018 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889103

RESUMO

Medial vascular calcification, associated with enhanced mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD), is fostered by osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we describe that serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) was upregulated in VSMCs under calcifying conditions. In primary human aortic VSMCs, overexpression of constitutively active SGK1S422D, but not inactive SGK1K127N, upregulated osteo-/chondrogenic marker expression and activity, effects pointing to increased osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation. SGK1S422D induced nuclear translocation and increased transcriptional activity of NF-κB. Silencing or pharmacological inhibition of IKK abrogated the osteoinductive effects of SGK1S422D. Genetic deficiency, silencing, and pharmacological inhibition of SGK1 dissipated phosphate-induced calcification and osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of VSMCs. Aortic calcification, stiffness, and osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation in mice following cholecalciferol overload were strongly reduced by genetic knockout or pharmacological inhibition of Sgk1 by EMD638683. Similarly, Sgk1 deficiency blunted vascular calcification in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice after subtotal nephrectomy. Treatment of human aortic smooth muscle cells with serum from uremic patients induced osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation, effects ameliorated by EMD638683. These observations identified SGK1 as a key regulator of vascular calcification. SGK1 promoted vascular calcification, at least partly, via NF-κB activation. Inhibition of SGK1 may, thus, reduce the burden of vascular calcification in CKD.

17.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2018: 4043726, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29849891

RESUMO

Background/Aims: As autophagy is linked to several pathological conditions, like cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, it is crucial to understand its regulatory signaling network. In this study, we investigated the role of the serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 1 (SGK1) in the control of autophagy. Methods: To measure autophagic activity in vivo, we quantified the abundance of the autophagy conjugates LC3-PE (phosphatidylethanolamine) and ATG12-ATG5 in tissue extracts of SGK1 wild-type (Sgk1+/+) and knockout (Sgk1-/-) mice that were either fed or starved for 24 h prior sacrifice. In vitro, we targeted SGK1 by RNAi using GFP-WIPI1 expressing U-2 OS cells to quantify the numbers of cells displaying newly formed autophagosomes. In parallel, these cells were also assessed with regard to LC3 and ULK1 by quantitative Western blotting. Results: The abundance of both LC3-PE (LC3-II) and ATG12-ATG5 was significantly increased in red muscle tissues of SGK1 knockout mice. This was found in particular in fed conditions, suggesting that SGK1 may keep basal autophagy under control in red muscle in vivo. Under starved conditions, significant differences were observed in SGK1-deficient white muscle tissue and, under fed conditions, also in the liver. In vitro, we found that SGK1 silencing provoked a significant increase of cells displaying WIPI1-positive autophagosomes and autophagosomal LC3 (LC3-II). Moreover, autophagic flux assessments revealed that autophagic degradation significantly increased in the absence of SGK1, strongly suggesting that SGK1 inhibits both autophagosome formation and autophagic degradation in vitro. In addition, more ULK1 protein lacking the inhibitory, TORC1-specific phosphorylation at serine 758 was detected in the absence of SGK1. Conclusions: Combined, our data strongly support the idea that SGK1 inhibits the process of autophagy. Mechanistically, our data suggest that SGK1 should act upstream of ULK1 in regulating autophagy, and we hypothesize that SGK1 contributes to the regulation of ULK1 gene expression.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Imediatamente Precoces/uso terapêutico , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/uso terapêutico , Animais , Proteínas Imediatamente Precoces/farmacologia , Camundongos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/farmacologia , Transfecção
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29780355

RESUMO

Medial vascular calcification, a major pathophysiological process associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality, involves osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In chronic kidney disease (CKD), osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of VSMCs and, thus, vascular calcification is mainly driven by hyperphosphatemia, resulting from impaired elimination of phosphate by the diseased kidneys. Hyperphosphatemia with subsequent vascular calcification is a hallmark of klotho-hypomorphic mice, which are characterized by rapid development of multiple age-related disorders and early death. In those animals, hyperphosphatemia results from unrestrained formation of 1,25(OH)2D3 with subsequent retention of calcium and phosphate. Analysis of klotho-hypomorphic mice and mice with vitamin D3 overload uncovered several pathophysiological mechanisms participating in the orchestration of vascular calcification and several therapeutic opportunities to delay or even halt vascular calcification. The present brief review addresses the beneficial effects of bicarbonate, carbonic anhydrase inhibition, magnesium supplementation, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blockage, and ammonium salts. The case is made that bicarbonate is mainly effective by decreasing intestinal phosphate absorption, and that carbonic anhydrase inhibition leads to metabolic acidosis, which counteracts calcium-phosphate precipitation and VSMC transdifferentiation. Magnesium supplementation, MR blockage and ammonium salts are mainly effective by interference with osteo-/chondrogenic signaling in VSMCs. It should be pointed out that the, by far, most efficient substances are ammonium salts, which may virtually prevent vascular calcification. Future research will probably uncover further therapeutic options and, most importantly, reveal whether these observations in mice can be translated into treatment of patients suffering from vascular calcification, such as patients with CKD.

19.
Nutr Diabetes ; 8(1): 36, 2018 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone that suppresses renal phosphate reabsorption and calcitriol (i.e., 1,25(OH)2D3) formation together with its co-receptor Klotho. FGF23- or Klotho-deficient mice suffer from rapid aging with multiple age-associated diseases, at least in part due to massive calcification. FGF23 is considered as a disease biomarker since elevated plasma levels are observed early in patients with acute and chronic disorders including renal, cardiovascular, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases. An energy-dense diet, which induces sequelae of the metabolic syndrome in humans and mice at least in part by enhancing pro-inflammatory TNFα formation, has recently been demonstrated to stimulate FGF23 production. METHODS: We investigated the relevance of TNFα for high-fat diet (HFD)-induced FGF23 formation in wild-type (tnf+/+) and TNFα-deficient (tnf-/-) mice. RESULTS: Within 3 weeks, HFD feeding resulted in a strong increase in the serum FGF23 level in tnf+/+ mice. Moreover, it caused low-grade inflammation as evident from a surge in hepatic Tnfα transcript levels. TNFα stimulated Fgf23 transcription in UMR106 osteoblast-like cells. Serum FGF23 was significantly lower in tnf-/- mice compared to tnf+/+ mice following HFD. Serum phosphate and calcitriol were not significantly affected by genotype or diet. CONCLUSIONS: We show that HFD feeding is a powerful stimulator of murine FGF23 production through TNFα formation.

20.
Horm Metab Res ; 50(5): 375-382, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723896

RESUMO

Current guidelines recommend to withdraw mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blocker treatment for at least 4 weeks when measuring the aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR) as a screening test for primary aldosteronism (PA). We aimed to evaluate the effect of MR blocker treatment on ARR and its components, plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), and direct renin concentration (DRC). First, we performed a post-hoc analysis of the effect of eplerenone on parathyroid hormone levels in primary hyperparathyroidism (EPATH) study, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 110 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). Patients were 1:1 randomly assigned to receive either 25 mg eplerenone once daily (up-titration after 4 weeks to 50 mg/day) or placebo for 8 weeks. Second, we measured the ARR in 4 PA patients from the Graz Endocrine Causes of Hypertension Study (GECOH) before and after MR blocker treatment. Ninety-seven participants completed the EPATH trial, and the mean treatment effect (95% confidence interval) for log(e)ARR was 0.08 (-0.32 to 0.48) ng/dl/µU/ml (p=0.694). The treatment effect was 0.71 (0.47 to 0.96; p<0.001) ng/dl for log(e)PAC and 0.64 (0.19 to 1.10; p=0.006) µU/ml for log(e)DRC, respectively. In the 4 PA patients, the ARR decreased from 11.24±3.58 at baseline to 2.70±1.03 (p=0.013) ng/dl/µU/ml after MR blocker treatment. In this study with limited sample size, MR blocker treatment did not significantly alter the ARR in pHPT patients but significantly reduced the ARR in PA patients. Diagnostic utility of ARR and its components for PA diagnostics under MR blocker treatment warrants further study.


Assuntos
Aldosterona/sangue , Hiperaldosteronismo , Hiperparatireoidismo , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Renina/sangue , Espironolactona/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Eplerenona , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/sangue , Hiperaldosteronismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperparatireoidismo/sangue , Hiperparatireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Espironolactona/administração & dosagem , Espironolactona/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA