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2.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003288, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have identified height as a strong risk factor for atrial fibrillation, but this finding may be limited by residual confounding. We aimed to examine genetic variation in height within the Mendelian randomization (MR) framework to determine whether height has a causal effect on risk of atrial fibrillation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In summary-level analyses, MR was performed using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies of height (GIANT/UK Biobank; 693,529 individuals) and atrial fibrillation (AFGen; 65,446 cases and 522,744 controls), finding that each 1-SD increase in genetically predicted height increased the odds of atrial fibrillation (odds ratio [OR] 1.34; 95% CI 1.29 to 1.40; p = 5 × 10-42). This result remained consistent in sensitivity analyses with MR methods that make different assumptions about the presence of pleiotropy, and when accounting for the effects of traditional cardiovascular risk factors on atrial fibrillation. Individual-level phenome-wide association studies of height and a height genetic risk score were performed among 6,567 European-ancestry participants of the Penn Medicine Biobank (median age at enrollment 63 years, interquartile range 55-72; 38% female; recruitment 2008-2015), confirming prior observational associations between height and atrial fibrillation. Individual-level MR confirmed that each 1-SD increase in height increased the odds of atrial fibrillation, including adjustment for clinical and echocardiographic confounders (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.50 to 2.40; p = 0.007). The main limitations of this study include potential bias from pleiotropic effects of genetic variants, and lack of generalizability of individual-level findings to non-European populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed evidence that height is likely a positive causal risk factor for atrial fibrillation. Further study is needed to determine whether risk prediction tools including height or anthropometric risk factors can be used to improve screening and primary prevention of atrial fibrillation, and whether biological pathways involved in height may offer new targets for treatment of atrial fibrillation.

3.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003302, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of epidemiological and genetic studies have attempted to determine whether levels of circulating lipids are associated with risks of various cancers, including breast cancer (BC). However, it remains unclear whether a causal relationship exists between lipids and BC. If alteration of lipid levels also reduced risk of BC, this could present a target for disease prevention. This study aimed to assess a potential causal relationship between genetic variants associated with plasma lipid traits (high-density lipoprotein, HDL; low-density lipoprotein, LDL; triglycerides, TGs) with risk for BC using Mendelian randomization (MR). METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data from genome-wide association studies in up to 215,551 participants from the Million Veteran Program (MVP) were used to construct genetic instruments for plasma lipid traits. The effect of these instruments on BC risk was evaluated using genetic data from the BCAC (Breast Cancer Association Consortium) based on 122,977 BC cases and 105,974 controls. Using MR, we observed that a 1-standard-deviation genetically determined increase in HDL levels is associated with an increased risk for all BCs (HDL: OR [odds ratio] = 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.13, P < 0.001). Multivariable MR analysis, which adjusted for the effects of LDL, TGs, body mass index (BMI), and age at menarche, corroborated this observation for HDL (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.03-1.10, P = 4.9 × 10-4) and also found a relationship between LDL and BC risk (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.07, P = 0.02). We did not observe a difference in these relationships when stratified by breast tumor estrogen receptor (ER) status. We repeated this analysis using genetic variants independent of the leading association at core HDL pathway genes and found that these variants were also associated with risk for BCs (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.06-1.16, P = 1.5 × 10-6), including locus-specific associations at ABCA1 (ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily A Member 1), APOE-APOC1-APOC4-APOC2 (Apolipoproteins E, C1, C4, and C2), and CETP (Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein). In addition, we found evidence that genetic variation at the ABO locus is associated with both lipid levels and BC. Through multiple statistical approaches, we minimized and tested for the confounding effects of pleiotropy and population stratification on our analysis; however, the possible existence of residual pleiotropy and stratification remains a limitation of this study. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that genetically elevated plasma HDL and LDL levels appear to be associated with increased BC risk. Future studies are required to understand the mechanism underlying this putative causal relationship, with the goal of developing potential therapeutic strategies aimed at altering the cholesterol-mediated effect on BC risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Lipídeos/análise , Lipídeos/sangue , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Colesterol/análise , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(19): 3327-3337, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833022

RESUMO

Clinical observations have linked tobacco smoking with increased type 2 diabetes risk. Mendelian randomization analysis has recently suggested smoking may be a causal risk factor for type 2 diabetes. However, this association could be mediated by additional risk factors correlated with smoking behavior, which have not been investigated. We hypothesized that body mass index (BMI) could help to explain the association between smoking and diabetes risk. First, we confirmed that genetic determinants of smoking initiation increased risk for type 2 diabetes (OR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.15-1.27, P = 1 × 10-12) and coronary artery disease (CAD; OR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.16-1.26, P = 2 × 10-20). Additionally, 2-fold increased smoking risk was positively associated with increased BMI (~0.8 kg/m2, 95% CI: 0.54-0.98 kg/m2, P = 1.8 × 10-11). Multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses showed that BMI accounted for nearly all the risk smoking exerted on type 2 diabetes (OR 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11, P = 0.03). In contrast, the independent effect of smoking on increased CAD risk persisted (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08-1.17, P = 3 × 10-8). Causal mediation analyses agreed with these estimates. Furthermore, analysis using individual-level data from the Million Veteran Program independently replicated the association of smoking behavior with CAD (OR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.12-1.37, P = 2 × 10-5), but not type 2 diabetes (OR 0.98, 95% CI: 0.89-1.08, P = 0.69), after controlling for BMI. Our findings support a model whereby genetic determinants of smoking increase type 2 diabetes risk indirectly through their relationship with obesity. Smokers should be advised to stop smoking to limit type 2 diabetes and CAD risk. Therapeutic efforts should consider pathophysiology relating smoking and obesity.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237430, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Given ongoing challenges in non-invasive non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) diagnosis, we sought to validate an ALT-based NAFLD phenotype using measures readily available in electronic health records (EHRs) and population-based studies by leveraging the clinical and genetic data in the Million Veteran Program (MVP), a multi-ethnic mega-biobank of US Veterans. METHODS: MVP participants with alanine aminotransferases (ALT) >40 units/L for men and >30 units/L for women without other causes of liver disease were compared to controls with normal ALT. Genetic variants spanning eight NAFLD risk or ALT-associated loci (LYPLAL1, GCKR, HSD17B13, TRIB1, PPP1R3B, ERLIN1, TM6SF2, PNPLA3) were tested for NAFLD associations with sensitivity analyses adjusting for metabolic risk factors and alcohol consumption. A manual EHR review assessed performance characteristics of the NAFLD phenotype with imaging and biopsy data as gold standards. Genetic associations with advanced fibrosis were explored using FIB4, NAFLD Fibrosis Score and platelet counts. RESULTS: Among 322,259 MVP participants, 19% met non-invasive criteria for NAFLD. Trans-ethnic meta-analysis replicated associations with previously reported genetic variants in all but LYPLAL1 and GCKR loci (P<6x10-3), without attenuation when adjusted for metabolic risk factors and alcohol consumption. At the previously reported LYPLAL1 locus, the established genetic variant did not appear to be associated with NAFLD, however the regional association plot showed a significant association with NAFLD 279kb downstream. In the EHR validation, the ALT-based NAFLD phenotype yielded a positive predictive value 0.89 and 0.84 for liver biopsy and abdominal imaging, respectively (inter-rater reliability (Cohen's kappa = 0.98)). HSD17B13 and PNPLA3 loci were associated with advanced fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: We validate a simple, non-invasive ALT-based NAFLD phenotype using EHR data by leveraging previously established NAFLD risk-associated genetic polymorphisms.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/genética , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/genética , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lipase/genética , Fígado/patologia , Lisofosfolipase/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etnologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Veteranos
6.
BMC Med Genomics ; 13(1): 89, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic associations link hematopoietic traits and disease end-points, but most causal variants and genes underlying these relationships are unknown. Here, we used genetic colocalization to nominate loci and genes related to shared genetic signal for hematopoietic, cardiovascular, autoimmune, neuropsychiatric, and cancer phenotypes. METHODS: Our aim was to identify colocalization sites for human traits among established genome-wide significant loci. Using genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics, we determined loci where multiple traits colocalized at a false discovery rate < 5%. We then identified quantitative trait loci among colocalization sites to highlight related genes. In addition, we used Mendelian randomization analysis to further investigate certain trait relationships genome-wide. RESULTS: Our findings recapitulated developmental hematopoietic lineage relationships, identified loci that linked traits with causal genetic relationships, and revealed novel trait associations. Out of 2706 loci with genome-wide significant signal for at least 1 blood trait, we identified 1779 unique sites (66%) with shared genetic signal for 2+ hematologic traits. We could assign some sites to specific developmental cell types during hematopoiesis based on affected traits, including those likely to impact hematopoietic progenitor cells and/or megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor cells. Through an expanded analysis of 70 human traits, we defined 2+ colocalizing traits at 2123 loci from an analysis of 9852 sites (22%) containing genome-wide significant signal for at least 1 GWAS trait. In addition to variants and genes underlying shared genetic signal between blood traits and disease phenotypes that had been previously related through Mendelian randomization studies, we defined loci and related genes underlying shared signal between eosinophil percentage and eczema. We also identified colocalizing signals in a number of clinically relevant coding mutations, including sites linking PTPN22 with Crohn's disease, NIPA with coronary artery disease and platelet trait variation, and the hemochromatosis gene HFE with altered lipid levels. Finally, we anticipate potential off-target effects on blood traits related novel therapeutic targets, including TRAIL. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide a road map for gene validation experiments and novel therapeutics related to hematopoietic development, and offer a rationale for pleiotropic interactions between hematopoietic loci and disease end-points.

7.
Diabetologia ; 63(10): 2158-2168, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705316

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to characterise the immunogenic background of insulin-dependent diabetes in a resource-poor rural African community. The study was initiated because reports of low autoantibody prevalence and phenotypic differences from European-origin cases with type 1 diabetes have raised doubts as to the role of autoimmunity in this and similar populations. METHODS: A study of consecutive, unselected cases of recently diagnosed, insulin-dependent diabetes (n = 236, ≤35 years) and control participants (n = 200) was carried out in the ethnic Amhara of rural North-West Ethiopia. We assessed their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, and measured non-fasting C-peptide, diabetes-associated autoantibodies and HLA-DRB1 alleles. Leveraging genome-wide genotyping, we performed both a principal component analysis and, given the relatively modest sample size, a provisional genome-wide association study. Type 1 diabetes genetic risk scores were calculated to compare their genetic background with known European type 1 diabetes determinants. RESULTS: Patients presented with stunted growth and low BMI, and were insulin sensitive; only 15.3% had diabetes onset at ≤15 years. C-peptide levels were low but not absent. With clinical diabetes onset at ≤15, 16-25 and 26-35 years, 86.1%, 59.7% and 50.0% were autoantibody positive, respectively. Most had autoantibodies to GAD (GADA) as a single antibody; the prevalence of positivity for autoantibodies to IA-2 (IA-2A) and ZnT8 (ZnT8A) was low in all age groups. Principal component analysis showed that the Amhara genomes were distinct from modern European and other African genomes. HLA-DRB1*03:01 (p = 0.0014) and HLA-DRB1*04 (p = 0.0001) were positively associated with this form of diabetes, while HLA-DRB1*15 was protective (p < 0.0001). The mean type 1 diabetes genetic risk score (derived from European data) was higher in patients than control participants (p = 1.60 × 10-7). Interestingly, despite the modest sample size, autoantibody-positive patients revealed evidence of association with SNPs in the well-characterised MHC region, already known to explain half of type 1 diabetes heritability in Europeans. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The majority of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes in rural North-West Ethiopia have the immunogenetic characteristics of autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Phenotypic differences between type 1 diabetes in rural North-West Ethiopia and the industrialised world remain unexplained.

8.
Nat Genet ; 52(7): 680-691, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541925

RESUMO

We investigated type 2 diabetes (T2D) genetic susceptibility via multi-ancestry meta-analysis of 228,499 cases and 1,178,783 controls in the Million Veteran Program (MVP), DIAMANTE, Biobank Japan and other studies. We report 568 associations, including 286 autosomal, 7 X-chromosomal and 25 identified in ancestry-specific analyses that were previously unreported. Transcriptome-wide association analysis detected 3,568 T2D associations with genetically predicted gene expression in 687 novel genes; of these, 54 are known to interact with FDA-approved drugs. A polygenic risk score (PRS) was strongly associated with increased risk of T2D-related retinopathy and modestly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), peripheral artery disease (PAD) and neuropathy. We investigated the genetic etiology of T2D-related vascular outcomes in the MVP and observed statistical SNP-T2D interactions at 13 variants, including coronary heart disease (CHD), CKD, PAD and neuropathy. These findings may help to identify potential therapeutic targets for T2D and genomic pathways that link T2D to vascular outcomes.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Afro-Americanos , Cromossomos Humanos X , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/genética , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco
9.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(3): e002553, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is a common cardiovascular disorder, characterized by irregular electrical activity in the upper chambers of the heart. Both chronic cardiometabolic risk factors and genetics have been shown to contribute to the development of atrial fibrillation. Birthweight has also been associated with risk of atrial fibrillation. METHODS: In the current study, we utilized a genetic approach to study the effect of birthweight on atrial fibrillation. We used 2-sample Mendelian randomization to consider the impact of birthweight on incident atrial fibrillation using summary data from the Early Growth Genetics Consortium GWAS of birthweight and a large biobank-based GWAS of atrial fibrillation. RESULTS: Using the framework of 2-sample Mendelian randomization, we found that a 1-SD genetic elevation of birthweight was associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (odds ratio, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.14-1.41]; P=1×10-5) with sensitivity analyses demonstrating robustness of this result. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings clarify the directionality of the relationship between birthweight and atrial fibrillation, supporting the growing body of evidence that intrauterine growth has a lifelong impact on cardiovascular health.

10.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(3): 1022-1031, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nearly a fifth of the world's population suffer from migraine headache, yet risk factors for this disease are poorly characterized. METHODS: To further elucidate these factors, we conducted a genetic correlation analysis using cross-trait linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression between migraine headache and 47 traits from the UK Biobank. We then tested for possible causality between these phenotypes and migraine, using Mendelian randomization. In addition, we attempted replication of our findings in an independent genome-wide association study (GWAS) when available. RESULTS: We report multiple phenotypes with genetic correlation (P < 1.06 × 10-3) with migraine, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, lipid levels, blood pressure, autoimmune and psychiatric phenotypes. In particular, we find evidence that blood pressure directly contributes to migraine and explains a previously suggested causal relationship between calcium and migraine. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest genetic correlation analysis of migraine headache to date, both in terms of migraine GWAS sample size and the number of phenotypes tested. We find that migraine has a shared genetic basis with a large number of traits, indicating pervasive pleiotropy at migraine-associated loci.

11.
Genome Biol Evol ; 12(2): 3873-3877, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011695

RESUMO

Long-term balancing selection results in a build-up of alleles at similar frequencies and a deficit of substitutions when compared with an outgroup at a locus. The previously published ß(1) statistics detect balancing selection using only polymorphism data. We now propose the ß(2) statistic which detects balancing selection using both polymorphism and substitution data. In addition, we derive the variance of all ß statistics, allowing for their standardization and thereby reducing the influence of parameters which can confound other selection tests. The standardized ß statistics outperform existing summary statistics in simulations, indicating ß is a well-powered and widely applicable approach for detecting balancing selection. We apply the ß(2) statistic to 1000 Genomes data and report two missense mutations with high ß scores in the ACSBG2 gene. An implementation of all ß statistics and their standardization are available in the BetaScan2 software package at https://github.com/ksiewert/BetaScan.

12.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 418-425, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The MHC region harbors the strongest loci for latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA); however, the strength of association is likely attenuated compared with that for childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. In this study, we recapitulate independent effects in the MHC class I region in a population with type 1 diabetes and then determine whether such conditioning in LADA yields potential genetic discriminators between the two subtypes within this region. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Chromosome 6 was imputed using SNP2HLA, with conditional analysis performed in type 1 diabetes case subjects (n = 1,985) and control subjects (n = 2,219). The same approach was applied to a LADA cohort (n = 1,428) using population-based control subjects (n = 2,850) and in a separate replication cohort (656 type 1 diabetes case, 823 LADA case, and 3,218 control subjects). RESULTS: The strongest associations in the MHC class II region (rs3957146, ß [SE] = 1.44 [0.05]), as well as the independent effect of MHC class I genes, on type 1 diabetes risk, particularly HLA-B*39 (ß [SE] = 1.36 [0.17]), were confirmed. The conditional analysis in LADA versus control subjects showed significant association in the MHC class II region (rs3957146, ß [SE] = 1.14 [0.06]); however, we did not observe significant independent effects of MHC class I alleles in LADA. CONCLUSIONS: In LADA, the independent effects of MHC class I observed in type 1 diabetes were not observed after conditioning on the leading MHC class II associations, suggesting that the MHC class I association may be a genetic discriminator between LADA and childhood-onset type 1 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Genes MHC da Classe II/genética , Genes MHC Classe I/genética , Testes Genéticos , Diabetes Autoimune Latente em Adultos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/classificação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Diabetes Autoimune Latente em Adultos/classificação , Diabetes Autoimune Latente em Adultos/diagnóstico , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(46): 23232-23242, 2019 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659023

RESUMO

PM20D1 is a candidate thermogenic enzyme in mouse fat, with its expression cold-induced and enriched in brown versus white adipocytes. Thiazolidinedione (TZD) antidiabetic drugs, which activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) nuclear receptor, are potent stimuli for adipocyte browning yet fail to induce Pm20d1 expression in mouse adipocytes. In contrast, PM20D1 is one of the most strongly TZD-induced transcripts in human adipocytes, although not in cells from all individuals. Two putative PPARγ binding sites exist near the gene's transcription start site (TSS) in human but not mouse adipocytes. The -4 kb upstream site falls in a segmental duplication of a nearly identical intronic region +2.5 kb downstream of the TSS, and this duplication occurred in the primate lineage and not in other mammals, like mice. PPARγ binding and gene activation occur via this upstream duplicated site, thus explaining the species difference. Furthermore, this functional upstream PPARγ site exhibits genetic variation among people, with 1 SNP allele disrupting a PPAR response element and giving less activation by PPARγ and TZDs. In addition to this upstream variant that determines PPARγ regulation of PM20D1 in adipocytes, distinct variants downstream of the TSS have strong effects on PM20D1 expression in human fat as well as other tissues. A haplotype of 7 tightly linked downstream SNP alleles is associated with very low PMD201 expression and correspondingly high DNA methylation at the TSS. These PM20D1 low-expression variants may account for human genetic associations in this region with obesity as well as neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Amidoidrolases/genética , Animais , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/genética , Fenótipo , Tiazolidinedionas
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(6): e195345, 2019 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173123

RESUMO

Importance: Implementation of pharmacogenetic testing to guide drug prescribing has potential to improve drug response and prevent adverse events. Robust data exist for more than 30 gene-drug pairs linking genotype to drug response phenotypes; however, it is unclear which pharmacogenetic tests, if implemented, would provide the greatest utility for a given patient population. Objectives: To project the proportion of veterans in the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) with actionable pharmacogenetic variants and evaluate how testing might be associated with prescribing decisions. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included veterans who used national VHA pharmacy services from October 1, 2011, to September 30, 2017. Data analyses began April 26, 2018, and were completed February 6, 2019. Exposures: Receipt of level A drugs based on VHA pharmacy dispensing records. Main Outcomes and Measures: Projected prevalence of actionable pharmacogenetic variants among VHA pharmacy users based on variant frequencies from the 1000 Genomes Project and veteran demographic characteristics; incident number of level A prescriptions, and proportion of new level A drug recipients projected to carry an actionable pharmacogenetic variant. Results: During the study, 7 769 359 veterans (mean [SD] age, 58.1 [17.8] years; 7 021 504 [90.4%] men) used VHA pharmacy services. It was projected that 99% of VHA pharmacy users would carry at least 1 actionable pharmacogenetic variant. Among VHA pharmacy users, 4 259 153 (54.8%) received at least 1 level A drug with 1 188 124 (15.3%) receiving 2 drugs, and 912 189 (11.7%) receiving 3 or more drugs. The most common incident prescriptions during the study were tramadol (923 671 new recipients), simvastatin (533 928 new recipients), citalopram (266 952 new recipients), and warfarin (205 177 new recipients). Gene-drug interactions projected to have substantial clinical impacts in the VHA population include the interaction of SLCO1B1 with simvastatin (1 988 956 veterans [25.6%]), CYP2D6 with tramadol (318 544 veterans [4.1%]), and CYP2C9 or VKORC1 with warfarin (7 163 349 veterans [92.2%]). Conclusions and Relevance: Clinically important pharmacogenetic variants are highly prevalent in the VHA population. Almost all veterans would carry an actionable variant, and more than half of the population had been exposed to a drug affected by these variants. These results suggest that pharmacogenetic testing has the potential to affect pharmacotherapy decisions for commonly prescribed outpatient medications for many veterans.


Assuntos
Frequência do Gene/genética , Variantes Farmacogenômicos/genética , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Saúde dos Veteranos , Estudos Transversais , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Interações Medicamentosas/genética , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Prevalência , Sinvastatina/farmacologia , Tramadol/farmacologia , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/estatística & dados numéricos , Vitamina K Epóxido Redutases/genética , Varfarina/farmacologia
15.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(5): 955-965, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753705

RESUMO

Our understanding of the human mutation rate helps us build evolutionary models and interpret patterns of genetic variation observed in human populations. Recent work indicates that the frequencies of specific polymorphism types have been elevated in Europe, and that many more, subtler signatures of global polymorphism variation may yet remain unidentified. Here, we present an analysis of the 1000 Genomes Project supported by analysis in the Simons Genome Diversity Panel, suggesting additional putative signatures of mutation rate variation across populations and the extent to which they are shaped by local sequence context. First, we compiled a list of the most significantly variable polymorphism types in a cross-continental statistical test. Clustering polymorphisms together, we observe three sets that showed distinct shared patterns of relative enrichment among ancestral populations, and we characterize each one of these putative "signatures" of polymorphism variation. For three of these signatures, we found that a single flanking base pair of sequence context was sufficient to determine the majority of enrichment or depletion of a polymorphism type. However, local genetic context up to 2-3 bp away contributes additional variability and may help to interpret a previously noted enrichment of certain polymorphism types in some East Asian groups. Moreover, considering broader local genetic context highlights patterns of polymorphism variation, which were not captured by previous approaches. Building our understanding of mutation rate in this way can help us to construct more accurate evolutionary models and better understand the mechanisms that underlie genetic change.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Taxa de Mutação , Polimorfismo Genético , Frequência do Gene , Humanos
16.
Bone ; 121: 221-226, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711642

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, a low frequency variant (rs1800012) within the first intron of the type I collagen alpha 1 (COLIA1) gene has been implicated in lower areal BMD (aBMD) and increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. This association is particularly strong in postmenopausal women, in whom net bone loss arises in the context of high bone turnover. High bone turnover also accompanies childhood linear growth; however, the role of rs1800012 in this stage of net bone accretion is less well understood. Thus, we assessed the association between rs1800012 and aBMD and bone mineral content (BMC) Z-scores for the 1/3 distal radius, lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck total body less head in the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study, a mixed-longitudinal cohort of children and adolescents (total n = 804 girls and 771 boys; n = 19 girls and 22 boys with the TT genotype). Mixed effects modeling, stratified by sex, was used to test for associations between rs1800012 and aBMD or BMC Z-scores and for pubertal stage interactions. Separately, SITAR growth modeling of aBMD and BMC in subjects with longitudinal data reduced the complex longitudinal bone accrual curves into three parameters representing a-size, b-timing, and c-velocity. We tested for differences in these three parameters by rs1800012 genotype using t-tests. Girls with the TT genotype had significantly lower aBMD and BMC Z-scores prior to puberty completion (e.g. spine aBMD-Z P-interaction = 1.0 × 10-6), but this association was attenuated post-puberty. SITAR models revealed that TT girls began pubertal bone accrual later (b-timing; e.g. total hip BMC, P = 0.03). BMC and aBMD Z-scores also increased across puberty in TT homozygous boys. Our data, along with previous findings in post-menopausal women, suggest that rs1800012 principally affects female bone density during periods of high turnover. Insights into the genetics of bone gain and loss may be masked during the relatively quiescent state in mid-adulthood, and discovery efforts should focus on early and late life.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Fraturas por Osteoporose/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fenótipo
17.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 6, 2019 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616593

RESUMO

Success along the tenure track requires more than hard work and long hours. Here, the experiences of a recently tenured professor are distilled into a collection of tips to assist others along the path.


Assuntos
Mobilidade Ocupacional , Universidades , Desempenho Profissional , Humanos , Pesquisa
18.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(12): e002239, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma lipid levels are heritable and genetically associated with risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) routinely analyze these traits independent of one another. Joint GWAS for two related phenotypes can lead to a higher powered analysis to detect variants contributing to both traits. METHODS: We performed a bivariate GWAS to discover novel loci associated with both heart disease, using a CAD meta-analysis (122 733 cases and 424 528 controls), and lipid traits, using results from the Global Lipid Genetics Consortium (188 577 subjects). RESULTS: We identified six previously unreported loci at genome-wide significance ( P<5×10-8), three which were associated with triglycerides and CAD, two which were associated with LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol and CAD, and one associated with total cholesterol and CAD. At several of our loci, the GWAS signals jointly localize with genetic variants associated with expression level changes for more than one neighboring genes, indicating that these loci may be affecting disease risk through regulatory activity. CONCLUSIONS: We discovered six novel variants individually associated with both lipids and CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Triglicerídeos/sangue
19.
Diabetes Care ; 41(11): 2396-2403, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) shares clinical features with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes; however, there is ongoing debate regarding the precise definition of LADA. Understanding its genetic basis is one potential strategy to gain insight into appropriate classification of this diabetes subtype. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed the first genome-wide association study of LADA in case subjects of European ancestry versus population control subjects (n = 2,634 vs. 5,947) and compared against both case subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 2,454 vs. 968) and type 2 diabetes (n = 2,779 vs. 10,396). RESULTS: The leading genetic signals were principally shared with type 1 diabetes, although we observed positive genetic correlations genome-wide with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Additionally, we observed a novel independent signal at the known type 1 diabetes locus harboring PFKFB3, encoding a regulator of glycolysis and insulin signaling in type 2 diabetes and inflammation and autophagy in autoimmune disease, as well as an attenuation of key type 1-associated HLA haplotype frequencies in LADA, suggesting that these are factors that distinguish childhood-onset type 1 diabetes from adult autoimmune diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the need for further investigations of the genetic factors that distinguish forms of autoimmune diabetes as well as more precise classification strategies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunológico/genética , Diabetes Autoimune Latente em Adultos/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/genética , Intolerância à Glucose/imunologia , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Diabetes Autoimune Latente em Adultos/imunologia , Diabetes Autoimune Latente em Adultos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(7): e002070, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have uncovered common variants at many loci influencing human complex traits, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). However, the contribution of the identified genes is difficult to ascertain from current efforts interrogating common variants with small effects. Thus, there is a pressing need for scalable, cost-effective strategies for uncovering causal variants, many of which may be rare and noncoding. METHODS: Here, we used a molecular inversion probe target capture approach to resequence both coding and regulatory regions at 7 HDL-C-associated loci in 797 individuals with extremely high HDL-C versus 735 low-to-normal HDL-C controls. Our targets included protein-coding regions of GALNT2, APOA5, APOC3, SCARB1, CCDC92, ZNF664, CETP, and LIPG (>9 kb) and proximate noncoding regulatory features (>42 kb). RESULTS: Exome-wide genotyping in 1114 of the 1532 participants yielded a >90% genotyping concordance rate with molecular inversion probe-identified variants in ≈90% of participants. This approach rediscovered nearly all established genome-wide association studies associations in GALNT2, CETP, and LIPG loci with significant and concordant associations with HDL-C from our phenotypic extremes design at 0.1% of the sample size of lipid genome-wide association studies. In addition, we identified a novel, rare, CETP noncoding variant enriched in the extreme high HDL-C group (P<0.01, score test). CONCLUSIONS: Our targeted resequencing of individuals at the HDL-C phenotypic extremes offers a novel, efficient, and cost-effective approach for identifying rare coding and noncoding variation differences in extreme phenotypes and supports the rationale for applying this methodology to uncover rare variation-particularly noncoding variation-underlying myriad complex traits.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Adulto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino
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