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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483981

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The effects of stroke and delirium on postdischarge cognition and patient-centered health outcomes after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) are not well characterized. Here, we assess the impact of postoperative stroke and delirium on these health outcomes in SAVR patients at 90 days. METHODS: Patients (N = 383) undergoing SAVR (41% received concomitant coronary artery bypass graft) enrolled in a randomized trial of embolic protection devices underwent serial neurologic and delirium evaluations at postoperative days 1, 3, and 7 and magnetic resonance imaging at day 7. Outcomes included 90-day functional status, neurocognitive decline from presurgical baseline, and quality of life. RESULTS: By postoperative day 7, 25 (6.6%) patients experienced clinical stroke and 103 (28.5%) manifested delirium. During index hospitalization, time to discharge was longer in patients experiencing stroke (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42-0.94; P = .02) and patients experiencing delirium (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.54-0.86; P = .001). At day 90, patients experiencing stroke were more likely to have a modified Rankin score >2 (odds ratio [OR], 5.9; 95% CI, 1.7-20.1; P = .01), depression (OR, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.6-17.3; P = .006), a lower 12-Item Short Form Survey physical health score (adjusted mean difference -3.3 ± 1.9; P = .08), and neurocognitive decline (OR, 7.8; 95% CI, 2.3-26.4; P = .001). Delirium was associated with depression (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.9-5.3; P = .08), lower 12-Item Short Form Survey physical health (adjusted mean difference -2.3 ± 1.1; P = .03), and neurocognitive decline (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Stroke and delirium occur more frequently after SAVR than is commonly recognized, and these events are associated with disability, depression, cognitive decline, and poorer quality of life at 90 days postoperatively. These findings support the need for new interventions to reduce these events and improve patient-centered outcomes.

2.
Hum Genomics ; 16(1): 8, 2022 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35246263

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disorder, which is partly heritable. Herein, we implemented a mapping of CAD-associated candidate genes by using genome-wide enhancer-promoter conformation (H3K27ac-HiChIP) and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). Enhancer-promoter anchor loops from human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC) explained 22% of the heritability for CAD. 3D enhancer-promoter genome mapping of CAD-genes in HCASMC was enriched in vascular eQTL genes. By using colocalization and Mendelian randomization analyses, we identified 58 causal candidate vascular genes including some druggable targets (MAP3K11, CAMK1D, PDGFD, IPO9 and CETP). A network analysis of causal candidate genes was enriched in TGF beta and MAPK pathways. The pharmacologic inhibition of causal candidate gene MAP3K11 in vascular SMC reduced the expression of athero-relevant genes and lowered cell migration, a cardinal process in CAD. Genes connected to enhancers are enriched in vascular eQTL and druggable genes causally associated with CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
3.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 844876, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35252408

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sutureless aortic valves are an effective option for aortic valve replacement (AVR) showing non-inferiority to standard stented aortic valves for major cardiovascular and cerebral events at 1-year. We report the 1-year hemodynamic performance of the sutureless prostheses compared with standard aortic valves, assessed by a dedicated echocardiographic core lab. METHODS: Perceval Sutureless Implant vs. Standard Aortic Valve Replacement (PERSIST-AVR) is a prospective, randomized, adaptive, open-label trial. Patients undergoing AVR, as an isolated or combined procedure, were randomized to receive a sutureless [sutureless aortic valve replacement (Su-AVR)] (n = 407) or a stented sutured [surgical AVR (SAVR)] (n = 412) bioprostheses. Site-reported echocardiographic examinations were collected at 1 year. In addition, a subgroup of the trial population (Su-AVR n = 71, SAVR = 82) had a complete echocardiographic examination independently assessed by a Core Lab (MedStar Health Research Institute, Washington D.C., USA) for the evaluation of the hemodynamic performance. RESULTS: The site-reported hemodynamic data of stented valves and sutureless valves are stable and comparable during follow-up, showing stable reduction of mean and peak pressure gradients through one-year follow-up (mean: 12.1 ± 6.2 vs. 11.5 ± 4.6 mmHg; peak: 21.3 ± 11.4 vs. 22.0 ± 8.9 mmHg). These results at 1-year are confirmed in the subgroup by the core-lab assessed echocardiogram with an average mean and peak gradient of 12.8 ± 5.7 and 21.5 ± 9.1 mmHg for Su-AVR, and 13.4 ± 7.7 and 23.0 ± 13.0 mmHg for SAVR. The valve effective orifice area was 1.3 ± 0.4 and 1.4 ± 0.4 cm2 at 1-year for Su-AVR and SAVR. These improvements are observed across all valve sizes. At 1-year evaluation, 91.3% (n = 42) of patients in Su-AVR and 82.3% in SAVR (n = 51) groups were free from paravalvular leak (PVL). The rate of mild PVL was 4.3% (n = 2) in Su-AVR and 12.9% (n = 8) in the SAVR group. A similar trend is observed for central leak occurrence in both core-lab assessed echo groups. CONCLUSION: At 1-year of follow-up of a PERSIST-AVR patient sub-group, the study showed comparable hemodynamic performance in the sutureless and the stented-valve groups, confirmed by independent echo core lab. Perceval sutureless prosthesis provides optimal sealing at the annulus with equivalent PVL and central regurgitation extent rates compared to sutured valves. Sutureless valves are therefore a reliable and essential technology within the modern therapeutic possibilities to treat aortic valve disease.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sutureless aortic valves demonstrated non-inferiority to standard stented valves for major cardiovascular and cerebral events at 1 year after aortic valve replacement. We aim to assess the factors correlating with permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) in both cohorts. METHODS: PERSIST-AVR is a prospective, randomized, open-label trial. Patients undergoing aortic valve replacement were randomized to receive a sutureless aortic valve replacement (Su-AVR) or stented sutured bioprosthesis (SAVR). Multivariable analysis was performed to identify possible independent risk factors associated with PPI. A logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the risk of PPI associated to different valve size. RESULTS: The 2 groups (Su-AVR; n = 450, SAVR n = 446) were well balanced in terms of preoperative risk factors. Early PPI rates were 10.4% in the Su-AVR group and 3.1% in the SAVR. PPI prevalence correlated with valve size XL (P = 0.0119) and preoperative conduction disturbances (P = 0.0079) in the Su-AVR group. No predictors were found in the SAVR cohort. Logistic regression analysis showed a significantly higher risk for PPI with size XL compared to each individual sutureless valve sizes [odds ratio (OR) 0.272 vs size S (95%confidence interval 0.07-0.95), 0.334 vs size M (95% CI 0,16-0; 68), 0.408 vs size L (95% CI 0,21-0.81)] but equivalent risk of PPI rates for all other combination of valve sizes. CONCLUSIONS: Su-AVR is associated with higher PPI rate as compared to SAVR. However, the increased PPI rate appears to be size-dependent with significant higher rate only for size XL. The combination of preoperative conduction disorder and a size XL can lead to a higher probability of early PPI in Su-AVR. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02673697.

5.
Can J Cardiol ; 38(3): 347-354, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of carotid stenosis (CS) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between carotid stenosis and stroke and/or transient ischemic attack (TIA) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study including patients undergoing cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass from January 2006 to March 2018 at the Québec Heart and Lung Institute. Data of patients' preoperative demographic characteristics, operative and postoperative variables were taken from a computerised database and patients' charts. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 20,241 patients were included in the study. Among those who had received preoperative carotid ultrasound, 516 (2.6% of the total population) had unilateral or bilateral CS ≥ 50%. Categorised levels of CS severity were identified as independent risk factors for postoperative stroke and/or TIA. There was an almost 3-fold increased risk of postoperative neurologic events in 80%-99% CS vs less severe 50%-79% CS (odds ratio 2.91, 95% confidence interval 1.30-6.54), suggesting that the degree of severity of CS is potentially a strong independent predictor of postoperative neurologic events. CONCLUSIONS: CS is an independent risk factor of postoperative stroke and/or TIA. This study suggests for the first time that the risk of stroke increases with the degree of severity of CS, with the greatest risk being for CS of 80%-99%. The strength of this relationship and potential causality effect should be further explored in a prospective study focusing on this population most at risk.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Estenose das Carótidas , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico , Estenose das Carótidas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Análise de Sobrevida
6.
N Engl J Med ; 386(4): 327-339, 2022 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tricuspid regurgitation is common in patients with severe degenerative mitral regurgitation. However, the evidence base is insufficient to inform a decision about whether to perform tricuspid-valve repair during mitral-valve surgery in patients who have moderate tricuspid regurgitation or less-than-moderate regurgitation with annular dilatation. METHODS: We randomly assigned 401 patients who were undergoing mitral-valve surgery for degenerative mitral regurgitation to receive a procedure with or without tricuspid annuloplasty (TA). The primary 2-year end point was a composite of reoperation for tricuspid regurgitation, progression of tricuspid regurgitation by two grades from baseline or the presence of severe tricuspid regurgitation, or death. RESULTS: Patients who underwent mitral-valve surgery plus TA had fewer primary-end-point events than those who underwent mitral-valve surgery alone (3.9% vs. 10.2%) (relative risk, 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16 to 0.86; P = 0.02). Two-year mortality was 3.2% in the surgery-plus-TA group and 4.5% in the surgery-alone group (relative risk, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.25 to 1.88). The 2-year prevalence of progression of tricuspid regurgitation was lower in the surgery-plus-TA group than in the surgery-alone group (0.6% vs. 6.1%; relative risk, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.69). The frequencies of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events, functional status, and quality of life were similar in the two groups at 2 years, although the incidence of permanent pacemaker implantation was higher in the surgery-plus-TA group than in the surgery-alone group (14.1% vs. 2.5%; rate ratio, 5.75; 95% CI, 2.27 to 14.60). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing mitral-valve surgery, those who also received TA had a lower incidence of a primary-end-point event than those who underwent mitral-valve surgery alone at 2 years, a reduction that was driven by less frequent progression to severe tricuspid regurgitation. Tricuspid repair resulted in more frequent permanent pacemaker implantation. Whether reduced progression of tricuspid regurgitation results in long-term clinical benefit can be determined only with longer follow-up. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the German Center for Cardiovascular Research; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02675244.).


Assuntos
Anuloplastia da Valva Cardíaca , Progressão da Doença , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia , Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia , Idoso , Dilatação Patológica , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/complicações , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/mortalidade , Marca-Passo Artificial , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Qualidade de Vida , Reoperação , Análise de Sobrevida , Valva Tricúspide/patologia , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/complicações , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/terapia
7.
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 34(1): 43-51, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691187

RESUMO

To evaluate survival and quality of life of octogenarians after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), up to 10 year of follow-up. Retrospective observational study on octogenarians operated for an isolated or combined SAVR in 2 centers between 2005 and 2011. Preoperative data were collected for each patient and updated regularly with last follow-up on July 2018. Early postoperative course was assessed for all patients. The primary outcome was late survival after discharge. Health-related quality of life was evaluated in all surviving patients using the Short-Form 12 questionnaire. Nine hundred and nine patients were included. The median age was 82 ± 2.6 years, with 400/909 females (44%). Isolated AVR was performed in 452/909 patients (49.7%). Early in-hospital mortality occurred in 71/909 patients (7.8%). Mean follow-up was 5.9 ± 3.4 years. Survival at 2, 5, and 10 years in the overall cohort was 89%, 70%, and 28%, respectively, without significant difference between isolated or combined AVR. Survival was significantly higher in patients with a Euroscore <8% (P< 0.0001). Multivariate analysis found that older age at surgery, diabetes, history of myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation and chronic renal failure were predictors of long-term mortality. Finally, the SF-12 physical score was 40.7 ± 10.4 and mental and emotional score was 52.7 ± 8.6 at last follow-up, which falls within the expected range for the general population (50 ± 10) with comparable age. SAVR remains an effective treatment for aortic valve disease in octogenarians, not only increasing life expectancy but also conferring a long-standing quality of life with excellent valve durability.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Am Heart J ; 246: 12-20, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the most common revascularization approach for the treatment of multi-vessel coronary artery disease. While the internal mammary artery is nearly universally used to bypass the left anterior descending coronary artery, autologous saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) are still the most frequently used conduits to grafts the remaining coronary artery targets. Long-term failure of these grafts, however, continues to limit the benefits of surgery. METHODS: The Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network trial of the safety and effectiveness of a Venous External Support (VEST) device is a randomized, multicenter, within-patient trial comparing VEST-supported versus unsupported saphenous vein grafts in patients undergoing CABG. Key inclusion criteria are the need for CABG with a planned internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending and two or more saphenous vein grafts to other coronary arteries. The primary efficacy endpoint of the trial is SVG intimal hyperplasia (plaque + media) area assessed by intravascular ultrasound at 12 months post randomization. Occluded grafts are accounted for in the analysis of the primary endpoint. Secondary confirmatory endpoints are lumen diameter uniformity and graft failure (>50% stenosis) assessed by coronary angiography at 12 months. The safety endpoints are the occurrence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events and hospitalization within 5 years from randomization. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the VEST trial will determine whether the VEST device can safely limit SVG intimal hyperplasia in patients undergoing CABG as treatment for coronary atherosclerotic disease.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Veia Safena , Angiografia Coronária , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Humanos , Veia Safena/transplante , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
9.
Can J Surg ; 64(6): E567-E577, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The decision about whether to use venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) in patients with cardiac graft dysfunction (GD) is usually made on a case-by-case basis and is guided by the team's experience. We aimed to determine the incidence of VA-ECMO use after heart transplantation (HT), to assess early- and long-term outcomes and to assess risk factors for the need for VA-ECMO and early mortality in these patients. METHODS: We included adults who underwent heart transplantation at 3 cardiac centres who met the most recent International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation definition of graft dysfunction (GD) over a 10-year period. Pre-transplant, intraoperative and posttransplant characteristics of the heart recipients as well as donor characteristics were analyzed and compared among recipients with GD treated with and without VA-ECMO. RESULTS: There were 135 patients with GD in this study, of whom 66 were treated with VA-ECMO and 69 were not. The mean follow-up averaged 81.2 months (standard deviation 36 mo, range 0-184 mo); follow-up was complete in 100% of patients. The overall incidence of GD (30%) and of VA-ECMO use increased over the study period. We did not identify any predictive pre-transplantation factors for VA-ECMO use, but patients who required VA-ECMO had higher serum lactate levels and higher inotropes doses after HT. The overall survival rates were 83% and 42% at 1 year and 78% and 40% at 5 years among patients who received only medical treatment and those who received VA-ECMO, respectively. Delayed initiation of VA-ECMO and postoperative bleeding were strongly associated with increased in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: The incidence of GD increased over the study period, and the need for VA-ECMO among patients with GD remains difficult to predict. In-hospital mortality decreased over time but remained high among patients who required VA-ECMO, especially among patients with delayed initiation of VA-ECMO.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante de Coração/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disfunção Primária do Enxerto/epidemiologia , Disfunção Primária do Enxerto/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Lancet ; 398(10316): 2075-2083, 2021 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the most common complication after cardiac surgery and is associated with extended in-hospital stay and increased adverse outcomes, including death and stroke. Pericardial effusion is common after cardiac surgery and can trigger atrial fibrillation. We tested the hypothesis that posterior left pericardiotomy, a surgical manoeuvre that drains the pericardial space into the left pleural cavity, might reduce the incidence of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. METHODS: In this adaptive, randomised, controlled trial, we recruited adult patients (aged ≥18 years) undergoing elective interventions on the coronary arteries, aortic valve, or ascending aorta, or a combination of these, performed by members of the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery from Weill Cornell Medicine at the New York Presbyterian Hospital in New York, NY, USA. Patients were eligible if they had no history of atrial fibrillation or other arrhythmias or contraindications to the experimental intervention. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1), stratified by CHA2DS2-VASc score and using a mixed-block randomisation approach (block sizes of 4, 6, and 8), to posterior left pericardiotomy or no intervention. Patients and assessors were blinded to treatment assignment. Patients were followed up until 30 days after hospital discharge. The primary outcome was the incidence of atrial fibrillation during postoperative in-hospital stay, which was assessed in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. Safety was assessed in the as-treated population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02875405, and is now complete. FINDINGS: Between Sept 18, 2017, and Aug 2, 2021, 3601 patients were screened and 420 were included and randomly assigned to the posterior left pericardiotomy group (n=212) or the no intervention group (n=208; ITT population). The median age was 61·0 years (IQR 53·0-70·0), 102 (24%) patients were female, and 318 (76%) were male, with a median CHA2DS2-VASc score of 2·0 (IQR 1·0-3·0). The two groups were balanced with respect to clinical and surgical characteristics. No patients were lost to follow-up and data completeness was 100%. Three patients in the posterior left pericardiotomy group did not receive the intervention. In the ITT population, the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation was significantly lower in the posterior left pericardiotomy group than in the no intervention group (37 [17%] of 212 vs 66 [32%] of 208 [p=0·0007]; odds ratio adjusted for the stratification variable 0·44 [95% CI 0·27-0·70; p=0·0005]). Two (1%) of 209 patients in the posterior left pericardiotomy group and one (<1%) of 211 in the no intervention group died within 30 days after hospital discharge. The incidence of postoperative pericardial effusion was lower in the posterior left pericardiotomy group than in the no intervention group (26 [12%] of 209 vs 45 [21%] of 211; relative risk 0·58 [95% CI 0·37-0·91]). Postoperative major adverse events occurred in six (3%) patients in the posterior left pericardiotomy group and in four (2%) in the no intervention group. No posterior left pericardiotomy related complications were seen. INTERPRETATION: Posterior left pericardiotomy is highly effective in reducing the incidence of atrial fibrillation after surgery on the coronary arteries, aortic valve, or ascending aorta, or a combination of these without additional risk of postoperative complications. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Derrame Pericárdico , Pericardiectomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Derrame Pericárdico/epidemiologia , Derrame Pericárdico/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(22): 2490-2499, 2021 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare, in a cohort of patients with complex coronary artery disease (CAD) and severe aortic stenosis (AS), the clinical outcomes associated with transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) (plus percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) versus surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) (plus coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG]). BACKGROUND: Patients with complex CAD were excluded from the main randomized trials comparing TAVR with SAVR, and no data exist comparing TAVR + PCI vs SAVR + CABG in such patients. METHODS: A multicenter study was conducted including consecutive patients with severe AS and complex CAD (SYNTAX [Synergy Between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery] score >22 or unprotected left main disease). A 1:1 propensity-matched analysis was performed to account for unbalanced covariates. The rates of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), including all-cause mortality, nonprocedural myocardial infarction, need for new coronary revascularization, and stroke, were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 800 patients (598 undergoing SAVR + CABG and 202 undergoing transfemoral TAVR + PCI) were included, and after propensity matching, a total of 156 pairs of patients were generated. After a median follow-up period of 3 years (interquartile range: 1-6 years), there were no significant differences between groups for MACCE (HR for transfemoral TAVR vs SAVR: 1.33; 95% CI: 0.89-1.98), all-cause mortality (HR: 1.25; 95% CI: 0.81-1.94), myocardial infarction (HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.41-3.27), and stroke (HR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.13-1.32), but there was a higher rate of new coronary revascularization in the TAVR + PCI group (HR: 5.38; 95% CI: 1.73-16.7). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe AS and complex CAD, TAVR + PCI and SAVR + CABG were associated with similar rates of MACCE after a median follow-up period of 3 years, but TAVR + PCI recipients exhibited a higher risk for repeat coronary revascularization. Future trials are warranted.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(11): e011120, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sutureless-surgical aortic valve replacement (SU-SAVR) has been proposed as a surgical alternative for treating aortic stenosis, which facilitates a minimally invasive approach. While some studies have compared the early outcomes of SU-SAVR versus transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), most data were obtained in high-risk patients and/or limited to in-hospital outcomes. This study aimed to compare in-hospital and midterm clinical outcomes following SU-SAVR and TAVR in low-risk patients with aortic stenosis. METHODS: A total of 806 consecutive low-risk (EuroSCORE II <4%) patients underwent TAVR or SU-SAVR between 2011 and 2020 in 2 centers. A 1:1 propensity score matching was performed and identified 171 pairs with similar characteristics that were included in the analysis. Baseline characteristics, in-hospital and follow-up events (defined according to Valve Academic Research Consortium-2) were collected. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were well balanced between groups, with a median EuroSCORE II of 1.9% (1.3%-2.5%) in both SU-SAVR and TAVR groups (P=0.85). There were no statistically significant differences regarding in-hospital mortality (SU-SAVR: 4.1%, TAVR: 1.8%, P=0.199) and stroke (SU-SAVR: 2.3%, TAVR: 2.9%, P=0.736), but SU-SAVR recipients exhibited higher rates of bleeding and new-onset atrial fibrillation, higher residual transvalvular gradients (P<0.001), and a lower rate of pacemaker implantation (P=0.011). After a median follow-up of 2 (1-3) years, there were no differences between groups in all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.52-1.82], P=0.936) and stroke (hazard ratio, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.32-2.15], P=0.708), but SU-SAVR was associated with a higher risk of heart failure hospitalization (hazard ratio, 5.38 [95% CI, 1.88-15.38], P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: In low-risk patients with aortic stenosis, TAVR was associated with improved in-hospital outcomes (except for conduction disturbances) and valve hemodynamics, compared with SU-SAVR. Although similar mortality and stroke rates were observed at 2-year follow-up, the risk of heart failure hospitalization was higher among SU-SAVR patients. These results may contribute to reinforce TAVR over SU-SAVR for the majority of such patients. Graphic Abstract: A graphic abstract is available for this article.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(18): 1978-1991, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, mechanisms of failure, and outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) explantation. BACKGROUND: Surgical explantation following TAVR may be required for structural valve degeneration, paravalvular leak, infection, or other reasons. However, in-depth data on indications and outcomes are lacking. METHODS: Data from a multicenter, international registry (EXPLANT-TAVR) of patients who underwent TAVR explantation were reviewed retrospectively. Explantations performed during the same admission as initial TAVR were excluded. Clinical and echocardiographic outcomes were evaluated. Median follow-up duration was 6.7 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.0-18.8 months) after TAVR explantation and was 97.7% complete at 30 days and 86.1% complete at 1 year. RESULTS: From November 2009 to September 2020, 269 patients across 42 centers with a mean age of 72.7 ± 10.4 years underwent TAVR explantation. About one quarter (25.9%) were deemed low surgical risk at index TAVR, and median Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk at TAVR explantation was 5.6% (IQR: 3.2%-9.6%). The median time to explantation was 11.5 months (IQR: 4.0-32.4 months). Balloon-expandable and self-expanding or mechanically expandable valves accounted for 50.9% and 49.1%, respectively. Indications for explantation included endocarditis (43.1%), structural valve degeneration (20.1%), paravalvular leak (18.2%), and prosthesis-patient mismatch (10.8%). Redo TAVR was not feasible because of unfavorable anatomy in 26.8% of patients. Urgent or emergency cases were performed in 53.1% of patients, aortic root replacement in 13.4%, and 54.6% had concomitant cardiac procedures. Overall survival at last follow-up was 76.1%. In-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year mortality rates were 11.9%, 13.1%, and 28.5%, respectively, and stroke rates were 5.9%, 8.6%, and 18.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The EXPLANT-TAVR registry reveals that surgical risks associated with TAVR explantation are not negligible and should be taken into consideration in the lifetime management of aortic stenosis.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Card Surg ; 36(9): 3100-3111, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34164850

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Whether patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and significant functional mitral regurgitation (MR) should undergo isolated aortic (aortic valve replacement [AVR]) or double aortic-mitral valve procedure (DVP) remains controversial. We sought to determine outcomes of such patients undergoing surgical (surgical aortic valve replacement [SAVR]) and transcatheter AVR (TAVR) or DVP, identify echocardiographic parameters predictive of significant residual MR after isolated AVR, and determine its impact on long-term survival. METHODS: Data prospectively collected from 736 consecutive patients with severe AS and significant MR undergoing AVR or DVP were retrospectively analyzed. Exclusion of organic MR, other valve diseases and concomitant CABG yielded a final population of 74 patients with significant functional MR (32 TAVR, 23 SAVR, 19 DVP). Demographics, postoperative complications and age-adjusted survival were compared. Echocardiographic predictors of significant residual MR and its impact on survival were analyzed for patients undergoing isolated AVR. RESULTS: In the isolated AVR group, MR improvement occurred in 60% of patients and was associated with a significant increase in survival compared to persistence of significant MR (p = .03). Patients with improved MR had significantly greater preoperative left ventricular dilatation (LVEDD: 49 vs. 43 mm, p = .001; LVESD: 35 vs. 29 mm, p = .03; LVEDV: 101 vs. 71 ml, p = .0003; LVESV: 57 vs. 33 ml, p = .002). There was no significant difference in perioperative mortality (5.3 vs. 4.4 vs. 9.4%, p = .85) or age-adjusted long-term survival between isolated AVR and DVP groups (76.3 vs. 84.2% survival at 2-year follow-up, p = .26), or between SAVR, TAVR and DVP groups (78.2 vs. 75.0 vs. 84.2% survival at 2-year follow-up, p = .13). CONCLUSIONS: After isolated AVR, MR improvement occurs in 60% of patients. It is predicted by greater ventricular dimensions and associated with significantly better long-term survival. Whether a staged approach with transcatheter correction of MR should be considered in patients with significant residual MR following AVR remains undetermined.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Humanos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
N Engl J Med ; 384(22): 2081-2091, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical occlusion of the left atrial appendage has been hypothesized to prevent ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation, but this has not been proved. The procedure can be performed during cardiac surgery undertaken for other reasons. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized trial involving participants with atrial fibrillation and a CHA2DS2-VASc score of at least 2 (on a scale from 0 to 9, with higher scores indicating greater risk of stroke) who were scheduled to undergo cardiac surgery for another indication. The participants were randomly assigned to undergo or not undergo occlusion of the left atrial appendage during surgery; all the participants were expected to receive usual care, including oral anticoagulation, during follow-up. The primary outcome was the occurrence of ischemic stroke (including transient ischemic attack with positive neuroimaging) or systemic embolism. The participants, research personnel, and primary care physicians (other than the surgeons) were unaware of the trial-group assignments. RESULTS: The primary analysis population included 2379 participants in the occlusion group and 2391 in the no-occlusion group, with a mean age of 71 years and a mean CHA2DS2-VASc score of 4.2. The participants were followed for a mean of 3.8 years. A total of 92.1% of the participants received the assigned procedure, and at 3 years, 76.8% of the participants continued to receive oral anticoagulation. Stroke or systemic embolism occurred in 114 participants (4.8%) in the occlusion group and in 168 (7.0%) in the no-occlusion group (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.53 to 0.85; P = 0.001). The incidence of perioperative bleeding, heart failure, or death did not differ significantly between the trial groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among participants with atrial fibrillation who had undergone cardiac surgery, most of whom continued to receive ongoing antithrombotic therapy, the risk of ischemic stroke or systemic embolism was lower with concomitant left atrial appendage occlusion performed during the surgery than without it. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; LAAOS III ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01561651.).


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial/cirurgia , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Terapia Combinada , Embolia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(2): 111-123, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent randomized trials including low-risk patients showed positive results for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) compared to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), but patients with non-tricuspid aortic valve (NTAV), severe coronary artery disease (SevCAD), and those requiring concomitant mitral/tricuspid valve (CMTV) or concomitant ascending aorta replacement (CAAR) interventions were excluded. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the presence and impact of the main clinical variables not evaluated in TAVR versus SAVR trials (NTAV, SevCAD, and CMTV or CAAR intervention) in a large series of consecutive low-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis (SAS) undergoing SAVR. METHODS: Single-center study including consecutive patients with SAS and low surgical risk (Society of Thoracic Surgeons score of <4%) undergoing SAVR. Baseline, procedural characteristics, and 30-day outcomes were prospectively collected. RESULTS: Of 6,772 patients with SAS who underwent SAVR between 2000 and 2019, 5,310 (78.4%) exhibited a low surgical risk (mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score: 1.94 ± 0.87%). Of these, 2,165 patients (40.8%) had at least 1 of the following: NTAV (n = 1,468, 27.6%), SevCAD (n = 307, 5.8%), CMTV (n = 306, 5.8%), and CAAR (n = 560, 10.5%). The 30-day mortality and stroke rates for the overall low-risk SAS cohort were 1.9% and 2.4%, respectively. The mortality rate was similar in the SevCAD (2.6%) and CAAR (2.1%) groups versus the rest of the cohort (odds ratio [OR]: 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85 to 3.75, and OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 0.88 to 3.05, respectively), lower in the NTAV group (0.9%; OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.81), and higher in the CMTV group (5.9%; OR: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.51 to 4.5). CONCLUSIONS: In a real-world setting, close to one-half of the low-risk patients with SAS undergoing SAVR exhibited at least 1 major criterion not evaluated in TAVR versus SAVR randomized trials. Clinical outcomes were better than or similar to those predicted by surgical scores in all groups but those patients requiring CMTV intervention. These results may help determine the impact of implementing the results of TAVR-SAVR trials in real practice and may inform future trials in specific groups.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 36(2): 172-178, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925191

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), there remains persistent risk of ischemic events despite secondary prevention strategies, including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering. Although REDUCE-IT recently demonstrated the benefits of icosapent ethyl (IPE) on reducing ischemic events in a broad population of primary and secondary prevention patients, its generalizability to a contemporary CABG population is not known. This article aims to ascertain the proportion of patients with a history of CABG that would be eligible for IPE treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: A review of recent literature highlights the presence of residual ischemic following CABG. Using the Québec Heart Database, a repository of contemporary Canadian cardiac patient information, was searched between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2016, to ascertain generalizability of IPE. SUMMARY: In a large (N = 12 641), contemporary, Canadian cohort of patients with a history of CABG and currently on statin therapy, 21.9, 33.6 and 26.4% would be eligible for IPE, according to REDUCE-IT, Health Canada, and Food and Drug Administration criteria, respectively. These analyses would support IPE as an adjunct to secondary prevention therapies post-CABG.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Canadá/epidemiologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Card Surg ; 35(9): 2158-2164, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Redo aortic valve replacement (AVR) might present an increased risk for predicted patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM). Aortic root enlargement (ARE) procedures can decrease PPM and improve hemodynamic parameters. It is crucial to evaluate the safety of ARE in the context of redo AVR to allow better patient selection. METHODS: This is a matched case-control study of 125 patients who underwent a redo AVR between 1991 and 2016, 21 patients had a concomitant ARE procedure. Patients were matched for age, gender, presence of coronary artery disease, renal clearance, left ventricular ejection fraction, and body mass index. The primary outcome was the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Secondary outcomes were postoperative impact of the ARE procedures on echocardiographic measurements and survival. RESULTS: Preoperatively, indexed aortic valve area (0.49 vs 0.66 cm2 /m2 ; P = .02) and left ventricle outflow tract diameters (20.1 vs 22.2 mm; P < .01) were significantly smaller in the ARE group. ARE procedures increased the aortic valve area by an average of 0.4 cm2 (pre = 0.9, post = 1.3; P < .01), with a reduction of maximum and mean transvalvular gradients of 26.6 mm Hg (pre = 56.8, post = 30.2; P < .01) and 17.1 mm Hg (pre = 31.9, post = 14.8; P < .01), respectively. Postoperatively, the occurrence of MACE was similar (ARE = 19%, no ARE = 14%; P = .68). Survival rates were similar (P = .29). CONCLUSIONS: For patients undergoing redo AVR, ARE is not associated with higher perioperative mortality and morbidity when compared with patients undergoing AVR without ARE. The fear of perioperative complications potentially associated with ARE should not be a prohibiting factor in symptomatic redo patients with small aortic annulus and predicted PPM.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Desenho de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
20.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 48(2): 180-184, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147653

RESUMO

Highly active antiretroviral therapy has led to greater life expectancy for human immun-deficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. This was a report of 11 years of follow-up of an HIV-seropositive patient who underwent heart transplantation in 2006, with emphasis on the management challenges of complex drug interactions over time.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante de Coração , Imunossupressores , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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