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1.
J Clin Pathol ; 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737190

RESUMO

AIMS: Lung cancer predictive biomarker testing is essential to select advanced-stage patients for targeted treatments and should be carried out without delays even during health emergencies, such as the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. METHODS: Fifteen molecular laboratories from seven different European countries compared 4 weeks of national lockdown to a corresponding period in 2019, in terms of tissue and/or plasma-based molecular test workload, analytical platforms adopted, number of cases undergoing programmed death-ligand1 (PD-L1) expression assessment and DNA-based molecular tests turnaround time. RESULTS: In most laboratories (80.0%), tissue-based molecular test workload was reduced. In 40.0% of laboratories (6/15), the decrease was >25%, and in one, reduction was as high as 80.0%. In this instance, a concomitant increase in liquid biopsy was reported (60.0%). Remarkably, in 33.3% of the laboratories, real-time PCR (RT-PCR)-based methodologies increased, whereas highly multiplexing assays approaches decreased. Most laboratories (88.9%) did not report significant variations in PD-L1 volume testing. CONCLUSIONS: The workload of molecular testing for patients with advanced-stage lung cancer during the lockdown showed little variations. Local strategies to overcome health emergency-related issues included the preference for RT-PCR tissue-based testing methodologies and, occasionally, for liquid biopsy.

2.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of image-guided ablation of liver and lung metastases from adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). METHODS: Patients with oligometastatic ACC (liver and lung metastases) who underwent image-guided ablation were retrospectively included in the study. Complete ablation (CA) at the first contrast-enhanced CT control, local tumor progression (LTP), local tumor progression-free survival (LTPFS), liver disease-free survival (LDFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Correlation between outcomes and other prognostic factors (including Ki67, hormonal secretion, and progression-free survival after primary tumor resection (PR-PFS)) was also analyzed. Kaplan-Meier methods, log-rank tests, and Spearman correlation models were applied. RESULTS: Thirty-two ACC metastases (4 lung and 28 liver) from 16 patients (10 females; mean age 41 years) were treated with RFA or MWA. A single major adverse event was observed (intrahepatic hematoma with subsequent right hemothorax). One patient (2 lesions) was lost to follow-up. CA was obtained in 97% (29/30). During follow-up, LTP was registered in 7/29 cases (24.1%), with a median LTPFS of 21 months (± 12.6). Metastasis size was significantly higher in case of LTP (20 mm vs. 34.5 mm; p = 0.009) and was an independent predictive factor of local tumor control with an AUC of 0.934 (p = 0.0009). Hepatic progression was observed in 66% of the cases, with a median LDFS of 25 months. Median OS was 48.6 months. PR-PFS and hormonal secretion were independent predictors of OS (p < 0.001 and p = 0.045, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Image-guided ablation achieves adequate local tumor control of ACC liver and lung metastases, providing a safe and effective treatment option in the multidisciplinary management of the oligometastatic ACC. KEY POINTS: • Image-guided ablation allows adequate local tumor control in the oligometastatic adrenocortical carcinoma setting. • After percutaneous thermal ablation, complete ablation was achieved in 29 out of 30 lesions (97%). • Lesion size together with primary resection disease-free survival and hormonal secretion play a significant role in determining outcomes.

3.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449514

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Objective response rate to mitotane in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is approximately 20%, and adverse drug effects are frequent. To date, there is no marker established that predicts treatment response. Mitotane has been shown to inhibit sterol-O-acyl transferase 1 (SOAT1), which leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell death in ACC cells. OBJECTIVE: To investigate SOAT1 protein expression as a marker of treatment response to mitotane. PATIENTS: A total of 231 ACC patients treated with single-agent mitotane as adjuvant (n = 158) or advanced disease therapy (n = 73) from 12 ENSAT centers were included. SOAT1 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. SETTING: Retrospective study at 12 ACC referral centers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Recurrence-free survival (RFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and disease-specific survival (DSS). RESULTS: Sixty-one of 135 patients (45%) with adjuvant mitotane treatment had recurrences and 45/68 patients (66%) with mitotane treatment for advanced disease had progressive disease. After multivariate adjustment for sex, age, hormone secretion, tumor stage, and Ki67 index, RFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-1.85; P = 0.82), and DSS (HR = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.58-2.93; P = 0.53) in adjuvantly treated ACC patients did not differ significantly between tumors with high and low SOAT1 expression. Similarly, in the advanced stage setting, PFS (HR = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.63-2.84; P = 0.45) and DSS (HR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.31-1.70; P = 0.45) were comparable and response rates not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: SOAT1 expression was not correlated with clinical endpoints RFS, PFS, and DSS in ACC patients with mitotane monotherapy. Other factors appear to be relevant for mitotane treatment response and ACC patient survival.

4.
Neuroendocrinology ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040954

RESUMO

AIM: To validate the prognostic role of a panel of genes previously uncovered by our group to be specific targets of miRNAs differentially expressed in lung carcinoids with aggressive pathological features. METHODS: Four genes, namely CREBP1, ACVR2B, LHX2 and KFL12, were identified in a previous study by our group using in silico analysis to be regulated by three miRNAs (miR-409-3p, miR-409-5p and miR-431-5p) which were shown to be down-regulated in aggressive lung carcinoids. These genes were analyzed using real-time PCR in a cohort of 102 lung carcinoids. Fifty high grade lung carcinomas served as control group. Their expression was correlated with the expression of miR-409-3p, miR-409-5p and miR-431-5p and with clinical pathological parameters and disease-free survival. RESULTS: The expression of all but CREBP1 gene was significantly different between lung carcinoids and high grade neuroendocrine carcinomas. ACVR2B and LHX2 were significantly inversely correlated with miR-409-3p and miR-409-5p. High levels of ACVR2B and LHX2 were significantly associated with atypical histotype, high tumor grade and higher proliferation Ki-67 index (all p<0.05). Low levels of KLF12 were significantly associated with the presence of necrosis and positive nodal status (all p<0.05). Finally, low KLF12 expression was associated with shorter disease-free survival in lung carcinoids as a whole and in atypical carcinoids, only (all p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: ACVR2B, LHX2 and KFL12 are novel potential biomarkers associated with aggressive features in lung carcinoids.

5.
Acta Cytol ; 64(1-2): 16-29, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878997

RESUMO

Pulmonary cytology is a challenging diagnostic tool, and it is usually evaluated considering medical history and radiological findings in order to reach an accurate diagnosis. Since the majority of lung cancer patients have an advanced stage at diagnosis, a cytological specimen is frequently the only material available for diagnosis and further prognostic/predictive marker determination. Several types of specimens can be obtained from the respiratory system (including sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brushing, fine needle aspiration, and pleural fluid) with different technical preclinical management protocols and different diagnostic yields. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) has a pivotal role in the determination of diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive markers. Therefore, limited cytology samples are to be used with a cell-sparing approach, to allow both diagnostic ICC evaluation as well as predictive marker assessment by ICC or specific molecular assays. In this review, we describe the most common ICC markers used for the diagnosis and prognostic/predictive characterization of thoracic tumors in different cytological specimens.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Citodiagnóstico/métodos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/métodos , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/métodos , Broncoscopia/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Escarro/metabolismo
6.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633759

RESUMO

CONTEXT: We investigated the role of Gallium 68 dodecanetetraacetic acid Tyr3-octreotide (68Ga-DOTATOC) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in detecting somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in 19 patients with metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and explored the activity of yttrium-90/lutetium-177 (90Y/177Lu-DOTATOC) peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). CASE DESCRIPTION AND METHODS: 68Ga uptake in metastatic sites was scored in terms of intensity and anatomical uptake distribution of standard uptake value (SUV). Tissue expression of SSTR2A and SSTR5 was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on primary tumors. Eight (42%) patients displayed radiometabolic uptake of any-grade intensity with focal and limited distribution. Two (11%) patients displayed strong uptake in multiple lesions and were treated with PRRT. Both obtained an overall disease control lasting 4 and 12 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ACC can express SSTRs as detected by IHC and 68Ga-DOTATOC PET. SSTRs-based PRRT may represent a potential treatment opportunity for a minority of patients with advanced ACC. This treatment modality deserves further investigation.

7.
Neuroendocrinology ; 110(1-2): 1-9, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: O6-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) is a key enzyme for the DNA repair machinery strongly associated with response to alkylating agents in different tumors. Data on its expression and related clinical impact in neuroendocrine tumors are limited to the gastro-entero-pancreatic system, with controversial results in terms of prognostic or predictive value. In lung carcinoids, although clinical efficacy of alkylating agents has been shown in small studies, very few data to date are available on MGMT status. OBJECTIVE: To assess MGMT status in lung carcinoids using multiple assays and to compare data with major clinical and pathological features. METHODS: A retrospective series of 95 lung carcinoids and 51 control cases of high-grade neuroendocrine lung carcinomas was analyzed for MGMT promoter methylation, MGMT gene expression, and MGMT protein expression using pyrosequencing, quantitative real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry, respectively. RESULTS: MGMT protein expression was inversely correlated with MGMT promoter methylation and positively with MGMT gene expression. MGMT promoter methylation progressively increased from carcinoids to high-grade carcinomas. In the carcinoid group, decreased MGMT gene expression was significantly associated with aggressive features (atypical histotype, grade G2, larger tumor size, higher T stage, and positive nodal status) but not with survival. MGMT promoter methylation was associated with lower stage and negative nodal status. CONCLUSIONS: Our study investigated MGMT status in a large series of lung carcinoids in the attempt to move forward a rational use of alkylating agents in these tumors. Interestingly, low MGMT gene expression defines a subgroup of lung carcinoids with aggressive features.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694270

RESUMO

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare disease among children. Our goal was to identify prognostic biomarkers in 48 primary ACCs from children (2.83 ± 2.3 y; mean age ± SD) by evaluating the tumor stage and outcome for an age of diagnosis before or after 3 years, and association with ACC cluster of differentiation 8 positive (CD8+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+-CTL) and Ki-67 immunohistochemical expression (IHC). Programmed death 1(PD-1)/Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemistry (IHC) in ACC was analyzed in a second, partially overlapping cohort (N = 19) with a similar mean age. All patients and control children were carriers of the germline TP53 R337H mutation. Survival without recurrence for less than 3 years and death unrelated to disease were excluded. Higher counts of CD8+-CTL were associated with patients diagnosed with ACC at a younger age and stage I, whereas a higher percentage of the Ki-67 labeling index (LI) and Weiss scores did not differentiate disease free survival (DFS) in children younger than 3 years old. No PD-1 staining was observed, whereas weakly PD-L1-positive immune cells were found in 4/19 (21%) of the ACC samples studied. A high CD8+-CTL count in ACC of surviving children is compelling evidence of an immune response against the disease. A better understanding of the options for enhancement of targets for CD8+ T cell recognition may provide insights for future pre-clinical studies.

9.
Hypertens Res ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586159

RESUMO

The available data on the natural history of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas after radical surgery are heterogeneous and discordant. The aim of our retrospective multicenter study was to find predictors of recurrence in patients with pheochromocytomas and sympathetic paragangliomas submitted to radical surgery in Piedmont (a region in northwest Italy). We collected data from 242 patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2016. Forty-two patients (17.4%) had disease recurrence. Multivariate analysis showed that genetic mutation (HR = 3.62; 95% CI 1.44-9.13; p = 0.006), younger age (HR = 0.97; 95% CI 0.95-0.99; p = 0.031) and larger tumor size (HR = 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.02; p = 0.015) were independently associated with a higher recurrence risk of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma; in pheochromocytomas, genetic mutation (HR = 3.4; 95% CI 1.00-11.48; p = 0.049), younger age (HR = 0.97; 95% CI 0.94-0.99; p = 0.02), higher tumor size (HR = 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.03; p = 0.043) and PASS value (HR = 1.16; 95% CI 1.03-1.3; p = 0.011) were associated with recurrence. Moreover, tumor size was the only predictor of metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (HR = 4.6; 95% CI 1.4-15.0; p = 0.012); tumor size (HR = 3.93; 95% CI 1.2-16.4; p = 0.026) and PASS value (HR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.06-1.53; p = 0.007) were predictors of metastatic pheochromocytoma. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the recurrence of pheochromocytoma and sympathetic paraganglioma develops more frequently in younger subjects, patients with a family history of chromaffin tissue neoplasms, mutations in susceptibility genes, larger tumors and higher values of PASS. We recommend genetic testing in all patients with PPGL and strict follow-up at least on an annual basis.

10.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(6): 681-689, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639772

RESUMO

Objective: Temozolomide has shown a significant anti-proliferative activity on adrenocortical cancer (ACC) cells in vitro. Design: On the basis of these results the drug was prescribed as second/third line in advanced metastatic ACC patients in four referral centers in Italy. Methods: We retrospectively collected anagraphic, clinical and pathological data of patients with advanced ACC with disease progression to standard chemotherapy plus mitotane who were treated with temozolomide at the dose of 200 mg/m2/die given for 5 consecutive days every 28 days. The primary endpoint was the disease control rate, defined as objective response or disease stabilization after 3 months. Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and drug safety. Results: Twenty-eight patients have been included in the study. Ten patients (35.8%, 95% CI: 17.8-53.8) obtained a disease control from temozolomide treatment. In particular, 1 patient had a complete response, 5 patients a partial response and 4 patients stable disease. Median PFS was 3.5 months and median OS was 7.2 months. Disease response was more frequently observed in patients with methylation of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene. Temozolomide therapy was well tolerated and most toxicities were limited to grade G1-2 according to WHO criteria. Conclusion: Temozolomide was found active in the management of advanced ACC patients. The disease control rate obtained, however, was short-lived and the prognosis of treated patients was poor.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Adrenocortical/tratamento farmacológico , Temozolomida/efeitos adversos , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/metabolismo , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
11.
Mod Pathol ; 32(12): 1734-1743, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273314

RESUMO

The hyalinizing trabecular adenoma/tumor is a rare and poorly characterized follicular-derived thyroid neoplasm recently shown to harbor recurrent PAX8-GLIS1 or PAX8-GLIS3 gene fusions. Here we sought to define the repertoire of genetic alterations of hyalinizing trabecular tumors, and whether PAX8-GLIS3 fusions are pathognomonic for hyalinizing trabecular tumors. A discovery series of eight hyalinizing trabecular tumors was subjected to RNA-sequencing (n = 8), whole-exome sequencing (n = 3) or targeted massively parallel sequencing (n = 5). No recurrent somatic mutations or copy number alterations were identified in hyalinizing trabecular tumor, whereas RNA-sequencing revealed the presence of a recurrent genetic rearrangement involving PAX8 (2q14.1) and GLIS3 (9p24.2) genes in all cases. In this in-frame fusion gene, which comprised exons 1-2 of PAX8 and exons 3-11 of GLIS3, GLIS3 is likely placed under the regulation of PAX8. Reverse transcription RT-PCR and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of a validation series of 26 hyalinizing trabecular tumors revealed that the PAX8-GLIS3 gene fusion was present in all hyalinizing trabecular tumors (100%). No GLIS1 rearrangements were identified. Conversely, no PAX8-GLIS3 gene fusions were detected in a cohort of 237 control thyroid neoplasms, including 15 trabecular thyroid lesions highly resembling hyalinizing trabecular tumor from a morphological standpoint, as well as trabecular/solid follicular adenomas, solid/trabecular variants of papillary carcinoma, and Hurthle cell adenomas or carcinomas. Our data provide evidence to suggest that the PAX8-GLIS3 fusion is pathognomonic for hyalinizing trabecular tumors, and that the presence of the PAX8-GLIS3 fusion in thyroid neoplasms may be used as an ancillary marker for the diagnosis of hyalinizing trabecular tumor, thereby avoiding overtreatment in case of misdiagnoses with apparently similar malignant tumors.

12.
Virchows Arch ; 475(5): 587-597, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264037

RESUMO

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting lung carcinoids represent the principal cause of ectopic Cushing syndrome, but the prevalence of ACTH expression and the association between ACTH production and Cushing syndrome in lung carcinoids have scarcely been investigated. In addition, available information on the prognostic meaning of ACTH production is controversial. The aims of this multicentric retrospective study, also including a review of the literature, were to describe the clinico-pathologic features of ACTH-producing lung carcinoids, to assess recurrence and specific survival rates, and to evaluate potential prognostic factors. To identify ACTH production in 254 unselected and radically resected lung carcinoids, we used a double approach including RT-PCR (mRNA encoding for pro-opiomelanocortin) and immunohistochemistry (antibodies against ACTH and ß-endorphin). Sixty-three (24.8%) tumors produced ACTH and 11 of them (17.4%), representing 4.3% of the whole series, were associated with Cushing syndrome. The median follow-up time was 71 months. The 10-year overall and specific survival rates were 88.5% and 98.2%, respectively, with difference neither between functioning and nonfunctioning tumors nor between ACTH-positive and ACTH-negative carcinoids. At univariate analysis, histological type (typical or atypical) and Ki67 index significantly correlated with tumor recurrence. The literature review identified 172 previously reported patients with functioning ACTH-secreting lung carcinoids, and the meta-analysis of survival showed that 92% of them were alive after a mean follow-up time of 50 months. Our results demonstrate that ACTH-producing lung carcinoids are not rare, are not always associated with Cushing syndrome, and do not represent an aggressive variant of lung carcinoid.


Assuntos
Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/metabolismo , Tumor Carcinoide/patologia , Síndrome de Cushing/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Tumor Carcinoide/metabolismo , Síndrome de Cushing/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Virchows Arch ; 475(3): 325-334, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201506

RESUMO

Spread through air spaces (STAS) have been recently recognized as a prognostic factor for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) include tumors with different morphology and a heterogeneous clinical behavior. Among atypical carcinoids (ACs), new prognostic factors able to refine prognosis are needed. In the present study, a retrospective series of 91 surgically resected ACs was investigated, in parallel with 191 control cases of typical carcinoids (TCs) and of high-grade small- and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, to assess the presence and potential prognostic role of STAS. STAS was defined by the presence of neoplastic nests or single cells in air spaces beyond the tumor edge. Clinicopathological parameters and survival were correlated by univariate and multivariate analyses. STAS was identified in 48% of ACs (44/91) compared to 20.5% of TCs and 71-88% of high-grade large- and small-cell carcinomas in the control group. In the carcinoid group, presence of STAS was significantly correlated with unfavorable parameters, such as high tumor stage, positive nodal status, high Ki-67 index, presence of angioinvasion, and with adverse disease outcome, shorter overall survival, and time to progression. In conclusion, the presence of STAS is an additional relevant adverse prognostic factor in pulmonary AC that currently has the most unpredictable outcome and the most controversial treatment strategy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Tumor Carcinoide/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Tumor Carcinoide/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 683: 267-274, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132706

RESUMO

Mesothelioma is a tumor of the serosal membranes described both in human and veterinary medicine. While in humans the relationship between mesothelioma and exposure to asbestos and some other asbestiform minerals is well known, in animals it is still difficult to establish. In this paper a case of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma probably related to asbestos exposure in a wild boar is described. At post-mortem evaluation the peritoneum, diaphragm and serosal surface of liver and kidneys showed isolated to coalescent multiple nodular lesions. Samples from diaphragm, liver and lung were collected to perform microbiological and histological investigations. To assess the presence of asbestos and/or other asbestiform minerals, SEM-EDS investigations were performed on organs and soil samples collected from the area where the wild boar lived. Microbiological investigations were negative for Mycobacterium species. Gross and histological examination were compatible with a biphasic mesothelioma, with nodules composed of epithelioid and sarcomatoid elements with high pleomorphism. Immunohistochemistry revealed only multifocal scattered positivity for WT-1 and D2-40. Asbestos fibres were detected in all samples (organs and soil) by SEM-EDS, demonstrating a potential relationship between the neoplasia and the exposure to naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). In conclusion, the results of the present study are further confirmation that wild animals, such as the boar, are suitable sentinels to indicate the risk of environmental exposure to asbestos for human populations.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/veterinária , Mesotelioma/veterinária , Animais , Asbestos/análise , Asbestose/epidemiologia , Asbestose/veterinária , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Suínos
15.
Clin Pathol ; 12: 2632010X19829259, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041430

RESUMO

Accrual of metastatic pulmonary carcinoid patients for therapy is usually relied on clinical and histologic characterization, with no role for the proliferation activity as defined by Ki-67 labelling index (LI). A total of 14 carcinoid patients with tumour primaries (TP) and 19 corresponding tumour metastases (TM) were blindly reviewed by 2 different pathologists for necrosis, mitotic count, and Ki-67 LI. Ki-67 LI outperformed histologic subtyping, mitotic count, and necrosis with good to almost excellent (0.40-0.75) inter-observer agreement. About 10% cut-off Ki-67 LI predicted survival better than histology for TP and TM for both observers. The TM patients survived differently according to diverse treatments (somatostatin analogues [SSAs], analogues plus additional treatments except for platinum; platinum-based chemotherapy) in close correlation with <10%, 10% to 20%, and >20% cut-off thresholds of Ki-67 LI, respectively. There was also a trend for an increase in Ki-67 LI in TM as compared with TP. This is the first proof of concept in which a clinical potential is preliminarily suggested for Ki-67 LI to better stratify pulmonary metastatic carcinoid patients for treatment according to a criterion of histology-independent biological aggressiveness.

16.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(9): 1651-1661, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085341

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: DNA mutational profiling showed that atypical carcinoids (ACs) share alterations with large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs). Transcriptomic studies suggested that LCNECs are composed of two subtypes, one of which shares molecular anomalies with SCLC. The missing piece of information is the transcriptomic relationship between ACs and LCNECs, as a direct comparison is lacking in the literature. METHODS: Transcriptomic and genomic alterations were investigated by next-generation sequencing in a discovery set of 14 ACs and 14 LCNECs and validated on 21 ACs and 18 LCNECs by using custom gene panels and immunohistochemistry for Men1 and Rb1. RESULTS: A 58-gene signature distinguished three transcriptional clusters. Cluster 1 comprised 20 LCNECs and one AC harboring concurrent inactivation of tumor protein p53 gene (TP53) and retinoblastoma 1 gene (RB1) in the absence of menin 1 gene (MEN1) mutations; all cases lacked Rb1 nuclear immunostaining. Cluster 3 included 20 ACs and four LCNECs lacking RB1 alterations and having frequent MEN1 (37.5%) and TP53 mutations (16.7%); menin nuclear immunostaining was lost in 75% of cases. Cluster 2 included 14 ACs and eight LCNECs showing intermediate features: TP53, 40.9%; MEN1, 22.7%; and RB1, 18.2%. Patients in cluster C1 had a shorter cancer-specific survival than did patients in C2 or C3. CONCLUSIONS: ACs and LCNECs comprise three different and clinically relevant molecular diseases, one AC-enriched group in which MEN1 inactivation plays a major role, one LCNEC-enriched group whose hallmark is RB1 inactivation, and one mixed group with intermediate molecular features. These data support a progression of malignancy that may be traced by using combined molecular and immunohistochemical analysis.

17.
J Orthop ; 16(5): 368-372, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011250

RESUMO

Anterolateral ligament (ALL) was recently described as an important structure to control the pivot-shift phenomenon in the knee. Doubts remain regarding its origin and histological properties. The purpose of this study was to identify the ALL histological structure comparing its characteristics with those of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and joint capsule. ALL was harvested in 25 knees during a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and histologically evaluated investigating for orientation of fibers, adipose tissue, presence of proprioceptors and synovial like coating. Analysis showed significant differences in several aspects between capsule and ALL; analogies were found comparing the ALL with ACL.

18.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 19(4): 281-297, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900485

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung (Lung-NETs) make up a heterogenous family of neoplasms showing neuroendocrine differentiation and encompass carcinoids and neuroendocrine carcinomas. On molecular grounds, they considered two completely distinct and separate tumor groups with no overlap of molecular alterations nor common developmental mechanisms. Areas covered: Two perspectives were evaluated based on an extensive review and rethinking of literature: (1) the current classification as an instrument to obtaining clinical and molecular insights into the context of Lung-NETs; and (2) an alternative and innovative interpretation of these tumors, proposing a tripartite separation into early aggressive primary high-grade neuroendocrine tumors (HGNET), differentiating or secondary HGNET, and indolent NET. Expert opinion: We herein provide an alternative outlook on Lung-NETs, which is a paradigm shift to current pathogenesis models and expands the understanding of these tumors.

19.
Cancer Lett ; 449: 252-262, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790678

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancer in men. Although hormone-sensitive PCa responds to androgen-deprivation, there are no effective therapies for castration-resistant PCa. It has been recently suggested that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may increase the risk of certain cancers; however, association with PCa remains elusive. Here, we evaluated the tumorigenic activities of PPIs in vitro, in PCa cell lines and epithelial cells from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in vivo, in PCa mice xenografts. PPIs increased survival and proliferation, and inhibited apoptosis in LNCaP cells. These effects were attenuated or absent in androgen-insensitive DU-145 and PC3 cells, respectively. Specifically, omeprazole (OME) promoted cell cycle progression, increased c-Myc expression, ErbB2 activity and PSA secretion. Furthermore, OME induced the phosphorylation of MAPK-ERK1/2, PI3K/Akt and GSK-3ß, and blunted the expression and activity of cellular prostatic acid phosphatase. OME also increased survival, proliferation and PSA levels in BPH cells. In vivo, OME promoted tumor growth in mice bearing LNCaP xenografts. Our results indicate that PPIs display tumorigenic activities in PCa cells, suggesting that their long-term administration in patients should be carefully monitored.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Ácida/antagonistas & inibidores , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hormônio-Dependentes/enzimologia , Omeprazol/toxicidade , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/enzimologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/toxicidade , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Fosfatase Ácida/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Neoplasias Hormônio-Dependentes/patologia , Células PC-3 , Fosforilação , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
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