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1.
J Affect Disord ; 291: 110-117, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although preliminary research has explored the possibility of optimal well-being after depression, it is unclear how rates compare to anxiety. Using Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and Panic Disorder (PD) as exemplars of anxiety, we tested the rates of optimal well-being one decade after being diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Based on reward deficits in depression, we pre-registered our primary hypothesis that optimal well-being would be more prevalent after anxiety than depression as well as tested two exploratory hypotheses. METHOD: We used data from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study, which contains a nationally representative sample across two waves, 10 years apart. To reach optimal well-being, participants needed to have no symptoms of GAD, PD, or major depressive disorder (MDD) at the 10 year follow-up and exceed cut-offs across nine dimensions of well-being. RESULTS: The results failed to support our primary hypothesis. Follow-up optimal well-being rates were highest for adults previously diagnosed with MDD (8.7%), then PD (6.1%), and finally GAD (0%). Exploratory analyses revealed optimal well-being was approximately twice as prevalent in people without anxiety or depression at baseline and provided partial support for baseline well-being predicting optimal well-being after anxiety. Results were largely replicated across different classifications of optimal well-being. LIMITATIONS: Findings are limited by the somewhat unique measurement of anxiety in the MIDUS sample as well as the relatively high rate of missing data. CONCLUSIONS: We discuss possible explanations for less prevalent optimal well-being after anxiety vs. depression and the long-term positivity deficits from GAD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtorno de Pânico , Adulto , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtorno de Pânico/epidemiologia
2.
Sports (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670086

RESUMO

Low-income Latino children are at high risk for obesity and associated comorbidities. Considering the health benefits of proper sleep habits and physical activity, understanding the patterns, or the relationship between these modifiable factors may help guide intervention strategies to improve overall health in this population. Thus, the purpose was to investigate bidirectional associations between physical activity and sleep among Latino children who are overweight/obese. Twenty-three children (boys, 70%; overweight, 17%; obese, 83%) (age 7.9 ± 1.4 years) wore activity monitors on their wrist for 6 consecutive days (comprising 138 total observations). Hierarchical linear modeling evaluated temporal associations between physical activity (light physical activity, LPA; moderate to vigorous activity, MVPA) and sleep (duration and efficiency). Although there was no association between MVPA and sleep (p > 0.05), daytime LPA was negatively associated with sleep duration that night (estimate ± SE = -10.77 ± 5.26; p = 0.04), and nighttime sleep efficiency was positively associated with LPA the next day (estimate ± SE = 13.29 ± 6.16; p = 0.03). In conclusion, increased LPA may decrease sleep duration that night, but increasing sleep efficiency may increase LPA the following day. Although further investigation is required, these results suggest that improving sleep efficiency may increase the level of physical activity reached among Latino children who are overweight/obese.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 276: 859-865, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retrospective studies have found that people with elevated social anxiety (SA) show a preference for digital/online communication, which may be due to perceptions of enhanced emotional safety. Whether these individuals prefer digital compared to face-to-face communication and experience emotional benefits naturalistically remains unclear. METHODS: We recruited college students (N = 125) and community adults (N = 303) with varying levels of SA and sampled their emotions during digital and face-to-face communication using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) (Study 1) and a day reconstruction method (DRM) (Study 2). We preregistered our hypotheses (https://osf.io/e4y7x/). RESULTS: Results from both studies showed that SA did not predict the likelihood of engaging in digital compared to face-to-face communication, and SA was associated with less positive and more negative emotions regardless of the communication medium. Study 2 showed that whether digital communication was synchronous (e.g., in real time via phone/video chat) or asynchronous (e.g., texting/instant messaging) did not impact the association between SA and emotions. LIMITATIONS: EMA and DRM methods, despite their many advantages, may be suboptimal for assessing the occurrence of digital communication behaviors relative to more objective methods (e.g., passively collecting smartphone communication data). Using event-contingent responding may have also yielded more reports of digital communication, thus strengthening our power to detect small, cross-level interaction effects. CONCLUSIONS: These results challenge beliefs that digital/online communication provides a source of emotional safety for people with elevated SA and suggests a greater need to address SA-related emotional impairments across digital communication platforms.


Assuntos
Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Emoções , Adulto , Ansiedade , Comunicação , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
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