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1.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e11115, 2019 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680489

RESUMO

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a cardiac genetic disease accompanied by structural and contractile alterations. We identified a rare c.740C>T (p.T247M) mutation in ACTN2, encoding α-actinin 2 in a HCM patient, who presented with left ventricular hypertrophy, outflow tract obstruction, and atrial fibrillation. We generated patient-derived human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and show that hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes and engineered heart tissues recapitulated several hallmarks of HCM, such as hypertrophy, myofibrillar disarray, hypercontractility, impaired relaxation, and higher myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity, and also prolonged action potential duration and enhanced L-type Ca2+ current. The L-type Ca2+ channel blocker diltiazem reduced force amplitude, relaxation, and action potential duration to a greater extent in HCM than in isogenic control. We translated our findings to patient care and showed that diltiazem application ameliorated the prolonged QTc interval in HCM-affected son and sister of the index patient. These data provide evidence for this ACTN2 mutation to be disease-causing in cardiomyocytes, guiding clinical therapy in this HCM family. This study may serve as a proof-of-principle for the use of hiPSC for personalized treatment of cardiomyopathies.

4.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 55, 2019 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of the BARD1 gene in breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) predisposition remains elusive, as published case-control investigations have revealed controversial results. We aimed to assess the role of deleterious BARD1 germline variants in BC/OC predisposition in a sample of 4920 BRCA1/2-negative female BC/OC index patients of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (GC-HBOC). METHODS: A total of 4469 female index patients with BC, 451 index patients with OC, and 2767 geographically matched female control individuals were screened for loss-of-function (LoF) mutations and potentially damaging rare missense variants in BARD1. All patients met the inclusion criteria of the GC-HBOC for germline testing and reported at least one relative with BC or OC. Additional control datasets (Exome Aggregation Consortium, ExAC; Fabulous Ladies Over Seventy, FLOSSIES) were included for the calculation of odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: We identified LoF variants in 23 of 4469 BC index patients (0.51%) and in 36 of 37,265 control individuals (0.10%), resulting in an OR of 5.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.17-9.04; P < 0.00001). BARD1-mutated BC index patients showed a significantly younger mean age at first diagnosis (AAD; 42.3 years, range 24-60 years) compared with the overall study sample (48.6 years, range 17-92 years; P = 0.00347). In the subgroup of BC index patients with an AAD < 40 years, an OR of 12.04 (95% CI = 5.78-25.08; P < 0.00001) was observed. An OR of 7.43 (95% CI = 4.26-12.98; P < 0.00001) was observed when stratified for an AAD < 50 years. LoF variants in BARD1 were not significantly associated with BC in the subgroup of index patients with an AAD ≥ 50 years (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 0.82-6.45; P = 0.11217). Overall, rare and predicted damaging BARD1 missense variants were significantly more prevalent in BC index patients compared with control individuals (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.26-3.67; P = 0.00723). Neither LoF variants nor predicted damaging rare missense variants in BARD1 were identified in 451 familial index patients with OC. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the significant association of germline LoF variants in BARD1 with early-onset BC, we suggest that intensified BC surveillance programs should be offered to women carrying pathogenic BARD1 gene variants.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic and prognostic performance of serum neurofilament light chain (NFL) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: This single-centre, prospective, longitudinal study included the following patients: 124 patients with ALS; 50 patients without neurodegenerative diseases; 44 patients with conditions included in the differential diagnosis of ALS (disease controls); 65 patients with other neurodegenerative diseases (20 with frontotemporal dementia, 20 with Alzheimer's disease, 19 with Parkinson's disease, 6 with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)). Serum NFL levels were measured using the ultrasensitive single molecule array (Simoa) technology. RESULTS: Serum NFL levels were higher in ALS in comparison to all other categories except for CJD. A cut-off level of 62 pg/mL discriminated between ALS and all other conditions with 85.5% sensitivity (95% CI 78% to 91.2%) and 81.8% specificity (95% CI 74.9% to 87.4%). Among patients with ALS, serum NFL correlated positively with disease progression rate (rs=0.336, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.506, p=0.0008), and higher levels were associated with shorter survival (p=0.0054). Serum NFL did not differ among patients in different ALS pathological stages as evaluated by diffusion-tensor imaging, and in single patients NFL levels were stable over time. CONCLUSIONS: Serum NFL is increased in ALS in comparison to other conditions and can serve as diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. We established a cut-off level for the diagnosis of ALS.

6.
Neurology ; 91(15): e1390-e1401, 2018 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of serum neurofilament light chain (NfL) with functional deterioration and brain atrophy during follow-up of patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). METHODS: Blood NfL levels from 74 patients with bvFTD, 26 with Alzheimer disease (AD), 17 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 15 healthy controls (Con) at baseline and follow-up were determined and analyzed for the diagnostic potential in relation to functional assessment (Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Sum of Boxes [CDR-SOB], frontotemporal lobar degeneration-related CDR-SOB, Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]) and brain volumetry. RESULTS: At baseline, serum NfL level correlated with CSF NfL (bvFTD r = 0.706, p < 0.0001; AD/MCI r = 0.666, p = 0.0003). Highest serum levels were observed in bvFTD (p <0 0.0001 vs Con and MCI, p = 0.0078 vs AD, respectively). Discrimination of bvFTD from Con/MCI/AD was possible with 91%/74%/74% sensitivity and 79%/74%/58% specificity. At follow-up, serum NfL increased in bvFTD and AD (p = 0.0039 and p = 0.0006, respectively). At baseline and follow-up, NfL correlated with functional scores of patients with bvFTD (e.g., CDR-SOB [baseline] r = 0.4157, p = 0.0006; [follow-up] r = 0.5629, p < 0.0001) and with atrophy in the gray and white matter of many brain regions including frontal and subcortical areas (e.g., frontal lobe: r = -0.5857, p < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval -0.7415 to -0.3701). For patients with AD/MCI, NfL correlated with the functional performance as well (e.g., CDR-SOB [baseline] r = 0.6624, p < 0.0001; [follow-up] r = 0.5659, p = 0.0003) but not with regional brain volumes. CONCLUSIONS: As serum NfL correlates with functional impairment and brain atrophy in bvFTD at different disease stages, we propose it as marker of disease severity, paving the way for its future use as outcome measure for clinical trials. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with cognitive problems, serum NfL concentration discriminates bvFTD from other forms of dementia.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of neuroinflammation in asymptomatic and symptomatic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) mutation carriers. METHODS: The neuroinflammatory markers chitotriosidase 1 (CHIT1), YKL-40 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples from asymptomatic and symptomatic ALS/FTD mutation carriers, sporadic cases and controls by ELISA. RESULTS: CSF levels of CHIT1, YKL-40 and GFAP were unaffected in asymptomatic mutation carriers (n=16). CHIT1 and YKL-40 were increased in gALS (p<0.001, n=65) whereas GFAP was not affected. Patients with ALS carrying a CHIT1 polymorphism had lower CHIT1 concentrations in CSF (-80%) whereas this polymorphism had no influence on disease severity. In gFTD (n=23), increased YKL-40 and GFAP were observed (p<0.05), whereas CHIT1 was nearly not affected. The same profile as in gALS and gFTD was observed in sALS (n=64/70) and sFTD (n=20/26). CSF and blood concentrations correlated moderately (CHIT1, r=0.51) to weak (YKL-40, r=0.30, GFAP, r=0.39). Blood concentrations of these three markers were not significantly altered in any of the groups except CHIT1 in gALS of the Ulm cohort (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that neuroinflammation is linked to the symptomatic phase of ALS/FTD and shows a similar pattern in sporadic and genetic cases. ALS and FTD are characterised by a different neuroinflammatory profile, which might be one driver of the diverse presentations of the ALS/FTD syndrome.

8.
Med Genet ; 30(2): 252-258, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220791

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most frequent motor neuron disease, affecting the upper and/or lower motor neurons. However, extramotor symptoms can also occur; cognitive deficits are present in more than 40% of patients and 5-8% of ALS patients develop frontotemporal dementia. There is no effective treatment for ALS and median survival is 2-3 years after onset. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with monogenic forms as well as complex genetic etiology. Currently, complex genetic risk factors are of minor interest for routine diagnostic testing or counseling of patients and their families. By contrast, a monogenic cause can be identified in 70% of familial and 10% of sporadic ALS cases. The most frequent genetic cause is a noncoding hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene. In recent years, high-throughput sequencing technologies have helped to identify additional monogenic and complex risk factors of ALS. Genetic counseling should be offered to all ALS patients and their first- and possibly second-degree relatives, and should include information about the possibilities and limitations of genetic testing. Routine diagnostic testing should at least encompass the most frequently mutated disease genes (C9orf72, SOD1, TDP-43, FUS). Targeted sequencing approaches including further disease genes may be applied. Caution is warranted as the C9orf72 repeat expansion cannot be detected by routine sequencing technologies and testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is failure-prone. Predictive testing is possible in families in which a genetic cause has been identified, but the limitations of genetic testing (i. e., the problems of incomplete penetrance, variable expressivity and possible oligogenic inheritance) have to be explained to the families.

9.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197329, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29746584

RESUMO

Information on circulating miRNAs in frontotemporal lobar degeneration is very limited and conflicting results have complicated an interpretation in Alzheimer's disease thus far. In the present study we I) collected samples from multiple clinical centers across Germany, II) defined 3 homogenous patient groups with high sample sizes (bvFTD n = 48, AD n = 48 and cognitively healthy controls n = 44), III) compared expression levels in both CSF and serum samples and IV) detected a limited set of miRNAs by using a MIQE compliant protocol based on SYBR-green miRCURY assays that have proven reliable to generate reproducible results. We included several quality controls that identified and reduced technical variation to increase the reliability of our data. We showed that the expression levels of circulating miRNAs measured in CSF did not correlate with levels in serum. Using cluster analysis we found expression pattern in serum that, in part, reflects the genomic organization and affiliation to a specific miRNA family and that were specifically altered in bvFTD, AD, and control groups. Applying factor analysis we identified a 3-factor model characterized by a miRNA signature that explained 80% of the variance classifying healthy controls with 97%, bvFTD with 77% and AD with 72% accuracy. MANOVA confirmed signals like miR-320a and miR-26b-5p at BH corrected significance that contributed most to discriminate bvFTD cases with 96% sensitivity and 90% specificity and AD cases with 89% sensitivity and specificity compared to healthy controls, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed that miRNAs from the 3-factor model also correlated with levels of protein biomarker amyloid-beta1-42 and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain, indicating their potential role in the monitoring of progressive neuronal degeneration. Our data show that miRNAs can be reproducibly measured in serum and CSF without pre-amplification and that serum includes higher expressed signals that demonstrate an overall better ability to classify bvFTD, AD and healthy controls compared to signals detected in CSF.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Demência Frontotemporal/sangue , Demência Frontotemporal/líquido cefalorraquidiano , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Idoso , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Análise por Conglomerados , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 89(8): 817-827, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29650794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recent advances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) genetics have revealed that mutations in any of more than 25 genes can cause ALS, mostly as an autosomal-dominant Mendelian trait. Detailed knowledge about the genetic architecture of ALS in a specific population will be important for genetic counselling but also for genotype-specific therapeutic interventions. METHODS: Here we combined fragment length analysis, repeat-primed PCR, Southern blotting, Sanger sequencing and whole exome sequencing to obtain a comprehensive profile of genetic variants in ALS disease genes in 301 German pedigrees with familial ALS. We report C9orf72 mutations as well as variants in consensus splice sites and non-synonymous variants in protein-coding regions of ALS genes. We furthermore estimate their pathogenicity by taking into account type and frequency of the respective variant as well as segregation within the families. RESULTS: 49% of our German ALS families carried a likely pathogenic variant in at least one of the earlier identified ALS genes. In 45% of the ALS families, likely pathogenic variants were detected in C9orf72, SOD1, FUS, TARDBP or TBK1, whereas the relative contribution of the other ALS genes in this familial ALS cohort was 4%. We identified several previously unreported rare variants and demonstrated the absence of likely pathogenic variants in some of the recently described ALS disease genes. CONCLUSIONS: We here present a comprehensive genetic characterisation of German familial ALS. The present findings are of importance for genetic counselling in clinical practice, for molecular research and for the design of diagnostic gene panels or genotype-specific therapeutic interventions in Europe.

11.
Cancer Med ; 7(4): 1349-1358, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522266

RESUMO

The prevalence of germ line mutations in non-BRCA1/2 genes associated with hereditary breast cancer (BC) is low, and the role of some of these genes in BC predisposition and pathogenesis is conflicting. In this study, 5589 consecutive BC index patients negative for pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutations and 2189 female controls were screened for germ line mutations in eight cancer predisposition genes (ATM, CDH1, CHEK2, NBN, PALB2, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53). All patients met the inclusion criteria of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer for germ line testing. The highest mutation prevalence was observed in the CHEK2 gene (2.5%), followed by ATM (1.5%) and PALB2 (1.2%). The mutation prevalence in each of the remaining genes was 0.3% or lower. Using Exome Aggregation Consortium control data, we confirm significant associations of heterozygous germ line mutations with BC for ATM (OR: 3.63, 95%CI: 2.67-4.94), CDH1 (OR: 17.04, 95%CI: 3.54-82), CHEK2 (OR: 2.93, 95%CI: 2.29-3.75), PALB2 (OR: 9.53, 95%CI: 6.25-14.51), and TP53 (OR: 7.30, 95%CI: 1.22-43.68). NBN germ line mutations were not significantly associated with BC risk (OR:1.39, 95%CI: 0.73-2.64). Due to their low mutation prevalence, the RAD51C and RAD51D genes require further investigation. Compared with control datasets, predicted damaging rare missense variants were significantly more prevalent in CHEK2 and TP53 in BC index patients. Compared with the overall sample, only TP53 mutation carriers show a significantly younger age at first BC diagnosis. We demonstrate a significant association of deleterious variants in the CHEK2, PALB2, and TP53 genes with bilateral BC. Both, ATM and CHEK2, were negatively associated with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumor phenotypes. A particularly high CHEK2 mutation prevalence (5.2%) was observed in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive tumors.

12.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 10: 45, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599716

RESUMO

Background: The neuropathology of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) due to a C9orf72 mutation is characterized by two distinct types of characteristic protein depositions containing either TDP-43 or so-called dipeptide repeat proteins that extend beyond frontal and temporal regions. Thalamus and cerebellum seem to be preferentially affected by the dipeptide repeat pathology unique to C9orf72 mutation carriers. Objective: This study aimed to determine if mutation carriers showed an enhanced degree of thalamic and cerebellar atrophy compared to sporadic patients or healthy controls. Methods: Atlas-based volumetry was performed in 13 affected C9orf72 FTD, ALS and FTD/ALS patients, 45 sporadic FTD and FTD/ALS patients and 19 healthy controls. Volumes and laterality indices showing significant differences between mutation carriers and sporadic patients were subjected to binary logistic regression to determine the best predictor of mutation carrier status. Results: Compared to sporadic patients, mutation carriers showed a significant volume reduction of the thalamus, which was most striking in the occipital, temporal and prefrontal subregion of the thalamus. Disease severity measured by mini mental status examination (MMSE) and FTD modified Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Sum of Boxes (FTD-CDR-SOB) significantly correlated with volume reduction in the aforementioned thalamic subregions. No significant atrophy of cerebellar regions could be detected. A logistic regression model using the volume of the prefrontal and the laterality index of the occipital subregion of the thalamus as predictor variables resulted in an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.88 while a model using overall thalamic volume still resulted in an AUC of 0.82. Conclusion: Our data show that thalamic atrophy in C9orf72 mutation carriers goes beyond the expected atrophy in the prefrontal and temporal subregion and is in good agreement with the cortical atrophy pattern described in C9orf72 mutation carriers, indicating a retrograde degeneration of functionally connected regions. Clinical relevance of the detected thalamic atrophy is illustrated by a correlation with disease severity. Furthermore, the findings suggest MRI volumetry of the thalamus to be of high predictive value in differentiating C9orf72 mutation carriers from patients with sporadic FTD.

13.
J Neurol ; 265(5): 1026-1036, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29464380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is caused by an abnormal expansion of the CAG repeat in the androgen receptor gene. This study aimed to systematically phenotype a German SBMA cohort (n = 80) based on laboratory markers for neuromuscular, metabolic, and endocrine status, and thus provide a basis for the selection of biomarkers for future therapeutic trials. METHODS: We assessed a panel of 28 laboratory parameters. The clinical course and blood biomarkers were correlated with disease duration and CAG repeat length. A subset of 11 patients was evaluated with body fat MRI. RESULTS: Almost all patients reported muscle weakness (99%), followed by dysphagia (77%), tremor (76%), and gynecomastia (75%) as major complaints. Creatine kinase was the most consistently elevated (94%) serum marker, which, however, did not relate with either the disease duration or the CAG repeat length. Paresis duration and CAG repeat length correlated with dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate after correction for body mass index and age. The androgen insensitivity index was elevated in nearly half of the participants (48%). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic alterations in glucose homeostasis (diabetes) and fat metabolism (combined hyperlipidemia), and sex hormone abnormalities (androgen insensitivity) could be observed among SBMA patients without association with the neuromuscular phenotype. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was the only biomarker that correlated strongly with both weakness duration and the CAG repeat length after adjusting for age and BMI, indicating its potential as a biomarker for both disease severity and duration and, therefore, its possible use as a reliable outcome measure in future therapeutic studies.


Assuntos
Atrofia Muscular Espinal/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Composição Corporal , Progressão da Doença , Glucose/metabolismo , Hormônios/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/genética , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos
14.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 7, 2018 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29368626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in the BRIP1 gene have been described as conferring a moderate risk for ovarian cancer (OC), while the role of BRIP1 in breast cancer (BC) pathogenesis remains controversial. METHODS: To assess the role of deleterious BRIP1 germline mutations in BC/OC predisposition, 6341 well-characterized index patients with BC, 706 index patients with OC, and 2189 geographically matched female controls were screened for loss-of-function (LoF) mutations and potentially damaging missense variants. All index patients met the inclusion criteria of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer for germline testing and tested negative for pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants. RESULTS: BRIP1 LoF mutations confer a high OC risk in familial index patients (odds ratio (OR) = 20.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 12.02-36.57, P < 0.0001) and in the subgroup of index patients with late-onset OC (OR = 29.91, 95% CI = 14.99-59.66, P < 0.0001). No significant association of BRIP1 LoF mutations with familial BC was observed (OR = 1.81 95% CI = 1.00-3.30, P = 0.0623). In the subgroup of familial BC index patients without a family history of OC there was also no apparent association (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.70-2.90, P = 0.3030). In 1027 familial BC index patients with a family history of OC, the BRIP1 mutation prevalence was significantly higher than that observed in controls (OR = 3.59, 95% CI = 1.43-9.01; P = 0.0168). Based on the negative association between BRIP1 LoF mutations and familial BC in the absence of an OC family history, we conclude that the elevated mutation prevalence in the latter cohort was driven by the occurrence of OC in these families. Compared with controls, predicted damaging rare missense variants were significantly more prevalent in OC (P = 0.0014) but not in BC (P = 0.0693) patients. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid ambiguous results, studies aimed at assessing the impact of candidate predisposition gene mutations on BC risk might differentiate between BC index patients with an OC family history and those without. In familial cases, we suggest that BRIP1 is a high-risk gene for late-onset OC but not a BC predisposition gene, though minor effects cannot be excluded.

15.
Brain ; 141(3): 688-697, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29342275

RESUMO

Heterozygous missense mutations in the N-terminal motor or coiled-coil domains of the kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) gene cause monogenic spastic paraplegia (HSP10) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2). Moreover, heterozygous de novo frame-shift mutations in the C-terminal domain of KIF5A are associated with neonatal intractable myoclonus, a neurodevelopmental syndrome. These findings, together with the observation that many of the disease genes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disrupt cytoskeletal function and intracellular transport, led us to hypothesize that mutations in KIF5A are also a cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Using whole exome sequencing followed by rare variant analysis of 426 patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 6137 control subjects, we detected an enrichment of KIF5A splice-site mutations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (2/426 compared to 0/6137 in controls; P = 4.2 × 10-3), both located in a hot-spot in the C-terminus of the protein and predicted to affect splicing exon 27. We additionally show co-segregation with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis of two canonical splice-site mutations in two families. Investigation of lymphoblast cell lines from patients with KIF5A splice-site mutations revealed the loss of mutant RNA expression and suggested haploinsufficiency as the most probable underlying molecular mechanism. Furthermore, mRNA sequencing of a rare non-synonymous missense mutation (predicting p.Arg1007Gly) located in the C-terminus of the protein shortly upstream of the splice donor of exon 27 revealed defective KIF5A pre-mRNA splicing in respective patient-derived cell lines owing to abrogation of the donor site. Finally, the non-synonymous single nucleotide variant rs113247976 (minor allele frequency = 1.00% in controls, n = 6137), also located in the C-terminal region [p.(Pro986Leu) in exon 26], was significantly enriched in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (minor allele frequency = 3.40%; P = 1.28 × 10-7). Our study demonstrates that mutations located specifically in a C-terminal hotspot of KIF5A can cause a classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis phenotype, and underline the involvement of intracellular transport processes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis.

16.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(20): 4055-4066, 2017 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016863

RESUMO

Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs) comprise a heterogeneous spectrum of diseases characterized by congenital, non-progressive impairment of eye, eyelid and/or facial movements including Möbius syndrome, Duane retraction syndrome, congenital ptosis, and congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles. Over the last 20 years, several CCDDs have been identified as neurodevelopmental disorders that are caused by mutations of genes involved in brain and cranial nerve development, e.g. KIF21A and TUBB3 that each plays a pivotal role for microtubule function. In a five-generation pedigree, we identified a heterozygous mutation of TUBB6, a gene encoding a class V tubulin which has not been linked to a human hereditary disease so far. The missense mutation (p.Phe394Ser) affects an amino acid residue highly conserved in evolution, and co-segregates with a phenotype characterized by congenital non-progressive bilateral facial palsy and congenital velopharyngeal dysfunction presenting with varying degrees of hypomimia, rhinophonia, impaired gag reflex and bilateral ptosis. Expression of the mutated protein in yeast led to an impaired viability compared to wildtype cells when exposed to the microtubule-poison benomyl. Our findings enlarge the spectrum of tubulinopathies and emphasize that mutations of TUBB6 should be considered in patients with congenital non-progressive facial palsy. Further studies are needed to verify whether this phenotype is indeed part of the CCDD spectrum.


Assuntos
Blefaroptose/complicações , Blefaroptose/genética , Paralisia Facial/congênito , Paralisia Facial/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/congênito , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/genética , Blefaroptose/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Paralisia Facial/patologia , Feminino , Genes Dominantes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Músculos Oculomotores/patologia , Linhagem , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/patologia
17.
Hum Mutat ; 38(11): 1534-1541, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28714244

RESUMO

The genetic basis combined with the sporadic occurrence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) suggests a role of de novo mutations in disease pathogenesis. Previous studies provided some evidence for this hypothesis; however, results were conflicting: no genes with recurrent occurring de novo mutations were identified and different pathways were postulated. In this study, we analyzed whole-exome data from 82 new patient-parents trios and combined it with the datasets of all previously published ALS trios (173 trios in total). The per patient de novo rate was not higher than expected based on the general population (P = 0.40). We showed that these mutations are not part of the previously postulated pathways, and gene-gene interaction analysis found no enrichment of interacting genes in this group (P = 0.57). Also, we were able to show that the de novo mutations in ALS patients are located in genes already prone for de novo mutations (P < 1 × 10-15 ). Although the individual effect of rare de novo mutations in specific genes could not be assessed, our results indicate that, in contrast to previous hypothesis, de novo mutations in general do not impose a major burden on ALS risk.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Taxa de Mutação , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
Curr Opin Neurol ; 30(5): 523-528, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28665809

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The development of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has revolutionized molecular genetic diagnostics in monogenic disorders. The present review gives a brief overview of different MPS-based approaches used in clinical diagnostics of neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) and highlights their advantages and limitations. RECENT FINDINGS: MPS-based approaches like gene panel sequencing, (whole) exome sequencing, (whole) genome sequencing, and RNA sequencing have been used to identify the genetic cause in NMDs. Although gene panel sequencing has evolved as a standard test for heterogeneous diseases, it is still debated, mainly because of financial issues and unsolved problems of variant interpretation, whether genome sequencing (and to a lesser extent also exome sequencing) of single patients can already be regarded as routine diagnostics. However, it has been shown that the inclusion of parents and additional family members often leads to a substantial increase in the diagnostic yield in exome-wide/genome-wide MPS approaches. In addition, MPS-based RNA sequencing just enters the research and diagnostic scene. SUMMARY: Next-generation sequencing increasingly enables the detection of the genetic cause in highly heterogeneous diseases like NMDs in an efficient and affordable way. Gene panel sequencing and family-based exome sequencing have been proven as potent and cost-efficient diagnostic tools. Although clinical validation and interpretation of genome sequencing is still challenging, diagnostic RNA sequencing represents a promising tool to bypass some hurdles of diagnostics using genomic DNA.


Assuntos
Doenças Neuromusculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Neuromusculares/genética , Patologia Molecular/tendências , Exoma , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Audiol Neurootol ; 22(1): 30-40, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28601886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Auditory synaptopathy/neuropathy (AS/AN) is a heterogeneous disorder, which may be caused by environmental factors like postnatal hyperbilirubinemia or by genetic factors. The genetic forms are subdivided into syndromic and non-syndromic types, and show different inheritance patterns with a strong preponderance of autosomal-recessive forms. To date, only a single locus for non-syndromic autosomal-dominant AS/AN (AUNA1) has been reported in a single family, in which a non-coding DIAPH3 mutation was subsequently described as causative. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we report detailed clinical data on a large German AS/AN family with slowly progressive postlingual hearing loss. Affected family members developed their first symptoms in their second decade. Moderate hearing loss in the fourth decade then progressed to profound hearing impairment in older family members. Comprehensive audiological and neurological tests were performed in the affected family members. Genetic testing comprised linkage analyses with polymorphic markers and a genome-wide linkage analysis using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Mapping 250K. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We identified a large family with autosomal-dominant AS/AN. By means of linkage analyses, the AUNA1 locus was excluded, and putatively linked regions on chromosomal bands 12q24 and 13q34 were identified as likely carrying the second locus for autosomal-dominant AS/AN (AUNA2). AUNA2 is associated with a slowly progressive postlingual hearing loss without any evidence for additional symptoms in other organ systems.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 13/genética , Nervo Coclear/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva Central/genética , Linhagem , Doenças do Nervo Vestibulococlear/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Audiometria de Resposta Evocada , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Alemanha , Perda Auditiva Central/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Doenças do Nervo Vestibulococlear/fisiopatologia
20.
EMBO Mol Med ; 9(7): 859-868, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28408402

RESUMO

The C9orf72 GGGGCC repeat expansion is a major cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (c9ALS/FTD). Non-conventional repeat translation results in five dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs), but their clinical utility, overall significance, and temporal course in the pathogenesis of c9ALS/FTD are unclear, although animal models support a gain-of-function mechanism. Here, we established a poly-GP immunoassay from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to identify and characterize C9orf72 patients. Significant poly-GP levels were already detectable in asymptomatic C9orf72 mutation carriers compared to healthy controls and patients with other neurodegenerative diseases. The poly-GP levels in asymptomatic carriers were similar to symptomatic c9ALS/FTD cases. Poly-GP levels were not correlated with disease onset, clinical scores, and CSF levels of neurofilaments as a marker for axonal damage. Poly-GP determination in CSF revealed a C9orf72 mutation carrier in our cohort and may thus be used as a diagnostic marker in addition to genetic testing to screen patients. Presymptomatic expression of poly-GP and likely other DPR species may contribute to disease onset and thus represents an alluring therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Dipeptídeos/genética , Demência Frontotemporal/diagnóstico , Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/química , Estudos Transversais , Demência Frontotemporal/patologia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Sequências Repetitivas de Aminoácidos
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