Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 337
Filtrar
1.
Mol Ther ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956624

RESUMO

Viral infections, such as with cytomegalovirus (CMV), remain a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity of transplant recipients because of their requirement for lifelong immunosuppression (IS). Antiviral drugs often cause toxicity and sometimes fail to control disease. Thus, regeneration of the antiviral immune response by adoptive antiviral T cell therapy is an attractive alternative. Our recent data, however, show only short-term efficacy in some solid organ recipients, possibly because of malfunction in transferred T cells caused by ongoing IS. We developed a vector-free clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9-based good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant protocol that efficiently targets and knocks out the gene for the adaptor protein FK506-binding protein 12 (FKBP12), required for the immunosuppressive function of tacrolimus. This was achieved by transient delivery of ribonucleoprotein complexes into CMV-specific T cells by electroporation. We confirmed the tacrolimus resistance of our gene-edited T cell products in vitro and demonstrated performance comparable with non-tacrolimus-treated unmodified T cells. The alternative calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A can be administered as a safety switch to shut down tacrolimus-resistant T cell activity in case of adverse effects. Furthermore, we performed safety assessments as a prerequisite for translation to first-in-human applications.

2.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 98(10): 1493-1503, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948884

RESUMO

The phytotherapeutic compound EPs® 7630, an extract manufactured from Pelargonium sidoides roots, is frequently used for the treatment of airway infections. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the mode of action of EPs® 7630 is still sparse. Our study aimed at further elucidating the underlying pharmacological mechanisms by focusing on antimicrobial defense mechanisms of EPs® 7630. While investigating the influence of EPs® 7630 on lymphokine production by PBMCs, we found that EPs® 7630 is a novel inducer of IL-22 and IL-17. This cytokine-inducing effect was most pronounced for IL-22 and clearly dose-dependent starting from 1 µg/ml of the extract. Furthermore, EPs® 7630 pretreatment selectively enhanced the IL-22 and IL-17 production capacity of CD3/28-activated PBMCs while strongly limiting the IFN-γ production capacity of innate lymphoid cells. The relevance of EPs® 7630-induced IL-22 production was proven in vitro and in vivo, where IL-22 provoked a strong increase of the antimicrobial protein S100A9 in lung epithelial cells and pulmonary tissue, respectively. A detailed analysis of IL-22 induction modi revealed no direct influence of EPs® 7630 on the basal or anti-CD3/CD28 antibody-induced IL-22 production by CD4+ memory T cells. In fact, EPs® 7630-induced IL-22 production by CD4+ memory T cells was found to be essentially dependent on soluble mediators (IL-1/IL-23) as well as on direct cellular contact with monocytes. In summary, our study reveals a new immune-modulating function of EPs® 7630 that might confer IL-22 and IL-17-induced protection from bacterial airway infection. KEY MESSAGES: EPs® 7630 selectively strengthens IL-22 and IL-17 production of memory T cells. EPs® 7630 limits the IFN-y production capacity of innate lymphoid cells. EPs® 7630-caused IL-22 production by T cells is essentially dependent on monocytes. IL-22 increase antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) in airway epithelium. EPs® 7630 might protect against airway infection by induction of AMP-inducers.

3.
Cell ; 182(6): 1419-1440.e23, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810438

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a mild to moderate respiratory tract infection, however, a subset of patients progress to severe disease and respiratory failure. The mechanism of protective immunity in mild forms and the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 associated with increased neutrophil counts and dysregulated immune responses remain unclear. In a dual-center, two-cohort study, we combined single-cell RNA-sequencing and single-cell proteomics of whole-blood and peripheral-blood mononuclear cells to determine changes in immune cell composition and activation in mild versus severe COVID-19 (242 samples from 109 individuals) over time. HLA-DRhiCD11chi inflammatory monocytes with an interferon-stimulated gene signature were elevated in mild COVID-19. Severe COVID-19 was marked by occurrence of neutrophil precursors, as evidence of emergency myelopoiesis, dysfunctional mature neutrophils, and HLA-DRlo monocytes. Our study provides detailed insights into the systemic immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and reveals profound alterations in the myeloid cell compartment associated with severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Mielopoese , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD11/genética , Antígenos CD11/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Antígenos HLA-DR/genética , Antígenos HLA-DR/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Mieloides/citologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Análise de Célula Única
4.
Stem Cells Dev ; 29(18): 1179-1189, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723003

RESUMO

Pluripotent stem cells are promising candidates for cell-based regenerative therapies. To avoid rejection of transplanted cells, several approaches are being pursued to reduce immunogenicity of the cells or modulate the recipient's immune response. These include gene editing to reduce the antigenicity of cell products, immunosuppression of the host, or using major histocompatibility complex-matched cells from cell banks. In this context, we have investigated the antigenicity of H-Y antigens, a class of minor histocompatibility antigens encoded by the Y chromosome, to assess whether the gender of the donor affects the cell's antigenicity. In a murine transplant model, we show that the H-Y antigen in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells (ESCs), as well as ESC-derived endothelial cells, provokes T- and B cell responses in female recipients.

5.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1091, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-589811

RESUMO

Numerous clinical trials of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) as a new treatment for coronavirus-induced disease (COVID-19) have been registered recently, most of them based on intravenous (IV) infusion. There is no approved effective therapy for COVID-19, but MSC therapies have shown first promise in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) pneumonia, inflammation, and sepsis, which are among the leading causes of mortality in COVID-19 patients. Many of the critically ill COVID-19 patients are in a hypercoagulable procoagulant state and at high risk for disseminated intravascular coagulation, thromboembolism, and thrombotic multi-organ failure, another cause of high fatality. It is not yet clear whether IV infusion is a safe and effective route of MSC delivery in COVID-19, since MSC-based products express variable levels of highly procoagulant tissue factor (TF/CD142), compromising the cells' hemocompatibility and safety profile. Of concern, IV infusions of poorly characterized MSC products with unchecked (high) TF/CD142 expression could trigger blood clotting in COVID-19 and other vulnerable patient populations and further promote the risk for thromboembolism. In contrast, well-characterized products with robust manufacturing procedures and optimized modes of clinical delivery hold great promise for ameliorating COVID-19 by exerting their beneficial immunomodulatory effects, inducing tissue repair and organ protection. While the need for MSC therapy in COVID-19 is apparent, integrating both innate and adaptive immune compatibility testing into the current guidelines for cell, tissue, and organ transplantation is critical for safe and effective therapies. It is paramount to only use well-characterized, safe MSCs even in the most urgent and experimental treatments. We here propose three steps to mitigate the risk for these vulnerable patients: (1) updated clinical guidelines for cell and tissue transplantation, (2) updated minimal criteria for characterization of cellular therapeutics, and (3) updated cell therapy routines reflecting specific patient needs.

6.
Blood Adv ; 4(11): 2501-2515, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511714

RESUMO

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a widely spread treatment of many hematological diseases, but its most important side effect is graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Despite the development of new therapies, acute GVHD (aGVHD) occurs in 30% to 50% of allogeneic BMT and is characterized by the generation of effector T (Teff) cells with production of inflammatory cytokines. We previously demonstrated that a short anti-CD45RC monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment in a heart allograft rat model transiently decreased CD45RChigh Teff cells and increased regulatory T cell (Treg) number and function allowing long-term donor-specific tolerance. Here, we demonstrated in rat and mouse allogeneic GVHD, as well as in xenogeneic GVHD mediated by human T cells in NSG mice, that both ex vivo depletion of CD45RChigh T cells and in vivo treatment with short-course anti-CD45RC mAbs inhibited aGVHD. In the rat model, we demonstrated that long surviving animals treated with anti-CD45RC mAbs were fully engrafted with donor cells and developed a donor-specific tolerance. Finally, we validated the rejection of a human tumor in NSG mice infused with human cells and treated with anti-CD45RC mAbs. The anti-human CD45RC mAbs showed a favorable safety profile because it did not abolish human memory antiviral immune responses, nor trigger cytokine release in in vitro assays. Altogether, our results show the potential of a prophylactic treatment with anti-human CD45RC mAbs in combination with rapamycin as a new therapy to treat aGVHD without abolishing the antitumor effect.

7.
J Immunol ; 205(1): 45-55, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482712

RESUMO

The worldwide epidemic of overweight and obesity has led to an increase in associated metabolic comorbidities. Obesity induces chronic low-grade inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT). However, the function and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune cells in human WAT under conditions of obesity and calorie restriction (CR) is not fully understood yet. Using a randomized interventional design, we investigated postmenopausal overweight or obese female subjects who either underwent CR for 3 mo followed by a 4-wk phase of weight maintenance or had to maintain a stable weight over the whole study period. A comprehensive immune phenotyping protocol was conducted using validated multiparameter flow cytometry analysis in blood and s.c. WAT (SAT). The TCR repertoire was analyzed by next-generation sequencing and cytokine levels were determined in SAT. Metabolic parameters were determined by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. We found that insulin resistance correlates significantly with a shift toward the memory T cell compartment in SAT. TCR analysis revealed a diverse repertoire in SAT of overweight or obese individuals. Additionally, whereas weight loss improved systemic insulin sensitivity in the intervention group, SAT displayed no significant improvement of inflammatory parameters (cytokine levels and leukocyte subpopulations) compared with the control group. Our data demonstrate the accumulation of effector memory T cells in obese SAT and an association between systemic glucose homeostasis and inflammatory parameters in obese females. The long-standing effect of obesity-induced changes in SAT was demonstrated by preserved immune cell composition after short-term CR-induced weight loss.

8.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1091, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574263

RESUMO

Numerous clinical trials of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) as a new treatment for coronavirus-induced disease (COVID-19) have been registered recently, most of them based on intravenous (IV) infusion. There is no approved effective therapy for COVID-19, but MSC therapies have shown first promise in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) pneumonia, inflammation, and sepsis, which are among the leading causes of mortality in COVID-19 patients. Many of the critically ill COVID-19 patients are in a hypercoagulable procoagulant state and at high risk for disseminated intravascular coagulation, thromboembolism, and thrombotic multi-organ failure, another cause of high fatality. It is not yet clear whether IV infusion is a safe and effective route of MSC delivery in COVID-19, since MSC-based products express variable levels of highly procoagulant tissue factor (TF/CD142), compromising the cells' hemocompatibility and safety profile. Of concern, IV infusions of poorly characterized MSC products with unchecked (high) TF/CD142 expression could trigger blood clotting in COVID-19 and other vulnerable patient populations and further promote the risk for thromboembolism. In contrast, well-characterized products with robust manufacturing procedures and optimized modes of clinical delivery hold great promise for ameliorating COVID-19 by exerting their beneficial immunomodulatory effects, inducing tissue repair and organ protection. While the need for MSC therapy in COVID-19 is apparent, integrating both innate and adaptive immune compatibility testing into the current guidelines for cell, tissue, and organ transplantation is critical for safe and effective therapies. It is paramount to only use well-characterized, safe MSCs even in the most urgent and experimental treatments. We here propose three steps to mitigate the risk for these vulnerable patients: (1) updated clinical guidelines for cell and tissue transplantation, (2) updated minimal criteria for characterization of cellular therapeutics, and (3) updated cell therapy routines reflecting specific patient needs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Imunologia de Transplantes , Administração Intravenosa , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia
9.
Transpl Immunol ; 60: 101289, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229239

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease stage 5 (CKD5) dialysis patients who stay long term in uremic environment often exhibit several, poorly defined, immune impairments. In this study, we assessed peripheral virus-specific effector/memory cells and subpopulations of T, B and DC cells using ELISPOT and FACS methods in 74 low-risk kidney transplant candidates without anti-HLA antibodies, prior to transplantation in pre-emptive (never experienced dialysis) and dialysis cohorts. There was difference in circulating marginal zone B cells (MZB) (IgDhighCD27high) between dialysis patients and those receiving kidney grafts pre-emptively (P = .002). Patients treated on dialysis >12 months had also 4.2-fold greater risk of increased absolute numbers of MZB (95%CI:1.6-11.2; P = .004). There were no other differences in B-, T- and DC-cell subsets. Numbers of effector/memory T cells reactive to major opportunistic virus-specific antigens (CMV, BKV and EBV) were not affected by dialysis. Non-sensitised dialysis-treated patients displayed significantly more circulating MZB compared to those CKD5 patients that had never undergone dialysis therapy.

10.
Trends Biotechnol ; 38(10): 1099-1112, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982150

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) technology and its application to regulatory T cells (Tregs) has garnered interest among researchers in the field of cell and gene therapy. Merging the benefits of CAR technology with Tregs offers a novel and promising therapeutic option for durable reshaping of undesired immune responses following solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, as well as in immune-related disorders. However, major challenges remain for developing a standardized and robust good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant manufacturing process for CAR-Treg cells. We review current progress in the field and recommend ways to improve CAR-Treg manufacturing processes based on lessons learned from first-generation Treg therapeutics as well as from anticancer CAR-T cell development.

11.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 98(1): 111-122, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832701

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a very common chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by epidermal thickening and scaling resulting from keratinocyte hyperproliferation and impaired differentiation. Pathomechanistic studies in psoriasis are often limited by using whole skin tissue biopsies, neglecting their stratification and cellular diversity. This study aimed at characterizing epidermal alterations in psoriasis at the level of keratinocyte populations. Epidermal cell populations were purified from skin biopsies of psoriasis patients and healthy donors using a novel cell type-specific approach. Molecular characterization of the transit-amplifying cells (TAC), the key players of epidermal renewal, was performed using immunocytofluorescence-technique and integrated multiscale-omics analyses. Already TAC from non-lesional psoriatic skin showed altered methylation and differential expression in 1.7% and 1.0% of all protein-coding genes, respectively. In psoriatic lesions, TAC were strongly expanded showing further increased differentially methylated (10-fold) and expressed (22-fold) genes numbers. Importantly, 17.2% of differentially expressed genes were associated with respective gene methylations. Compared with non-lesional TAC, pathway analyses revealed metabolic alterations as one feature predominantly changed in TAC derived from active psoriatic lesions. Overall, our study showed stage-specific molecular alterations, allows new insights into the pathogenesis, and implies the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in lesion development in psoriasis. KEY MESSAGES: Transit amplifying cell (TAC) numbers are highly increased in psoriatic lesions Psoriatic TAC show profound molecular alterations & stage-specific identity TAC from unaffected areas already show first signs of molecular alterations Lesional TAC show a preference in metabolic-related alterations.

12.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2667, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803188

RESUMO

Liver transplantation (LTx) is currently the most powerful treatment for end-stage liver disease. Although liver allograft is more tolerogenic compared to other solid organs, the majority of LTx recipients still require long-term immune suppression (IS) to control the undesired alloimmune responses, which can lead to severe side effects. Thus, understanding the mechanism of liver transplant tolerance and crosstalk between immune cells, especially alloreactive T cells and liver cells, can shed light on more specific tolerance induction strategies for future clinical translation. In this review, we focus on alloreactive T cell mediated immune responses and their crosstalk with liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and cholangiocytes in transplant setting. Liver cells mainly serve as antigen presenting cells (APCs) to T cells, but with low expression of co-stimulatory molecules. Crosstalk between them largely depends on the different expression of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors. Inflammatory cytokines secreted by immune cells further elaborate this crosstalk and regulate the fate of naïve T cells differentiation within the liver graft. On the other hand, regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an essential role in inducing and keeping immune tolerance in LTx. Tregs based adoptive cell therapy provides an excellent therapeutic option for clinical transplant tolerance induction. However, many questions regarding cell therapy still need to be solved. Here we also address the current clinical trials of adoptive Tregs therapy and other tolerance induction strategies in LTx, together with future challenges for clinical translation from bench to bedside.

13.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2549, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736968

RESUMO

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with allograft rejection but the mechanisms behind are poorly defined yet. Although cross-reactivity of T cells to alloantigen and CMV has been hypothesized, direct evidence in patients is lacking. In this observational cohort study, we tested the pre-transplant effector/memory T cell response to CMV peptide pools and alloantigen in 78 living donor/recipient pairs using the interferon-gamma Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot (ELISPOT) assay. To prove the hypothesis of cross-reactivity, we analyzed by applying next-generation sequencing the T cell receptor ß (TCR- ß) repertoire of CMV- and alloantigen-reactive T cells enriched from peripheral pre-transplant blood of 11 CMV-seropositive and HLA class I mismatched patients. Moreover, the TCR-repertoire was also analyzed in the allograft biopsies of those patients. There was a significant association between the presence of pre-transplant CMV immediate-early protein 1 (IE-1)-specific effector/memory T cells and acute renal allograft rejection and function (p = 0.01). Most importantly, we revealed shared TCR-ß sequences between CMV-IE1 and donor alloantigen-reactive T cells in all pre-transplant peripheral blood samples analyzed in CMV-seropositive patients who received HLA class I mismatched grafts. Identical TCR sequences were also found in particular in post-transplant allograft biopsies of patients with concomitant CMV infection and rejection. Our data show the presence of functional, cross-reactive T cells and their clonotypes in peripheral blood and in kidney allograft tissue. It is therefore likely that CMV-donor cross-reactivity as well as CMV specific T cell elicited inflammation is involved in the processes that affect allograft outcomes.

14.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e032695, 2019 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666276

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in adults is characterised by toxic immune activation and a sepsis-like syndrome, leading to high numbers of undiagnosed cases and mortality rates of up to 68%. Early diagnosis and specific immune suppressive treatment are mandatory to avoid fatal outcome, but the diagnostic criteria (HLH-2004) are adopted from paediatric HLH and have not been validated in adults. Experimental studies suggest biomarkers to sufficiently diagnose HLH. However, biomarkers for the diagnosis of adult HLH have not yet been investigated. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The HEMICU (Diagnostic biomarkers for adult haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in critically ill patients) study aims to estimate the incidence rate of adult HLH among suspected adult patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Screening for HLH will be performed in 16 ICUs of Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. The inclusion criteria are bicytopaenia, hyperferritinaemia (≥500 µg/L), fever or when HLH is suspected by the clinician. Over a period of 2 years, we expect inclusion of about 100 patients with suspected HLH. HLH will be diagnosed if at least five of the HLH-2004 criteria are fulfilled, together with an expert review; all other included patients will serve as controls. Second, a panel of potential biomarker candidates will be explored. DNA, plasma and serum will be stored in a biobank. The primary endpoint of the study is the incidence rate of adult HLH among suspected adult patients during ICU stay. Out of a variety of measured biomarkers, this study furthermore aims to find highly potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of adult HLH in ICU. The results of this study will contribute to improved recognition and patient outcome of adult HLH in clinical routine. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The institutional ethics committee approved this study on 1 August 2018 (Ethics Committee of Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, EA4/006/18). The results of the study will be disseminated in an international peer-reviewed journal and presented at international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03510650.

16.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1954, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475013

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that T lymphocytes play a key role in controlling endogenous regeneration. Regeneration appears to be impaired in case of local accumulation of CD8+ effector T cells (TEFF), impairing endogenous regeneration by increasing a primary "useful" inflammation toward a damaging level. Thus, rescuing regeneration by regulating the heightened pro-inflammatory reaction employing regulatory CD4+ T (TReg) cells could represent an immunomodulatory option to enhance healing. Hypothesis was that CD4+ TReg might counteract undesired effects of CD8+ TEFF. Using adoptive TReg transfer, bone healing was consistently improved in mice possessing an inexperienced immune system with low amounts of CD8+ TEFF. In contrast, mice with an experienced immune system (high amounts of CD8+ TEFF) showed heterogeneous bone repair with regeneration being dependent upon the individual TEFF/TReg ratio. Thus, the healing outcome can only be improved by an adoptive TReg therapy, if an unfavorable TEFF/TReg ratio can be reshaped; if the individual CD8+ TEFF percentage, which is dependent on the individual immune experience can be changed toward a favorable ratio by the TReg transfer. Remarkably, also in patients with impaired fracture healing the TEFF/TReg ratio was higher compared to uneventful healers, validating our finding in the mouse osteotomy model. Our data demonstrate for the first time the key-role of a balanced TEFF/TReg response following injury needed to reach successful regeneration using bone as a model system. Considering this strategy, novel opportunities for immunotherapy in patients, which are at risk for impaired healing by targeting TEFF cells and supporting TReg cells to enhance healing are possible.

17.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 3(3)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND : The aetiology of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is highly heterogeneous including genetic and/or acquired (infective, toxic, immune, endocrine, and nutritional) factors. The major part of acquired DCM in developed countries is caused by either viral or autoimmune myocarditis. It is believed that the activation of the T-lymphocyte cell system is the major pathomechanism underlying autoimmune myocarditis and inflammatory DCM (DCMi). However, in the hearts of a subset of patients, a significant number of CD20+ B-lymphocytes can be detected too. Limited information exists on the role of B-cell-dependent mechanisms in the progression of DCMi. Particularly CD20+ B-lymphocytes, which can be targeted by anti-CD20+ B-lymphocytes antibodies or inhibitors, might contribute to the pathogenesis of myocardial damage beyond antibody production. CASE SUMMARY : Here, we present a case series of six patients with subacute and chronic endomyocardial biopsy-proven CD20+ B-lymphocyte-associated DCMi, where symptomatic heart failure therapy, with or without combined immunosuppressive therapy with steroid-based treatment regime, was insufficient to improve cardiac function. Five patients improved clinically several weeks after a standard infusion protocol with rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the pan-B-cell surface molecule CD20. DISCUSSION : Our case series shows that CD20+ B-lymphocyte persistence can play a pathophysiologic role in a subset of DCMi patients and highlights the potential of targeting CD20+ B cells in patients with prominent CD20+ B-lymphocyte persistence.

18.
Transplantation ; 103(11): 2234-2244, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) presents a major cause for morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Rabbit-derived antithymocyte globulin (rATG) treatment reduces the incidence of GvHD after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, delayed immune reconstitution following rATG treatment, partly caused by hampered thymic function, is being discussed. The present study aims at elucidating possible cytotoxic effects of 2 commonly used rATG preparations on cultured human thymic stroma, especially thymic epithelial cells (TECs). METHODS: A primary TEC culture was established and the binding and cytotoxicity of 2 rATG preparations to the aforementioned cells were assessed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analyses. The release of several cytokines by cultured thymic stroma cells in response to rATG was analyzed via multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Both preparations showed a comparable dose-dependent binding to TECs and exerted a similar complement-independent, dose-dependent cytotoxicity. rATG exposure further resulted in hampered secretion of interleukin (IL)-7, IL-15, and IL-6, cytokines being involved in thymic T cell development and proliferation. Pretreatment with keratinocyte growth factor diminished rATG-induced cytotoxicity of TECs and restored their IL-7 and IL-15 secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Cytotoxic effects on TECs link the rATG-induced thymic damage to the delayed T cell reconstitution, witnessed after rATG treatment. Our data support a combination treatment of rATG and thymus-protective strategies such as keratinocyte growth factor to simultaneously offer sufficient GvHD prophylaxis and overcome delayed T cell reconstitution caused by thymic damage.

19.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1148, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31191530

RESUMO

Viral infections have a major impact on morbidity and mortality of immunosuppressed solid organ transplant (SOT) patients because of missing or failure of adequate pharmacologic antiviral treatment. Adoptive antiviral T-cell therapy (AVTT), regenerating disturbed endogenous T-cell immunity, emerged as an attractive alternative approach to combat severe viral complications in immunocompromised patients. AVTT is successful in patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation where T-cell products (TCPs) are manufactured from healthy donors. In contrast, in the SOT setting TCPs are derived from/applied back to immunosuppressed patients. We and others demonstrated feasibility of TCP generation from SOT patients and first clinical proof-of-concept trials revealing promising data. However, the initial efficacy is frequently lost long-term, because of limited survival of transferred short-lived T-cells indicating a need for next-generation TCPs. Our recent data suggest that Rapamycin treatment during TCP manufacture, conferring partial inhibition of mTOR, might improve its composition. The aim of this study was to confirm these promising observations in a setting closer to clinical challenges and to deeply characterize the next-generation TCPs. Using cytomegalovirus (CMV) as model, our next-generation Rapamycin-treated (Rapa-)TCP showed consistently increased proportions of CD4+ T-cells as well as CD4+ and CD8+ central-memory T-cells (TCM). In addition, Rapamycin sustained T-cell function despite withdrawal of Rapamycin, showed superior T-cell viability and resistance to apoptosis, stable metabolism upon activation, preferential expansion of TCM, partial conversion of other memory T-cell subsets to TCM and increased clonal diversity. On transcriptome level, we observed a gene expression profile denoting long-lived early memory T-cells with potent effector functions. Furthermore, we successfully applied the novel protocol for the generation of Rapa-TCPs to 19/19 SOT patients in a comparative study, irrespective of their history of CMV reactivation. Moreover, comparison of paired TCPs generated before/after transplantation did not reveal inferiority of the latter despite exposition to maintenance immunosuppression post-SOT. Our data imply that the Rapa-TCPs, exhibiting longevity and sustained T-cell memory, are a reasonable treatment option for SOT patients. Based on our success to manufacture Rapa-TCPs from SOT patients under maintenance immunosuppression, now, we seek ultimate clinical proof of efficacy in a clinical study.

20.
J Vis Exp ; (146)2019 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081822

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance, contributing to an increasing prevalence of chronic metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Recent research has established that pro-inflammatory immune cells infiltrate obese hypertrophic adipose tissue and liver. Given the emerging importance of immune cells in the context of metabolic homeostasis, there is a critical need to quantify and characterize their modification during the development of type 2 diabetes and NASH. However, animal models that induce pathophysiological features typical of human NASH are sparse. In this article, we provide a detailed protocol to identify immune cell subsets isolated from liver and adipose tissue in a reliable mouse model of NASH, established by housing high-fat diet (HFD) mice under non-specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions without a barrier for at least seven weeks. We demonstrate the handling of mice in non-SPF conditions, digestion of the tissues and identification of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, B and T cell subsets by flow cytometry. Representative flow cytometry plots from SPF HFD mice and non-SPF mice are provided. To obtain reliable and interpretable data, the use of antibodies, accurate and precise methods for tissue digestion and proper gating in flow cytometry experiments are critical elements. The intervention to restore physiological antigen exposure in mice by housing them in non-SPF conditions and unspecific exposure to microbial antigens could provide a relevant tool for investigating the link between immunological alterations, diet-induced obesity and related long term complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA