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1.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(12): 892-900, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747925

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of our study was to compare ivabradine versus bisoprolol in the short-term and long-term treatment of inappropriate sinus tachycardia. METHODS: From this prospective, parallel-group, open-label study, consecutive patients affected by inappropriate sinus tachycardia received ivabradine or bisoprolol and were evaluated with Holter ECG, ECG stress test, European Heart Rhythm Association score and Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire at baseline, after 3 and 24 months. RESULTS: Overall, 40 patients were enrolled. Baseline parameters were comparable in the ivabradine and bisoprolol subgroups. Two patients had transient phosphenes with ivabradine and two others interrupted the drug after 3 months as they planned to become pregnant. Eight individuals treated with bisoprolol experienced hypotension and weakness, which caused drug discontinuation in five of them. Ivabradine was superior to bisoprolol in reducing Holter ECG mean heart rate (HR) and mean HR during daytime at short- and long-term follow-up. Moreover, ivabradine but not bisoprolol significantly reduced Holter ECG mean HR during night-time as well as maximal and minimal HR and significantly increased the time duration and maximal load reached at ECG stress test. The quality of life questionnaires significantly improved in both subgroups. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that ivabradine is better tolerated than bisoprolol and seems to be superior in controlling the heart rate and improving exercise capacity in a small population of individuals affected by inappropriate sinus tachycardia during a short-term and long-term follow-up.

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612556

RESUMO

Patients with heart failure (HF) who contract SARS-CoV-2 infection are at a higher risk of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Regardless of therapeutic attempts in COVID-19, vaccination remains the most promising global approach at present for controlling this disease. There are several concerns and misconceptions regarding the clinical indications, optimal mode of delivery, safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines for patients with HF. This document provides guidance to all healthcare professionals regarding the implementation of a COVID-19 vaccination scheme in patients with HF. COVID-19 vaccination is indicated in all patients with HF, including those who are immunocompromised (e.g. after heart transplantation receiving immunosuppressive therapy) and with frailty syndrome. It is preferable to vaccinate against COVID-19 patients with HF in an optimal clinical state, which would include clinical stability, adequate hydration and nutrition, optimized treatment of HF and other comorbidities (including iron deficiency), but corrective measures should not be allowed to delay vaccination. Patients with HF who have been vaccinated against COVID-19 need to continue precautionary measures, including the use of facemasks, hand hygiene and social distancing. Knowledge on strategies preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection (including the COVID-19 vaccination) should be included in the comprehensive educational programmes delivered to patients with HF. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578843

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) characterized by cardiac remodeling is a condition in which inflammation and fibrosis play a key role. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) seems to produce good results. In fact, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and different cardioprotective mechanisms. In particular, following their interaction with the nuclear factor erythropoietin 2 related factor 2 (NRF2), the free fatty acid receptor 4 (Ffar4) receptor, or the G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) fibroblast receptors, they inhibit cardiac fibrosis and protect the heart from HF onset. Furthermore, n-3 PUFAs increase the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), reduce global longitudinal deformation, E/e ratio (early ventricular filling and early mitral annulus velocity), soluble interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 (sST2) and high-sensitive C Reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, and increase flow-mediated dilation. Moreover, lower levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and serum norepinephrine (sNE) are reported and have a positive effect on cardiac hemodynamics. In addition, they reduce cardiac remodeling and inflammation by protecting patients from HF onset after myocardial infarction (MI). The positive effects of PUFA supplementation are associated with treatment duration and a daily dosage of 1-2 g. Therefore, both the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) define dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFAs as an effective therapy for reducing the risk of hospitalization and death in HF patients. In this review, we seek to highlight the most recent studies related to the effect of PUFA supplementation in HF. For that purpose, a PubMed literature survey was conducted with a focus on various in vitro and in vivo studies and clinical trials from 2015 to 2021.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Fibrose , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Miocárdio/patologia , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Europace ; 23(10): 1603-1611, 2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297833

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the clinical relevance of a history of atrial fibrillation (AF) in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 696 consecutive patients (mean age 67.4 ± 13.2 years, 69.7% males) admitted for COVID-19 in 13 Italian cardiology centres between 1 March and 9 April 2020. One hundred and six patients (15%) had a history of AF and the median hospitalization length was 14 days (interquartile range 9-24). Patients with a history of AF were older and with a higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors. Compared to patients without AF, they showed a higher rate of in-hospital death (38.7% vs. 20.8%; P < 0.001). History of AF was associated with an increased risk of death after adjustment for clinical confounders related to COVID-19 severity and cardiovascular comorbidities, including history of heart failure (HF) and increased plasma troponin [adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.84; P = 0.029]. Patients with a history of AF also had more in-hospital clinical events including new-onset AF (36.8% vs. 7.9%; P < 0.001), acute HF (25.3% vs. 6.3%; P < 0.001), and multiorgan failure (13.9% vs. 5.8%; P = 0.010). The association between AF and worse outcome was not modified by previous or concomitant use of anticoagulants or steroid therapy (P for interaction >0.05 for both) and was not related to stroke or bleeding events. CONCLUSION: Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, a history of AF contributes to worse clinical course with a higher mortality and in-hospital events including new-onset AF, acute HF, and multiorgan failure. The mortality risk remains significant after adjustment for variables associated with COVID-19 severity and comorbidities.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , COVID-19 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
5.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(5): 3504-3511, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236135

RESUMO

AIMS: Myocardial injury (MI) in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is quite prevalent at admission and affects prognosis. Little is known about troponin trajectories and their prognostic role. We aimed to describe the early in-hospital evolution of MI and its prognostic impact. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed an analysis from an Italian multicentre study enrolling COVID-19 patients, hospitalized from 1 March to 9 April 2020. MI was defined as increased troponin level. The first troponin was tested within 24 h from admission, the second one between 24 and 48 h. Elevated troponin was defined as values above the 99th percentile of normal values. Patients were divided in four groups: normal, normal then elevated, elevated then normal, and elevated. The outcome was in-hospital death. The study population included 197 patients; 41% had normal troponin at both evaluations, 44% had elevated troponin at both assessments, 8% had normal then elevated troponin, and 7% had elevated then normal troponin. During hospitalization, 49 (25%) patients died. Patients with incident MI, with persistent MI, and with MI only at admission had a higher risk of death compared with those with normal troponin at both evaluations (P < 0.001). At multivariable analysis, patients with normal troponin at admission and MI injury on Day 2 had the highest mortality risk (hazard ratio 3.78, 95% confidence interval 1.10-13.09, P = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: In patients admitted for COVID-19, re-test MI on Day 2 provides a prognostic value. A non-negligible proportion of patients with incident MI on Day 2 is identified at high risk of death only by the second measurement.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Troponina/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Itália , Prognóstico
6.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 61(10): 1411-1415, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137572

RESUMO

Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is a long-standing technique to indirectly assess neural cardiac regulation. This article specifically addressed how spectral analysis of HRV could help to understand neural cardiovascular adaptations to long-term exercise training; and inform us on training status in athletes. We reviewed literature searching for articles investigating resting cardiovascular adaptations to long-term exercise training through spectral analysis of HRV in athletes, from amateur to world class categories, practicing different sport disciplines, and focusing, in particular, on a series of work performed over time in our laboratory, which may highlight how different types of exercise training differently affect neural cardiac regulation. Spectral analysis of HRV has been shown its capability of detecting different adaptational changes in cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation attending physical training in athletes of different sport disciplines. Studies showed that spectral analysis of HRV provide results that are sport-dependent and differ at individual level. ANS adaptations to exercise training are presented and discussed. Reported studies indicate that spectral analysis of HRV is an effective tool to monitor and optimize the training process and to predict athletic achievements in competitions. Cardiac ANS adaptations are strongly dependant on the type of training being performed. The individual nature of cardiac ANS adaptations should be considered to properly interpret the observed findings.


Assuntos
Atletas , Esportes , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Exercício Físico , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos
7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 270-273, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoid therapy has emerged as an effective therapeutic option in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to focus on the impact of relevant clinical and laboratory factors on the protective effect of glucocorticoids on mortality. METHODS: A sub-analysis was performed of the multicenter Cardio-COVID-Italy registry, enrolling consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to 13 Italian cardiology units between 01 March 2020 and 09 April 2020. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 706 COVID-19 patients were included (349 treated with glucocorticoids, 357 not treated with glucocorticoids). After adjustment for relevant covariates, use of glucocorticoids was associated with a lower risk of in-hospital mortality (adjusted HR 0.44; 95% CI 0.26-0.72; p = 0.001). A significant interaction was observed between the protective effect of glucocorticoids on mortality and PaO2/FiO2 ratio on admission (p = 0.042), oxygen saturation on admission (p = 0.017), and peak CRP (0.023). Such protective effects of glucocorticoids were mainly observed in patients with lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio (<300), lower oxygen saturation (<90%), and higher CRP (>100 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS: The protective effects of glucocorticoids on mortality in COVID-19 were more evident among patients with worse respiratory parameters and higher systemic inflammation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Glucocorticoides , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(6): 872-881, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932268

RESUMO

Despite guideline recommendations and available evidence, implementation of treatment in heart failure (HF) is poor. The majority of patients are not prescribed drugs at target doses that have been proven to positively impact morbidity and mortality. Among others, tolerability issues related to low blood pressure, heart rate, impaired renal function or hyperkalaemia are responsible. Chronic kidney disease plays an important role as it affects up to 50% of patients with HF. Also, dynamic changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate may occur during the course of HF, resulting in inappropriate dose reduction or even discontinuation of decongestive or neurohormonal modulating therapy in clinical practice. As patients with HF are rarely naïve to pharmacologic therapies, the challenge is to adequately prioritize or select the most appropriate up-titration schedule according to patient profile. In this consensus document, we identified nine patient profiles that may be relevant for treatment implementation in HF patients with a reduced ejection fraction. These profiles take into account heart rate (<60 bpm or >70 bpm), the presence of atrial fibrillation, symptomatic low blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (<30 or >30 mL/min/1.73 m2 ) or hyperkalaemia. The pre-discharge patient, frequently still congestive, is also addressed. A personalized approach, adjusting guideline-directed medical therapy to patient profile, may allow to achieve a better and more comprehensive therapy for each individual patient than the more traditional, forced titration of each drug class before initiating treatment with the next.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Consenso , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Volume Sistólico
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed at comparing the effects of three different exercise modalities on post-exercise hypotension (PEH) in elderly hypertensive patients and at investigating whether PEH responses to the same exercises are affected by their training status. METHODS: Thirty-six male sedentary hypertensive patients over 60 years old, were included. They were divided into three groups each one corresponding to a different exercise modality, i.e., aerobic continuous exercise (ACE), high-intensive interval exercise (HIIE), and combined (aerobic and resistance) exercise (CE). PEH was assessed in each group by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in two different conditions as follows: (1) sedentary status and (2) trained status, at the end of a 12 week of ACE training program. A cardiopulmonary test was performed before and at the end of the training program. RESULTS: In the sedentary status, 24-h and nocturnal systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) decreased in all groups as compared with top pre-exercise, with a greater but not significant reduction in the ACE and CE groups as compared with HIIE. ACE and HIIE groups presented a more sustained PEH than CE. In the trained status, 24-h and nighttime systolic and diastolic BP decreased significantly only after HIIE, but were unchanged as compared with pre-exercise in the ACE and CE groups. CONCLUSIONS: ACE and CE produced greater PEH than HIIE in sedentary elderly hypertensive patients. However, after training, HIIE produced the greater and more sustained PEH. The training status appears to exert significant effects on PEH produced by different exercise modalities.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Hipotensão Pós-Exercício , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693736

RESUMO

AIMS: Recent evidence supports the occurrence of multiple hormonal and metabolic deficiency syndrome (MHDS) in chronic heart failure (CHF). However, no large observational study has unequivocally demonstrated its impact on CHF progression and outcome. The T.O.S.CA. (Trattamento Ormonale nello Scompenso CArdiaco; Hormone Treatment in Heart Failure) Registry has been specifically designed to test the hypothesis that MHDS affects morbidity and mortality in CHF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: The T.O.S.CA. Registry is a prospective, multicentre, observational study involving 19 Italian centres. Thyroid hormones, insulin-like growth factor-1, total testosterone, dehydropianoandrosterone sulfate, insulin resistance, and the presence of diabetes were evaluated. A MHDS was defined as the presence of ≥2 hormone deficiencies (HDs). Primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular hospitalizations. Four hundred and eighty heart failure patients with ejection fraction ≤45% were enrolled. MHDS or diabetes was diagnosed in 372 patients (77.5%). A total of 271 events (97 deaths and 174 cardiovascular hospitalizations) were recorded, 41% in NO-MHDS and 62% in MHDS (P < 0.001). Median follow-up was of 36 months. MHDS was independently associated with the occurrence of the primary endpoint [hazard ratio 95% (confidence interval), 1.93 (1.37-2.73), P < 0.001] and identified a group of patients with a higher mortality [2.2 (1.28-3.83), P = 0.01], with a graded relation between HDs and cumulative events (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: MHDS is common in CHF and independently associated with increased all-cause mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization, representing a promising therapeutic target. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT023358017.

12.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 130(4): 1085-1092, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630677

RESUMO

Short-term blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV), measured by 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), has been independently related to a higher risk of cardiovascular events and target organ in hypertensive patients. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two different exercise modalities on BPV in hypertensive patients enrolled in a cardiac rehabilitation program. This study is a randomized trial, with two intervention arms: 1) aerobic training (AT) and 2) combined aerobic and resistance training (CT). We studied 55 male patients with hypertension. They were randomly assigned either to AT or CT group. The training program lasted 12 wk for each group. Short-term BP variability was evaluated by means of average real variability (ARV), at baseline and after 12 wk, by ABPM. Systolic and diastolic 24-h BP values decreased significantly (P < 0.01) in both groups, without between-groups differences (P = 0.11). The 24-h systolic BP variability decreased in both groups (AT: from 8.4 ± 1.2 to 7.6 ± 0.8; CT: from 8.8 ± 1.5 to 7.1 ± 1.1), with a greater decrease in CT (P = 0.02). Night-time systolic BPV decreased in CT (from 9.4 ± 1.3 to 8.3 ± 1.2, P = 0.03) and remained unchanged in AT (from 9.5 ± 1.2 to 9.4 ± 1.4). Day-time BPV decreased in both groups without between-groups differences (P = 0.07). CT was more effective than AT in reducing short-term BPV in hypertensive patients, and both exercise modalities reduced BP to a same extent. CT appears to be a more appropriate exercise modality if the objective is to reduce BPV in addition to BP levels.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Combined exercise training (CT) including aerobic plus resistance exercises could be more effective in comparison with aerobic exercise (AT) alone in reducing blood pressure variability (BPV) in hypertensive patients. We report that CT was indeed more effective than AT in reducing short-term BPV, and both exercise modalities reduced BP levels to the same extent. CT appears to be a more appropriate exercise modality if the objective is to reduce BPV in addition to BP levels.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Treinamento de Força , Pressão Sanguínea , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Hipertensão/terapia , Masculino
13.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477388

RESUMO

There is evidence demonstrating that heart failure (HF) occurs in 1-2% of the global population and is often accompanied by comorbidities which contribute to increasing the prevalence of the disease, the rate of hospitalization and the mortality. Although recent advances in both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches have led to a significant improvement in clinical outcomes in patients affected by HF, residual unmet needs remain, mostly related to the occurrence of poorly defined strategies in the early stages of myocardial dysfunction. Nutritional support in patients developing HF and nutraceutical supplementation have recently been shown to possibly contribute to protection of the failing myocardium, although their place in the treatment of HF requires further assessment, in order to find better therapeutic solutions. In this context, the Optimal Nutraceutical Supplementation in Heart Failure (ONUS-HF) working group aimed to assess the optimal nutraceutical approach to HF in the early phases of the disease, in order to counteract selected pathways that are imbalanced in the failing myocardium. In particular, we reviewed several of the most relevant pathophysiological and molecular changes occurring during the early stages of myocardial dysfunction. These include mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic reticulum stress, insufficient nitric oxide (NO) release, impaired cardiac stem cell mobilization and an imbalanced regulation of metalloproteinases. Moreover, we reviewed the potential of the nutraceutical supplementation of several natural products, such as coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a grape seed extract, Olea Europea L.-related antioxidants, a sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT2) inhibitor-rich apple extract and a bergamot polyphenolic fraction, in addition to their support in cardiomyocyte protection, in HF. Such an approach should contribute to optimising the use of nutraceuticals in HF, and the effect needs to be confirmed by means of more targeted clinical trials exploring the efficacy and safety of these compounds.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Citrus/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Malus/química , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/fisiologia , Miocárdio/citologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Apoio Nutricional , Olea/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Ubiquinona/administração & dosagem , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados
14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(1): 83-91, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111464

RESUMO

The aims of this paper were to provide an overview of available activity monitors used in research in patients with heart failure and to identify the key criteria in the selection of the most appropriate activity monitor for collecting, reporting, and analysing physical activity in heart failure research. This study was conducted in three parts. First, the literature was systematically reviewed to identify physical activity concepts and activity monitors used in heart failure research. Second, an additional scoping literature search for validation of these activity monitors was conducted. Third, the most appropriate criteria in the selection of activity monitors were identified. Nine activity monitors were evaluated in terms of size, weight, placement, costs, data storage, water resistance, outcomes and validation, and cut-off points for physical activity intensity levels were discussed. The choice of a monitor should depend on the research aims, study population and design regarding physical activity. If the aim is to motivate patients to be active or set goals, a less rigorously tested tool can be considered. On the other hand, if the aim is to measure physical activity and its changes over time or following treatment adjustment, it is important to choose a valid activity monitor with a storage and battery longevity of at least one week. The device should provide raw data and valid cut-off points should be chosen for analysing physical activity intensity levels. Other considerations in choosing an activity monitor should include data storage location and ownership and the upfront costs of the device.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Exercício Físico , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica
15.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 110(7): 1020-1028, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE) has been described in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) critically ill patients, but the evidence from more heterogeneous cohorts is limited. METHODS: Data were retrospectively obtained from consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to 13 Cardiology Units in Italy, from March 1st to April 9th, 2020, and followed until in-hospital death, discharge, or April 23rd, 2020. The association of baseline variables with computed tomography-confirmed PE was investigated by Cox hazards regression analysis. The relationship between D-dimer levels and PE incidence was evaluated using restricted cubic splines models. RESULTS: The study included 689 patients (67.3 ± 13.2 year-old, 69.4% males), of whom 43.6% were non-invasively ventilated and 15.8% invasively. 52 (7.5%) had PE over 15 (9-24) days of follow-up. Compared with those without PE, these subjects had younger age, higher BMI, less often heart failure and chronic kidney disease, more severe cardio-pulmonary involvement, and higher admission D-dimer [4344 (1099-15,118) vs. 818.5 (417-1460) ng/mL, p < 0.001]. They also received more frequently darunavir/ritonavir, tocilizumab and ventilation support. Furthermore, they faced more bleeding episodes requiring transfusion (15.6% vs. 5.1%, p < 0.001) and non-significantly higher in-hospital mortality (34.6% vs. 22.9%, p = 0.06). In multivariate regression, only D-dimer was associated with PE (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.13-2.62; p = 0.01). The relation between D-dimer concentrations and PE incidence was linear, without inflection point. Only two subjects had a baseline D-dimer < 500 ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS: PE occurs in a sizable proportion of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The implications of bleeding events and the role of D-dimer in this population need to be clarified.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Hospitalização , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Embolia Pulmonar/virologia , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(12): 2238-2247, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179839

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the prognostic value of a history of heart failure (HF) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 692 consecutive patients admitted for COVID-19 in 13 Italian cardiology centres between 1 March and 9 April 2020. Mean age was 67.4 ± 13.2 years, 69.5% of patients were males, 90 (13.0%) had a history of HF, median hospitalization length was 14 days (interquartile range 9-24). In-hospital death occurred in 37 of 90 patients (41.1%) with HF history vs. 126 of those with no HF history (20.9%). The increased risk of death associated with HF history remained significant after adjustment for clinical variables related to COVID-19 and HF severity, including comorbidities, oxygen saturation, lymphocyte count and plasma troponin [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death: 2.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-4.02; P = 0.006 at multivariable Cox regression model including 404 patients]. Patients with a history of HF also had more in-hospital complications including acute HF (33.3% vs. 5.1%, P < 0.001), acute renal failure (28.1% vs. 12.9%, P < 0.001), multiorgan failure (15.9% vs. 5.8%, P = 0.004) and sepsis (18.4% vs. 8.9%, P = 0.006). Other independent predictors of outcome were age, sex, oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure at arterial gas analysis/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2 /FiO2 ). In-hospital treatment with corticosteroids and heparin had beneficial effects (adjusted HR for death: 0.46; 95% CI 0.29-0.74; P = 0.001; n = 404 for corticosteroids, and adjusted HR 0.41; 95% CI 0.25-0.67; P < 0.001; n = 364 for heparin). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and a history of HF have an extremely poor outcome with higher mortality and in-hospital complications. HF history is an independent predictor of increased in-hospital mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/epidemiologia , Sepse/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Gasometria , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/terapia , Doença Crônica , Comorbidade , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Pressão Parcial , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Proteção , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(9): 687-738, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094745

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis, either symptomatic or incidental, is a common complication in the history of cancer disease. The risk of VTE is 4-7-fold higher in oncology patients, and it represents the second leading cause of death, after cancer itself. In cancer patients, compared with the general population, VTE therapy is associated with higher rates of recurrent thrombosis and/or major bleeding. The need for treatment of VTE in patients with cancer is a challenge for the clinician because of the multiplicity of types of cancer, the disease stage and the imbricated cancer treatment. Historically, in cancer patients, low molecular weight heparins have been preferred for treatment of VTE. More recently, in large randomized clinical trials, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) demonstrated to reduce the risk of VTE. However, in the "real life", uncertainties remain on the use of DOACs, especially for the bleeding risk in patients with gastrointestinal cancers and the potential drug-to-drug interactions with specific anticancer therapies.In cancer patients, atrial fibrillation can arise as a perioperative complication or for the side effect of some chemotherapy agents, as well as a consequence of some associated risk factors, including cancer itself. The current clinical scores for predicting thrombotic events (CHA2DS2-VASc) or for predicting bleeding (HAS-BLED), used to guide antithrombotic therapy in the general population, have not yet been validated in cancer patients. Encouraging data for DOAC prescription in patients with atrial fibrillation and cancer are emerging: recent post-hoc analysis showed safety and efficacy of DOACs for the prevention of embolic events compared to warfarin in cancer patients. Currently, anticoagulant therapy of cancer patients should be individualized with multidisciplinary follow-up and frequent reassessment. This consensus document represents an advanced state of the art on the subject and provides useful notes on clinical practice.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Cardiologia , Consenso , Neoplasias/complicações , Sociedades Médicas , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
19.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(11): 1274-1280, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845276

RESUMO

Importance: Myocardial injury, detected by elevated plasma troponin levels, has been associated with mortality in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the initial data were reported from single-center or 2-center studies in Chinese populations. Compared with these patients, European and US patients are older, with more comorbidities and higher mortality rates. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and prognostic value of myocardial injury, detected by elevated plasma troponin levels, in a large population of White Italian patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a multicenter, cross-sectional study enrolling consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were hospitalized in 13 Italian cardiology units from March 1 to April 9, 2020. Patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome were excluded. Elevated troponin levels were defined as values greater than the 99th percentile of normal values. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical characteristics and outcomes stratified as elevated or normal cardiac troponin levels at admission, defined as troponin T or troponin I at a level greater than the 99th percentile of normal values. Results: A total of 614 patients with COVID-19 were included in this study (mean age [SD], 67 [13] years; 70.8% male), of whom 148 patients (24.1%) died during the hospitalization. Elevated troponin levels were found in 278 patients (45.3%). These patients were older (mean [SD] age, 64.0 [13.6] years vs 71.3 [12.0] years; P < .001) and had higher prevalence of hypertension (168 patients [50.5%] vs 182 patients [65.9%]; P < .001), heart failure (24 [7.2%]; 63 [22.8%]; P < .001), coronary artery disease (50 [15.0%] vs 87 [31.5%]; P < .001), and atrial fibrillation (33 [9.9%] vs 67 [24.3%]; P < .001). Elevated troponin levels were associated with an increased in-hospital mortality (37% vs 13%; HR, 1.71 [95% CI, 1.13-2.59]; P = .01 via multivariable Cox regression analysis), and this was independent from concomitant cardiac disease. Elevated troponin levels were also associated with a higher risk of in-hospital complications: heart failure (44 patients [19.2%] vs 7 patients [2.9%]; P < .001), sepsis (31 [11.7%] vs 21 [6.4%]; P = .03), acute kidney failure (41 [20.8%] vs 13 [6.2%]; P < .001), multiorgan failure (21 [10.9%] vs 6 [2.9%]; P = .003), pulmonary embolism (27 [9.9%] vs 17 [5.2%]; P = .04), delirium (13 [6.8%] vs 3 [1.5%]; P = .02), and major bleeding (16 [7.0%] vs 4 [1.6%]; P = .008). Conclusions and Relevance: In this multicenter, cross-sectional study of Italian patients with COVID-19, elevated troponin was an independent variable associated with in-hospital mortality and a greater risk of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular complications during a hospitalization for COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue
20.
J Tradit Complement Med ; 10(3): 268-274, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670822

RESUMO

Background and aim: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) represents a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. NAFLD is worsened by the simultaneous occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) causing an enhancement of inflammatory and fibrotic processes. Although insulin resistance appears the link between NAFLD and T2DM, current pharmacological treatments of T2DM failed to produce relevant benefits in preventing T2DM-related liver dysfunction. In this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, we evaluated the effect of Bergacyn, an innovative formulation originating from the combination of Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction (BPF) and Cynara cardunculus (CyC). Experimental procedure: 80 adult patients with a history of at least 12 months of T2DM and NAFLD received orally BPF (300 mg/daily) Cyc (300 mg/daily), separately or formulated in combination 50/50% (Bergacyn; 300 mg/daily), or placebo all containing 300 mg of bergamot albedo fibers micronized and co-grinded as excipients. Results and conclusion: Serum measurements and liver ultrasound analyses showed that concomitant administration of BPF and CyC produced significant improvement of NAFLD biomarkers in patients with T2DM. This effect was associated with a substantial reduction of oxidative stress/inflammatory biomarkers, thus contributing to a significant improvement of NO-mediated reactive vasodilation. Furthermore, the effect of Bergacyn showed a synergistic effect of both extracts, thus suggesting that this peculiar formulation represents a novel therapeutic strategy to counteract vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in patients suffering from T2DM and NAFLD. Further studies in larger cohort of diabetic patients are required to better identify the potential of Bergacyn on metabolic disorders accompanying T2DM and NAFLD.

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