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2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227620

RESUMO

AIMS: Over the last 30 years, many medicine development programmes in acute and chronic heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have failed, in contrast to those in HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). We explore how the neutral results in larger HF trials may be attributable to chance and/or the dilution of statistical power. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using simulations, we examined the probability that a positive finding in a Phase 2 trial would result in the study of a truly effective medicine in a Phase 3 trial. We assessed the similarity of clinical trial and registry patient populations. We conducted a meta-analysis of paired Phase 2 and 3 trials in HFrEF and acute HF examining the associations of trial phase and size with placebo event rates and treatment effects for HF events and death. We estimated loss in trial power attributable to dilution with increasing trial size. Appropriately powered Phase 3 trials should have yielded ∼35% positive results. Patient populations in Phase 3 trials are similar to those in Phase 2 trials but both differ substantially from the populations of 'real-life' registries. We observed decreasing placebo event rates and smaller treatment effects with increasing trial size, especially for HF events (and less so for mortality). This was more pronounced in trials in acute HF patients. CONCLUSIONS: The selection of more positive Phase 2 trials for further development does not explain the failure of HFpEF and acute HF medicine development. Increasing sample size may lead to reduced event rates and smaller treatment effects, resulting in a high rate of neutral Phase 3 trials.

3.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236720

RESUMO

In contrast to the wealth of proven therapies for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), therapeutic efforts in the past have failed to improve outcomes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Moreover, to this day, diagnosis of HFpEF remains controversial. However, there is growing appreciation that HFpEF represents a heterogeneous syndrome with various phenotypes and comorbidities which are hardly to differentiate solely by LVEF and might benefit from individually tailored approaches. These hypotheses are supported by the recently presented PARAGON-HF trial. Although treatment with LCZ696 did not result in a significantly lower rate of total hospitalizations for heart failure and death from cardiovascular causes among HFpEF patients, subanalyses suggest beneficial effects in female patients and those with an LVEF between 45 and 57%. In the future, prospective randomized trials should focus on dedicated, well-defined subgroups based on various information such as clinical characteristics, biomarker levels, and imaging modalities. These could clarify the role of LCZ696 in selected individuals. Furthermore, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors have just proven efficient in HFrEF patients and are currently also studied in large prospective clinical trials enrolling HFpEF patients. In addition, several novel disease-modifying drugs that pursue different strategies such as targeting cardiac inflammation and fibrosis have delivered preliminary optimistic results and are subject of further research. Moreover, innovative device therapies may enhance management of HFpEF, but need prospective adequately powered clinical trials to confirm safety and efficacy regarding clinical outcomes. This review highlights the past, present, and future therapeutic approaches in HFpEF.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216000

RESUMO

AIMS: Several studies have shown that older patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) are undertreated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of up-titration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and beta-blockers on outcome across the age spectrum in HFrEF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed HFrEF patients on sub-optimal doses of ACEI/ARB and/or beta-blockers from the BIOSTAT-CHF study stratified by age. Patients underwent a 3-month up-titration period. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for the likelihood of successful up-titration to determine the association of achieved dose with mortality and/or heart failure hospitalisation, testing for an interaction with age. Over a median follow-up of 21 months in 1720 HFrEF patients (76.5% male, mean age 67 years), the primary outcome occurred in 558 patients. Increased percentage of target dose of ACEI/ARB and beta-blocker achieved at 3 months were both significantly associated with reduced incidence of the primary outcome, [ACEI-ARB: hazard ratio (HR) per 12.5% increase in dose: 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-0.94, P < 0.001; beta-blocker: HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.00, P = 0.046], with a significant interaction with age seen for beta-blockers but not ACEI/ARB (P = 0.034 and P = 0.22, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Achieving higher doses of ACEI/ARB was associated with improved outcome regardless of age. However, achieving higher doses of beta-blockers was only associated with improved outcome in younger, but not in older patients.

5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141161

RESUMO

AIMS: Although left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is routinely used to categorize patients with heart failure (HF), whether it predicts outcomes after hospitalization for acute heart failure (AHF) is uncertain. Consequently, we assessed the relationship between LVEF and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in a large, well characterized cohort of patients hospitalized for AHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 6128 patients from the RELAX-AHF-2 trial who had LVEF measured during AHF hospitalization were separated into LVEF quartiles and the relationship between LVEF and a composite of CV mortality and rehospitalization for HF or renal failure through 180 days was assessed. We found progressively lower risk for this composite outcome as LVEF increased (hazard ratio 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.93-0.98 per 5% LVEF increase, P < 0.001) that was driven predominantly by decreased risk for rehospitalization. The smoothed spline curve depicting risk remained stable as LVEF decreased until reaching approximately 40%, at which point risk increased progressively with further reductions in LVEF. Significant differences between LVEF quartiles for post-discharge CV risk were seen in patients with an ischaemic aetiology or with a history of HF preceding index hospitalization, but were less robust in patients with non-ischaemic aetiology and absent in those with de novo HF. CONCLUSION: In patients hospitalized with AHF, CV events over 180 days were more frequent in patients with lower LVEF. This was due predominantly to a significant increase in risk for HF/renal failure rehospitalization but not in either CV or all-cause mortality. LVEF had greater prognostic value in patients with ischaemic aetiology or pre-existing HF.

7.
JACC Heart Fail ; 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171764

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between antigen carbohydrate 125 (CA125) and the risk of 1-year clinical outcomes in patients with worsening heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: CA125 is a widely available biomarker that is up-regulated in patients with acute HF and has been postulated as a useful marker of congestion and risk stratification. METHODS: In a large multicenter cohort of patients with worsening HF, either in-hospital or in the outpatient setting, the independent associations between CA125 and 1-year death and the composite of death/HF readmission (adjusted for outcome-specific prognostic risk score [BIOSTAT risk score]) were determined by using the Royston-Parmar method (N = 2,356). In a sensitivity analysis, the prognostic implications of CA125 were also adjusted for a composite congestion score (CCS). Data were validated in the BIOSTAT-CHF (Biology Study to Tailored Treatment in Chronic Heart Failure validation) cohort (N = 1,630). RESULTS: Surrogates of congestion, such as N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and CCS, emerged as independent predictors of CA125. In multivariable survival analyses, higher CA125 was associated with an increased risk of mortality and the composite of death/HF readmission (p < 0.001 for both comparisons), even after adjustment for the CCS (p < 0.010 for both comparisons). The addition of CA125 to the BIOSTAT score led to a significant risk reclassification for both outcomes (category-free net reclassification improvement = 0.137 [p < 0.001] and 0.104 [p = 0.003] respectively). All outcomes were confirmed in an independent validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with worsening HF, higher levels of CA125 were positively associated with parameters of congestion. Furthermore, CA125 remained independently associated with a higher risk of clinical outcomes, even beyond a predefined risk model and clinical surrogates of congestion.

8.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167681

RESUMO

AIMS: Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) and has been associated with poor prognosis. There are limited data on the associations of renin and aldosterone levels with clinical profiles, treatment response, and study outcomes in patients with HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed 2,039 patients with available baseline renin and aldosterone levels in BIOSTAT-CHF (a systems BIOlogy study to Tailored Treatment in Chronic Heart Failure). The primary outcome was the composite of all-cause mortality or HF hospitalization. We also investigated changes in renin and aldosterone levels after administration of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) in a subset of the EPHESUS trial and in an acute HF cohort (PORTO). In BIOSTAT-CHF study, median renin and aldosterone levels were 85.3 (percentile25-75 = 28-247) µIU/mL and 9.4 (percentile25-75 = 4.4-19.8) ng/dL, respectively. Prior HF admission, lower blood pressure, sodium, poorer renal function, and MRA treatment were associated with higher renin and aldosterone. Higher renin was associated with an increased rate of the primary outcome [highest vs. lowest renin tertile: adjusted-HR (95% CI) = 1.47 (1.16-1.86), P = 0.002], whereas higher aldosterone was not [highest vs. lowest aldosterone tertile: adjusted-HR (95% CI) = 1.16 (0.93-1.44), P = 0.19]. Renin and/or aldosterone did not improve the BIOSTAT-CHF prognostic models. The rise in aldosterone with the use of MRAs was observed in EPHESUS and PORTO studies. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating levels of renin and aldosterone were associated with both the disease severity and use of MRAs. By reflecting both the disease and its treatments, the prognostic discrimination of these biomarkers was poor. Our data suggest that the "point" measurement of renin and aldosterone in HF is of limited clinical utility.

9.
N Engl J Med ; 2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of vericiguat, a novel oral soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction who had recently been hospitalized or had received intravenous diuretic therapy is unclear. METHODS: In this phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned 5050 patients with chronic heart failure (New York Heart Association class II, III, or IV) and an ejection fraction of less than 45% to receive vericiguat (target dose, 10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to guideline-based medical therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes or first hospitalization for heart failure. RESULTS: Over a median of 10.8 months, a primary-outcome event occurred in 897 of 2526 patients (35.5%) in the vericiguat group and in 972 of 2524 patients (38.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82 to 0.98; P = 0.02). A total of 691 patients (27.4%) in the vericiguat group and 747 patients (29.6%) in the placebo group were hospitalized for heart failure (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.00). Death from cardiovascular causes occurred in 414 patients (16.4%) in the vericiguat group and in 441 patients (17.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.06). The composite of death from any cause or hospitalization for heart failure occurred in 957 patients (37.9%) in the vericiguat group and in 1032 patients (40.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.98; P = 0.02). Symptomatic hypotension occurred in 9.1% of the patients in the vericiguat group and in 7.9% of the patients in the placebo group (P = 0.12), and syncope occurred in 4.0% of the patients in the vericiguat group and in 3.5% of the patients in the placebo group (P = 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with high-risk heart failure, the incidence of death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure was lower among those who received vericiguat than among those who received placebo. (Funded by Merck Sharp & Dohme [a subsidiary of Merck] and Bayer; VICTORIA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02861534.).

10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(3): 391-412, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133741

RESUMO

Making a firm diagnosis of chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remains a challenge. We recommend a new stepwise diagnostic process, the 'HFA-PEFF diagnostic algorithm'. Step 1 (P=Pre-test assessment) is typically performed in the ambulatory setting and includes assessment for heart failure symptoms and signs, typical clinical demographics (obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, elderly, atrial fibrillation), and diagnostic laboratory tests, electrocardiogram, and echocardiography. In the absence of overt non-cardiac causes of breathlessness, HFpEF can be suspected if there is a normal left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, no significant heart valve disease or cardiac ischaemia, and at least one typical risk factor. Elevated natriuretic peptides support, but normal levels do not exclude a diagnosis of HFpEF. The second step (E: Echocardiography and Natriuretic Peptide Score) requires comprehensive echocardiography and is typically performed by a cardiologist. Measures include mitral annular early diastolic velocity (e'), LV filling pressure estimated using E/e', left atrial volume index, LV mass index, LV relative wall thickness, tricuspid regurgitation velocity, LV global longitudinal systolic strain, and serum natriuretic peptide levels. Major (2 points) and Minor (1 point) criteria were defined from these measures. A score ≥5 points implies definite HFpEF; ≤1 point makes HFpEF unlikely. An intermediate score (2-4 points) implies diagnostic uncertainty, in which case Step 3 (F1 : Functional testing) is recommended with echocardiographic or invasive haemodynamic exercise stress tests. Step 4 (F2 : Final aetiology) is recommended to establish a possible specific cause of HFpEF or alternative explanations. Further research is needed for a better classification of HFpEF.

11.
Eur Heart J ; 41(13): 1357-1364, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125360

RESUMO

AIMS: Recent data from national registries suggest that acute heart failure (AHF) outcomes might vary in men and women, however, it is not known whether this observation is universal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of biological sex and 1-year all-cause mortality in patients with AHF in various regions of the world. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed several AHF cohorts including GREAT registry (22 523 patients, mostly from Europe and Asia) and OPTIMIZE-HF (26 376 patients from the USA). Clinical characteristics and medication use at discharge were collected. Hazard ratios (HRs) for 1-year mortality according to biological sex were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with adjustment for baseline characteristics (e.g. age, comorbidities, clinical and laboratory parameters at admission, left ventricular ejection fraction). In the GREAT registry, women had a lower risk of death in the year following AHF [HR 0.86 (0.79-0.94), P < 0.001 after adjustment]. This was mostly driven by northeast Asia [n = 9135, HR 0.76 (0.67-0.87), P < 0.001], while no significant differences were seen in other countries. In the OPTIMIZE-HF registry, women also had a lower risk of 1-year death [HR 0.93 (0.89-0.97), P < 0.001]. In the GREAT registry, women were less often prescribed with a combination of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers at discharge (50% vs. 57%, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Globally women with AHF have a lower 1-year mortality and less evidenced-based treatment than men. Differences among countries need further investigation. Our findings merit consideration when designing future global clinical trials in AHF.

12.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(3): 234-242, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to compare the characteristics of patients with and without diabetes and to use network analyses to compare biomarker profiles and associated pathways in patients with diabetes compared with those without diabetes, which might offer new avenues for potential therapeutic targets. BACKGROUND: Diabetes adversely affects clinical outcomes and complicates treatment in patients with heart failure (HF). A clear understanding of the pathophysiological processes associated with type 2 diabetes in HF is lacking. METHODS: Network and pathway over-representation analyses were performed to identify unique pathological pathways in patients with and without diabetes using 92 biomarkers from different pathophysiological domains measured in plasma samples from 1,572 patients with HF (31% with diabetes) with reduced ejection fraction (left ventricular ejection fraction <40%). The results were validated in an independent cohort of 729 patients (30% with diabetes). RESULTS: Biomarker profiles were first compared between patients with HF with and without diabetes. Patients with diabetes showed higher levels of galectin-4, growth differentiation factor 15, and fatty acid binding protein 4 and lower levels of paraoxonase 3. Network analyses were then performed, revealing that epidermal growth factor receptor and galectin-3 were the most prominent connecting proteins. Translation of these networks to biologic pathways revealed that diabetes was associated with inflammatory response and neutrophil degranulation. Diabetes conferred worse outcomes after correction for an established risk model (hazard ratio: 1.20; 95% confidence interval: 1.01 to 1.42). CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant diabetes in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction is associated with distinct pathophysiological pathways related to inflammation, protein phosphorylation, and neutrophil degranulation. These data support the evaluation of anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches, epidermal growth factor receptor in particular, for patients with HF and diabetes.

13.
J Card Fail ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elamipretide, a novel mitochondrial modulating agent, improves myocardial energetics; however, it is unknown whether this mechanistic benefit translates into improved cardiac structure and function in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of multiple subcutaneous doses of elamipretide on left ventricular end systolic volume (LVESV) as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: We randomized 71 patients with HFrEF (LVEF ≤ 40%) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive placebo, 4 mg or 40 mg elamipretide once daily for 28 consecutive days. RESULTS: The mean age (standard deviation) of the study population was 65 ± 10 years, 24% were females, and the mean EF was 31% ± 7%. The change in LVESV from baseline to week 4 was not significantly different between elamipretide 4 mg (89.4 mL to 85 mL; difference, -4.4 mL) or 40 mg (77.9 mL to 76.6 mL; difference, -1.2 mL) compared with placebo (77.7 mL to 74.6 mL; difference, -3.8 mL) (4 mg vs placebo: difference of means, -0.3; 95% CI, -4.6 to 4.0; P = 0.90; and 40 mg vs placebo: difference of means, 2.3; 95% CI, -1.9 to 6.5; P  =  0.28). Also, no significant differences in change in LVESV and LVEF were observed between placebo and either of the elamipretide groups. Rates of any study drug-related adverse events were similar in the 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Elamipretide was well tolerated but did not improve LVESV at 4 weeks in patients with stable HFrEF compared with placebo.

14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086996

RESUMO

AIMS: Urinary sodium assessment has recently been proposed as a target for loop diuretic therapy in acute heart failure (AHF). We aimed to investigate the time course, clinical correlates and prognostic importance of urinary sodium excretion in AHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective cohort of 175 consecutive patients with an admission for AHF we evaluated urinary sodium excretion 6 h after initiation of loop diuretic therapy. Clinical outcome was all-cause mortality or heart failure rehospitalization. Mean age was 71 ± 14 years, and 44% were female. Median urinary sodium excretion was 130 (67-229) mmol at 6 h, 347 (211-526) mmol at 24 h, and decreased from day 2 to day 4. Lower urinary sodium excretion was independently associated with male gender, younger age, renal dysfunction and pre-admission loop diuretic use. There was a strong association between urinary sodium excretion at 6 h and 24 h urine volume (beta = 0.702, P < 0.001). Urinary sodium excretion after 6 h was a strong predictor of all-cause mortality after a median follow-up of 257 days (hazard ratio 3.81, 95% confidence interval 1.92-7.57; P < 0.001 for the lowest vs. the highest tertile of urinary sodium excretion) independent of established risk factors and urinary volume. Urinary sodium excretion was not associated with heart failure rehospitalization. CONCLUSION: In a modern, unselected, contemporary AHF population, low urinary sodium excretion during the first 6 h after initiation of loop diuretic therapy is associated with lower urine output in the first day and independently associated with all-cause mortality.

15.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:: Arterial stiffness influences the contour of the digital pressure pulse wave. METHOD:: Here, we investigated whether the digital pulse propagation index (DPPI), based on the digital pressure pulse wave, DPPI is associated with cardiovascular events, heart failure, and mortality in a large population-based cohort. Between 2001 and 2003, DPPI was measured with a PortaPres noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring device (FinaPres Medical Systems, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) in participants of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease study, a community-based cohort. We assessed the main determinants of the DPPI and investigated associations of DPPI with cardiovascular events and mortality. RESULTS:: The study included 5474 individuals. Mean age was 52.3 ±â€Š11.8 years and 50.5% was male. Median baseline DPPI was 5.81 m/s (interquartile range 5.47-6.20). Higher age, mean arterial blood pressure, body height, heart rate, current smoking, and lower HDL cholesterol levels and waist circumference were independent determinants of the DPPI (r = 0.43). After adjustment for heart rate, highlogDPPI was associated with all-cause mortality [hazard ratio: 1.67, 95% confidence interval (1.55-1.81) per SD; P < 0.001], cardiovascular mortality [hazard ratio 1.95 (1.72-2.22); P < 0.001], and incident heart failure with reduced ejection fraction [hazard ratio 1.81 (1.60-2.06); P < 0.001]. These associations remained independent upon further adjustment for confounders. Optimal cutoff values for DPPI ranged between 6.1 and 6.3 m/s for all endpoints. After multivariable adjustment, DPPI was no longer associated with coronary artery disease events or cerebrovascular events. CONCLUSION:: The DPPI is associated with an increased risk of development of new onset heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, but not with coronary artery events or cerebrovascular events.

16.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loop diuretics are frequently prescribed to patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) for the treatment of congestion; however, they might hamper uptitration of inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system. METHODS: Loop diuretic dose at baseline was recorded in 2338 patients with HFrEF enrolled in BIOSTAT-CHF, an international study of HF patients on loop diuretic therapy who were eligible for uptitration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi)/mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA). The association between loop diuretic dose and uptitration of ACEi/MRA to percentage of target dose was adjusted for a previously published model for likelihood of uptitration and a propensity score. RESULTS: Baseline median loop diuretic dose was 40 [40-100] mg of furosemide or equivalent. Higher doses of loop diuretics were associated with higher NYHA class and higher levels of NT-proBNP, more severe signs and symptoms of congestion, more frequent MRA use, and lower doses of ACEi reached at 3 and 9 months (all P < 0.01). After propensity adjustment, higher doses of loop diuretics remained significantly associated with poorer uptitration of ACEi (Beta per log doubling of loop diuretic dose: - 1.66, P = 0.021), but not with uptitration of MRAs (P = 0.758). Higher doses of loop diuretics were independently associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality or HF hospitalization [HR per doubling of loop diuretic dose: 1.06 (1.01-1.12), P = 0.021]. CONCLUSIONS: Higher doses of loop diuretics limited uptitration of ACEi in patients with HFrEF and were associated with a higher risk of death and/or HF hospitalization, independent of their lower likelihood of uptitration and higher baseline risk. This figure was created with images adapted from Servier Medical Art licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0.

17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912605

RESUMO

AIMS: Inhibition of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) reduces the risk of death and heart failure (HF) admissions in patients with chronic HF. However, safety and clinical efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with acute decompensated HF are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group, multicentre pilot study, we randomized 80 acute HF patients with and without diabetes to either empagliflozin 10 mg/day or placebo for 30 days. The primary outcomes were change in visual analogue scale (VAS) dyspnoea score, diuretic response (weight change per 40 mg furosemide), change in N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and length of stay. Secondary outcomes included safety and clinical endpoints. Mean age was 76 years, 33% were female, 47% had de novo HF and median NT-proBNP was 5236 pg/mL. No difference was observed in VAS dyspnoea score, diuretic response, length of stay, or change in NT-proBNP between empagliflozin and placebo. Empagliflozin reduced a combined endpoint of in-hospital worsening HF, rehospitalization for HF or death at 60 days compared with placebo [4 (10%) vs. 13 (33%); P = 0.014]. Urinary output up until day 4 was significantly greater with empagliflozin vs. placebo [difference 3449 (95% confidence interval 578-6321) mL; P < 0.01]. Empagliflozin was safe, well tolerated, and had no adverse effects on blood pressure or renal function. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with acute HF, treatment with empagliflozin had no effect on change in VAS dyspnoea, diuretic response, NT-proBNP, and length of hospital stay, but was safe, increased urinary output and reduced a combined endpoint of worsening HF, rehospitalization for HF or death at 60 days.

18.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(1): e006155, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957469

RESUMO

Antibodies that activate the ß1-AR (ß1-adrenoreceptor) can induce heart failure in animal models. These antibodies are often found in patients with heart failure secondary to varying etiologies. Their binding to the ß1 receptor leads to prolonged receptor activation with subsequent induction of cellular dysfunction, apoptosis, and arrhythmias. ß-blocker therapy while highly effective for heart failure, may not be sufficient treatment for patients who have ß1 receptor autoantibodies. Removal of these autoantibodies by immunoadsorption has been shown to improve heart failure in small studies. However, immunoadsorption is costly, time consuming, and carries potential risks. An alternative to immunoadsorption is neutralization of autoantibodies through the intravenous application of small soluble molecules, such as peptides or aptamers, which specifically target and neutralize ß1-AR autoantibodies. Peptides may induce immunogenicity. Animal as well as early phase human studies with aptamers have not shown safety concerns to date and have demonstrated effectiveness in reducing autoantibody levels. Novel aptamers have the potential advantage of having a wide spectrum of action, neutralizing a variety of known circulating G-protein coupled receptor autoantibodies. These aptamers, therefore, have the potential to be novel therapeutic option for patients with heart failure who have positive for ß1-AR autoantibodies. However, clinical outcomes trials are needed to assess the clinical utility of this novel approach to treat heart failure.

19.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(3): 519-527, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919934

RESUMO

AIMS: To study the association between an atrial fibrillation (AF) genetic risk score with prevalent AF and all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: An AF genetic risk score was calculated in 3759 European ancestry individuals (1783 with sinus rhythm, 1976 with AF) from the BIOlogy Study to TAilored Treatment in Chronic Heart Failure (BIOSTAT-CHF) by summing 97 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles (ranging from 0-2) weighted by the natural logarithm of the relative SNP risk from the latest AF genome-wide association study. Further, we assessed AF risk variance explained by additive SNP variation, and performance of clinical or genetic risk factors, and the combination in classifying AF prevalence. AF was classified as AF or atrial flutter (AFL) at baseline electrocardiogram and/or a history of AF or AFL. The genetic risk score was associated with AF after multivariable adjustment. Odds ratio for AF prevalence per 1-unit increase genetic risk score was 2.12 (95% confidence interval 1.84-2.45, P = 2.15 × 10-24 ) in the total cohort, 2.08 (1.72-2.50, P = 1.30 × 10-14 ) in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and 2.02 (1.37-2.99, P = 4.37 × 10-4 ) in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). AF-associated loci explained 22.9% of overall AF SNP heritability. Addition of the genetic risk score to clinical risk factors increased the C-index by 2.2% to 0.721. CONCLUSIONS: The AF genetic risk score was associated with increased AF prevalence in HFrEF and HFpEF. Genetic variation accounted for 22.9% of overall AF SNP heritability. Addition of genetic risk to clinical risk improved model performance in classifying AF prevalence.

20.
Eur J Intern Med ; 71: 62-69, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge on the association between heart failure (HF) etiologies, precipitant causes and clinical outcomes may help in ascertaining patient's risk and in selecting tailored therapeutic strategies. METHODS: The prognostic value of both HF etiologies and precipitants for worsening HF were analyzed using the index cohort of BIOSTAT-CHF. The studied HF etiologies were: a) ischemic HF; b) dilated cardiomyopathy; c) hypertensive HF; d) valvular HF; and e) other/unknown. The precipitating factors for worsening HF were: a) atrial fibrillation; b) non-adherence; c) renal failure; d) acute coronary syndrome; e) hypertension; and f) Infection. The primary outcome was the composite of all-cause death or HF hospitalization. RESULTS: Among 2465 patients included in the study, 45% (N = =1102) had ischemic HF, 23% (N = =563) dilated cardiomyopathy, 15% (N = =379) other/unknown, 10% (N = =237) hypertensive and 7% (N = =184) valvular HF. Patients with ischemic HF had the worst prognosis, whereas patients with dilated cardiomyopathy had the best prognosis. From the precipitating factors for worsening HF, renal failure was the one independently associated with worse prognosis (adjusted HR (95%CI) = =1.48 (1.04-2.09), p < 0.001). We found no interaction between HF etiologies and precipitating factors for worsening HF with regard to the study outcomes (p interaction > 0.10 for all). Treatment up-titration benefited patients regardless of their underlying etiology or precipitating cause (p interaction > 0.10 for all). CONCLUSIONS: In BIOSTAT-CHF, patients with HF of an ischemic etiology, and those with worsening HF precipitated by renal failure (irrespective of the underlying HF etiology), had the highest rates of death and HF hospitalization, but still benefited equally from treatment up-titration.

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