Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 123
Filtrar
1.
Eur J Neurol ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic axonal polyneuropathy is a common, usually multifactorial disease and there is no treatment available yet. We investigated the association between cardiovascular health, defined by the health score of the American Heart Association, and chronic axonal polyneuropathy. METHODS: Between June 2013 and January 2017, we investigated participants of the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort study. Participants were screened for polyneuropathy and categorized as no, possible, probable or definite polyneuropathy. The cardiovascular health score (range 0-14, higher score reflecting better health) consisted of four health behaviours (diet, physical activity, smoking and body mass index) and three health factors (blood pressure, serum cholesterol and fasting glucose level). RESULTS: We included 1919 participants of whom 120 (6.3%) had definite polyneuropathy. Median age was 69.0 years (IQR 58.6-73.7) and 53.4% was female. A higher cardiovascular health score was associated with a lower prevalence of definite polyneuropathy (per point increase: OR 0.90, 95%CI 0.84-0.96). Optimal cardiovascular health (score≥10) was strongly associated with lower prevalence of definite polyneuropathy (OR 0.55, 95%CI 0.32-0.90). An increase of health factors and health behaviour score separately was associated with a lower prevalence of polyneuropathy (per point increase: OR 0.82, 95%CI 0.71-0.95 and OR 0.86, 95%CI 0.78-0.96, respectively). The association between a lower cardiovascular health score and lower sural nerve amplitude was not significant after correction for covariates (difference 0.07µV, 95%CI -0.02;0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Better cardiovascular health, consisting of both modifiable health behaviours and health factors, is associated with a lower prevalence of chronic axonal polyneuropathy.

2.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 40, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a heterogeneous disease with well-known genetic and environmental risk factors contributing to its prevalence. Epigenetic mechanisms related to changes in DNA methylation (DNAm), may also contribute to T2D risk, but larger studies are required to discover novel markers, and to confirm existing ones. RESULTS: We performed a large meta-analysis of individual epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of prevalent T2D conducted in four European studies using peripheral blood DNAm. Analysis of differentially methylated regions (DMR) was also undertaken, based on the meta-analysis results. We found three novel CpGs associated with prevalent T2D in Europeans at cg00144180 (HDAC4), cg16765088 (near SYNM) and cg24704287 (near MIR23A) and confirmed three CpGs previously identified (mapping to TXNIP, ABCG1 and CPT1A). We also identified 77 T2D associated DMRs, most of them hypomethylated in T2D cases versus controls. In adjusted regressions among diabetic-free participants in ALSPAC, we found that all six CpGs identified in the meta-EWAS were associated with white cell-types. We estimated that these six CpGs captured 11% of the variation in T2D, which was similar to the variation explained by the model including only the common risk factors of BMI, sex, age and smoking (R2 = 10.6%). CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies novel loci associated with T2D in Europeans. We also demonstrate associations of the same loci with other traits. Future studies should investigate if our findings are generalizable in non-European populations, and potential roles of these epigenetic markers in T2D etiology or in determining long term consequences of T2D.

3.
J Bone Miner Res ; 36(2): 219-226, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503301

RESUMO

A healthy diet is essential to attain genetically determined peak bone mass and maintain optimal skeletal health across the adult lifespan. Despite the importance of nutrition for bone health, many of the nutritional requirements of the skeleton across the lifespan remain underexplored, poorly understood, or controversial. With increasingly aging populations, combined with rapidly changing diets and lifestyles globally, one anticipates large increases in the prevalence of osteoporosis and incidence of osteoporotic fractures. Robust, transparent, and reproducible nutrition research is a cornerstone for developing reliable public health recommendations to prevent osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. However, nutrition research is often criticized or ignored by healthcare professionals due to the overemphasis of weak science, conflicting, confusing or implausible findings, industry interests, common misconceptions, and strong opinions. Conversely, spurious research findings are often overemphasized or misconstrued by the media or prominent figures especially via social media, potentially leading to confusion and a lack of trust by the general public. Recently, reforms of the broader discipline of nutrition science have been suggested and promoted, leading to new tools and recommendations to attempt to address these issues. In this perspective, we provide a brief overview of what has been achieved in the field on nutrition and bone health, focusing on osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. We discuss what we view as some of the challenges, including inherent difficulties in assessing diet and its change, disentangling complex interactions between dietary components and between diet and other factors, selection of bone-related outcomes for nutrition studies, obtaining evidence with more unbiased designs, and perhaps most importantly, ensuring the trust of the public and healthcare professionals. This perspective also provides specific recommendations and highlights new developments and future opportunities for scientists studying nutrition and bone health. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

4.
Diabetes Care ; 44(3): 663-671, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441419

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the associations between changes in plant-based diets and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively followed 76,530 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (1986-2012), 81,569 women in NHS II (1991-2017), and 34,468 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2016). Adherence to plant-based diets was assessed every 4 years with the overall plant-based diet index (PDI), healthful PDI (hPDI), and unhealthful PDI (uPDI). We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs). We pooled results of the three cohorts using meta-analysis. RESULTS: We documented 12,627 cases of type 2 diabetes during 2,955,350 person-years of follow-up. After adjustment for initial BMI and initial and 4-year changes in alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity, and other factors, compared with participants whose indices remained relatively stable (±3%), participants with the largest decrease (>10%) in PDI and hPDI over 4 years had a 12-23% higher diabetes risk in the subsequent 4 years (pooled HR, PDI 1.12 [95% CI 1.05, 1.20], hPDI 1.23 [1.16, 1.31]). Each 10% increment in PDI and hPDI over 4 years was associated with a 7-9% lower risk (PDI 0.93 [0.91, 0.95], hPDI 0.91 [0.87, 0.95]). Changes in uPDI were not associated with diabetes risk. Weight changes accounted for 6.0-35.6% of the associations between changes in PDI and hPDI and diabetes risk. CONCLUSIONS: Improving adherence to overall and healthful plant-based diets was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas decreased adherence to such diets was associated with a higher risk.

5.
Appetite ; 160: 105083, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359227

RESUMO

Food parenting practices are considered to have a key influence on children's dietary habits, with potential long term effects. In this study, we explored the associations of parental feeding practices and family mealtime practices in early childhood with children's overall diet quality at school age among 3626 parents and their children in a population-based cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Parental feeding practices (monitoring, pressure to eat, and restriction) and family mealtime practices (meal skipping behaviors and family meal frequency) at age 4 years were assessed by parental questionnaires. Children's dietary intake was assessed at age 8 years using a food-frequency questionnaire, from which diet quality scores (range 0-10) were calculated, reflecting adherence to age-specific dietary guidelines. Using multivariable linear regression models, we found that monitoring was associated with higher diet quality of children (ß = 0.12; 95%CI: 0.08, 0.16), whereas pressure to eat was associated with lower diet quality (ß = -0.08; 95%CI: -0.12, -0.04)), both independent of child BMI. Restriction was associated with a higher child diet quality, but this association was explained by child BMI. As compared to children who did not skip meals, children who skipped meals had a lower diet quality (e.g. breakfast skipping: ß = -0.32; 95%CI: -0.48, -0.17). Similarly, children who had less frequent family meals had a lower diet quality compared with those who had family meals every day (e.g. family dinner ≤2 days/week: ß = -0.37; 95%CI: -0.60, -0.14). These associations were not driven by single food groups. In conclusion, parental monitoring and family mealtime routines in early childhood may provide a supportive food environment that promotes children's overall diet quality. Longitudinal studies with repeated measurements are needed to replicate our findings.

6.
Eur J Clin Invest ; : e13479, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatty liver disease (FLD), primarily nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is the most common liver disorder that affects a quarter of the global population. NAFLD is a spectrum of disease ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which is associated with increased risk of developing liver cancer. Given that the pathogenic mechanisms of fatty liver remain largely elusive, it is important to further investigate potential underlying mechanisms including epigenetic modifications. Here, we performed a systematic review of human epigenetic studies on FLD presence. METHODS: Five bibliographic databases were screened until 28 August 2020. We included cross-sectional, case-control and cohort studies in humans that examined the association of epigenetic modifications including global, candidate or epigenome-wide methylation of DNA, noncoding RNAs and histone modifications with FLD. RESULTS: In total 36 articles, based on 33 unique studies, consisting of 12 112 participants met the inclusion criteria. Among these, two recent epigenome-wide association studies conducted among large population-based cohorts have reported the association between cg06690548 (SLC7A11) and FLD. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated the association between microRNAs (miRNAs) and FLD, in which miR-122, miR-34a and miR-192 were recognized as the most relevant miRNAs as biomarkers for FLD. We did not find any studies examining histone modifications in relation to FLD. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative evidence suggests a link between epigenetic mechanisms, specifically DNA methylation and miRNAs, and FLD. Further efforts should investigate the molecular pathways by which these epigenetic markers may regulate FLD and also the potential role of histone modifications in FLD.

7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taste preference is an important determinant of dietary intake and is influenced by taste exposure in early life. However, data on dietary taste patterns in early childhood are scarce. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate dietary taste patterns in early childhood, to examine their tracking between the ages of 1 and 2 y, and to examine their associations with socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. METHODS: Dietary intake of children participating in a population-based cohort was assessed with a 211-item age-specific FFQ at the ages of 1 y ( n = 3629) and 2 y (n = 844) (2003-2007). Taste intensity values of FFQ food items were calculated based on a food taste database that had been previously constructed and evaluated using a trained adult sensory panel. Cluster analysis based on taste values identified 5 taste clusters that we named: "neutral," "sweet and sour," "sweet and fat," "fat," and "salt, umami and fat." Linear regression models were used to examine associations of percentage energy (E%) intake from these taste clusters with socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: At the age of 1 y, 64% ± 13% (mean ± SD) of energy intake was obtained from the "neutral" cluster, whereas at age 2 y, this was 42% ± 8%. At age 2 y, children had higher energy intakes from the "sweet and fat" (18% ± 7%), "fat" (11% ± 4%), and "salt, umami, and fat" (18% ± 6%) clusters than at age 1 y (7% ± 6%, 6% ± 4%, and 11% ± 6%, respectively). In multivariable models, older maternal age, longer breastfeeding duration, and later introduction of complementary feeding were associated with more energy from the "neutral" cluster (e.g., ß: 0.31 E%; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.43 E% per 1 mo longer breastfeeding). Higher child BMI was associated with more energy from the "salt, umami, and fat" cluster (ß: 0.22 E%; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.38 E% per BMI standard deviation score). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary taste patterns in this Dutch cohort were more varied and intense in taste at age 2 y than at 1 y, reaching a level similar to that previously observed in Dutch adults. Important factors related to dietary taste patterns of young children are maternal sociodemographic factors and feeding practices.This trial was registered at trialregister.nl as NL6484.

8.
Thyroid ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones are important metabolic regulators exerting effects in multiple systemic functions including muscular and cardiorespiratory. Thyroid hormones may influence physical activity levels. However, there are currently no studies evaluating the association between thyroid function and physical activity levels in the general population. METHODS: In a population-based cohort-study between 2006 and 2013, we assessed the cross-sectional and longitudinal (with a mean follow-up time of 5 years) association of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) with physical activity (Metabolic equivalent task (MET)-hours per week). Information on physical activity was collected using a validated questionnaire (LASA, median 22.50 METh/wk). The association of TSH and FT4 with physical activity was examined using linear regression models in the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, adjusted for age, sex, lifestyle factors and cardiovascular disease. In sensitivity analyses, we examined the association between thyroid function and physical activity including only participants within the reference range of thyroid function. We additionally examined moderate and vigorous physical activity separately as outcomes. RESULTS: We included 2470 participants for the cross-sectional analysis (mean age 57.3 years, 58% women) and 1907 participants for the longitudinal analysis (mean age 56.9 years). Cross-sectionally, there was no association between TSH (mIU/L) or FT4 (ng/dL) with physical activity (ß = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI), -1.67; 2.98 and ß = 2.76, CI, -7.15; 12.66, respectively). Similarly, in the longitudinal analyses, we observed no association of TSH (ß = 1.16, CI, -1.31; 3.63) or FT4 (ß = -6.63, CI, -17.06; 3.80) with physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe an association between the endogenous thyroid hormones and total physical activity. Further studies need to be performed to evaluate whether thyroid hormone replacement therapy is associated with physical activity.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119748

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Stress may lead to an adverse body fat distribution from childhood onwards. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) at 6 years with general and organ fat measures, risk of overweight and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) at 10 years and to assess whether these were independent of adiposity measures at 6 years. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: HCC were measured in hair of 6-year old children (n = 2,042) participating in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: BMI, fat mass index (FMI) measured by DXA scan, and visceral fat index, pericardial fat index, liver fat fraction measured by MRI and risk of overweight and NAFLD were obtained at 10 years. RESULTS: The associations of higher HCC at 6 years, with higher BMI, FMI and increased risk of overweight at age 10 years are explained by the relationships observed at 6 years. HCC at 6 years were associated with a higher liver fat fraction (difference 0.11 liver fat fraction standard deviation score (SDS) (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.03, 0.18)) and a higher risk of NAFLD at 10 years (OR: 1.95 (95% CI 1.06, 3.56), independent of FMI at 6 years. HCC were not associated with pericardial or visceral fat indices. CONCLUSIONS: Higher HCC at 6 years were associated with higher BMI, FMI, liver fat fraction, and higher risks of overweight and NAFLD at 10 years. Only the associations for liver fat fraction and NAFLD were independent of FMI at 6 years.

10.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036333

RESUMO

Fatty acids might play a role in asthma and allergy development as they can modulate immune responses. We examined among 4260 mother-child pairs participating in a population-based cohort the associations of maternal plasma fatty acid patterns during pregnancy with a child's respiratory and allergy outcomes at school-age. In mid-pregnancy, 22 individual fatty acids were measured from maternal blood. Three patterns were previously identified by principal component analysis: A 'high n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)', a 'monounsaturated and saturated fatty acid', and a 'high n-3 PUFA' pattern. At the age of 10 years, a child's lung function was assessed by spirometry, current asthma and physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy by questionnaire, and inhalant allergic sensitization by skin prick tests. A higher 'high n-6 PUFA' pattern was associated with a higher forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity and forced expiratory flow after exhaling 75% of forced vital capacity (Z-score difference (95% CI) 0.04 (0, 0.07) and 0.04 (0.01, 0.07), respectively, per SD increase in the fatty acid pattern). We observed no associations of maternal fatty acid patterns with a child's asthma or allergy outcomes. Our results showed limited associations of maternal patterns of high n-6 PUFA concentrations in pregnancy with a better lung function in school-aged children.

11.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784487

RESUMO

Animal studies suggest a role for dietary advanced glycation end-products (dAGEs) in bone health, but human studies on dAGEs in relation to bone are lacking. We aimed to study whether dAGEs intake is associated with the parameters of bone strength namely, bone mineral density (BMD), prevalent vertebral (VFs), and major osteoporotic fractures (MOFs = hip, wrist, proximal humerus, and clinical VFs). 3949 participants (mean age 66.7 ± 10.5 years) were included from a Rotterdam study for whom Carboxymethyllysine (CML-a dietary AGE) was estimated from food frequency questionnaires combined with dAGEs databases. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were performed adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, dietary quality, physical activity, diabetes, smoking, renal function, and cohort effect and for models on fractures, subsequently for BMD. We observed no association of CML with BMD at both femoral neck (ß = -0.006; p = 0.70) and lumbar spine (ß = -0.013; p = 0.38). A higher intake of CML was linearly associated with VFs (Odds ratio, OR = 1.16, 95% CI (1.02-1.32) and a similar but non-significant trend with MOFs (OR = 1.12 (0.98-1.27). Additional adjustment for BMD did not change the associations. Our results imply a positive association between dietary intake of CML and VFs independent of BMD. Future studies are needed in order to elucidate whether associations found are causal.

12.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(8)2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785027

RESUMO

Although there is some evidence that total dietary antioxidant capacity (TDAC) is inversely associated with the presence of obesity, no longitudinal studies have been performed investigating the effect of TDAC on comprehensive measures of body composition over time. In this study, we included 4595 middle-aged and elderly participants from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort. We estimated TDAC among these individuals by calculating a ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) score based on data from food-frequency questionnaires. Body composition was assessed by means of dual X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and every subsequent 3-5 years. From these data, we calculated fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), android-to-gynoid fat ratio (AGR), body fat percentage (BF%) and body mass index (BMI). We also assessed hand grip strength at two time points and prevalence of sarcopenia at one time point in a subset of participants. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models or multinomial logistic regression models with multivariable adjustment. We found that higher FRAP score was associated with higher FFMI (0.091 kg/m2 per standard deviation (SD) higher FRAP score, 95% CI 0.031; 0.150), lower AGR (-0.028, 95% CI -0.053; -0.003), higher BMI (0.115, 95% CI 0.020; 0.209) and lower BF% (-0.223, 95% CI -0.383; -0.064) across follow-up after multivariable adjustment. FRAP score was not associated with hand grip strength or sarcopenia. Additional adjustment for adherence to dietary guidelines and exclusion of individuals with comorbid disease at baseline did not change our results. In conclusion, dietary intake of antioxidants may positively affect the amount of lean mass and overall body composition among the middle-aged and elderly.

13.
Am J Prev Med ; 59(3): 412-419, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713616

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Associations between time spent on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep and quality of life are usually studied without considering that their combined time is fixed. This study investigates the reallocation of time spent on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep during the 24-hour day and their associations with quality of life. METHODS: Data from the 2011-2016 Rotterdam Study were used to perform this cross-sectional analysis among 1,934 participants aged 51-94 years. Time spent in activity levels (sedentary, light-intensity physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and sleep) were objectively measured with a wrist-worn accelerometer combined with a sleep diary. Quality of life was measured using the EuroQoL 5D-3L questionnaire. The compositional isotemporal substitution method was used in 2018 to examine the association between the distribution of time spent in different activity behaviors and quality of life. RESULTS: Reallocation of 30 minutes from sedentary behavior, light-intensity physical activity, or sleep to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with a higher quality of life, whereas reallocation from moderate-to-vigorous physical activity to sedentary behavior, light-intensity physical activity, or sleep was associated with lower quality of life. To illustrate this, a reallocation of 30 minutes from sedentary behavior to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with a 3% (95% CI=2, 4) higher quality of life score. By contrast, a reallocation of 30 minutes from moderate-to-vigorous physical activity to sedentary behavior was associated with a 4% (95% CI=2, 6) lower quality of life score. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is important with regard to the quality of life of middle-aged and elderly individuals. The benefits of preventing less time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were greater than the benefits of more time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. These results could shift the attention to interventions focused on preventing reductions in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings and explore causality.

14.
Epidemiology ; 31(5): 736-744, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a global epidemic, and its prevalence differs by ethnicity. The objective of this study was to estimate the change in ethnic inequalities in child adiposity at age 10 resulting from interventions on diet at age 8 and screen time and sports participation at age 9. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study, the Generation R Study, from 9,749 births in Rotterdam (2002-2006), of which 9,506 children remained in the analysis. We measured ethnicity, diet, screen time, and sports participation through questionnaires; we measured weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass index, and fat-free mass index directly. We used sequential G-estimation to estimate the reduction in inequality that would result from the interventions. RESULTS: We observed that sociodemographic characteristics, diet, screen time, sports participation, and all adiposity measurements were more favorable in children from Western versus non-Western ethnic backgrounds: weight = -1.2 kg (95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.7, -0.8), BMI = -1.0 kg/m (CI = -1.2, -0.9), and fat mass index = -0.8 kg/m (CI = -0.9, -0.7). We estimated that extreme intervention (maximum diet score of 10, no screen time, and >4 hours/week of sports) reduced ethnic inequalities by 21% (CI = 8%, 35%) for weight, 9% (CI = 4%, 14%) for BMI, and 9% (CI = 6%, 13%) for fat mass index. A diet score ≥5 points, screen time ≤2 hours/day, and sports participation >2 hours/week reduced ethnic inequalities by 17% (CI = 6%, 28%) for weight, 7% (CI = 3%, 11%) for BMI, and 7% (CI = 4%, 10%) for fat mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that interventions integrating diet, screen time, and sports participation have a moderate impact on reducing ethnic inequalities in child adiposity.

15.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629760

RESUMO

High sugar intake in childhood has been linked to obesity. However, the role of macronutrient substitutions and associations with metabolic health remain unclear. We examined associations of carbohydrate intake and its subtypes with body composition and metabolic health among 3573 children participating in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Intake of total carbohydrate, monosaccharides and disaccharides, and polysaccharides at age 1 year was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. We repeatedly measured children's height and weight to calculate BMI between their ages of 1 and 10 years. At ages 6 and 10 years, fat and fat-free mass were measured with dual-energy X-ray-absorptiometry and blood concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol, and insulin were obtained. For all outcomes, we calculated age and sexspecific SD-scores. In multivariable-adjusted linear mixed models, we found no associations of intake of carbohydrates or its subtypes with children's BMI or body composition. A higher intake of monosaccharides and disaccharides was associated with higher triglyceride concentrations (0.02 SDS per 10 g/d, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.04). Higher monosaccharide and disaccharide intake was also associated with lower HDL-cholesterol (-0.03 SDS, 95% CI: -0.04; -0.01), especially when it replaced polysaccharides. Overall, our findings suggest associations of higher monosaccharide and disaccharide intake in early childhood with higher triglyceride and lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations, but do not support associations with body composition.

16.
Stroke ; 51(7): 2103-2110, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The prevalence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) in the adult population is ≈3%. Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm can have devastating consequences, which emphasizes the importance of identification of potentially modifiable determinants for the presence and size of UIAs. Our aim was to study the association of a broad spectrum of potential determinants with the presence and size of UIAs in a general adult population. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2015, 5841 participants from the population-based Rotterdam Study (mean age, 64.4 years, 45.0% male) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (1.5T). These scans were evaluated for the presence of incidental UIAs. We determined number and volume of the UIAs. Using logistic and linear regression models, we assessed the association of cardiovascular, lifestyle and emerging inflammatory and hormonal determinants with the presence and volume of UIAs. RESULTS: In 134 (2.3%) participants, ≥1 UIAs were detected (149 UIAs in total), with a median volume of 61.1 mm3 (interquartile range, 33.2-134.0). In multivariable models, female sex (odds ratio, 1.92 [95% CI, 1.33-2.84]), hypertension (odds ratio, 1.73 [95% CI, 1.13-2.68]), and current smoking (odds ratio, 3.75 [95% CI, 2.27-6.33]) were associated with the presence of UIAs. We found no association of alcohol use, physical activity, or diet quality with UIA presence. Finally, we found white blood cell count to relate to larger aneurysm volume (difference in volume of 33.6 mm3 per 109/L increase in white blood cell [95% CI, 3.92-63.5]). CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based study, female sex, hypertension, and smoking, but no other lifestyle determinants, were associated with the presence of UIAs. White blood cell count is associated with size of UIAs. Preventive strategies should focus on treating hypertension and promoting cessation of smoking.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Intracraniano/epidemiologia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/patologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
17.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(4): e002766, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation patterns associated with habitual diet have not been well studied. METHODS: Diet quality was characterized using a Mediterranean-style diet score and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index score. We conducted ethnicity-specific and trans-ethnic epigenome-wide association analyses for diet quality and leukocyte-derived DNA methylation at over 400 000 CpGs (cytosine-guanine dinucleotides) in 5 population-based cohorts including 6662 European ancestry, 2702 African ancestry, and 360 Hispanic ancestry participants. For diet-associated CpGs identified in epigenome-wide analyses, we conducted Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to examine their relations to cardiovascular disease risk factors and examined their longitudinal associations with all-cause mortality. RESULTS: We identified 30 CpGs associated with either Mediterranean-style diet score or Alternative Healthy Eating Index, or both, in European ancestry participants. Among these CpGs, 12 CpGs were significantly associated with all-cause mortality (Bonferroni corrected P<1.6×10-3). Hypermethylation of cg18181703 (SOCS3) was associated with higher scores of both Mediterranean-style diet score and Alternative Healthy Eating Index and lower risk for all-cause mortality (P=5.7×10-15). Ten additional diet-associated CpGs were nominally associated with all-cause mortality (P<0.05). MR analysis revealed 8 putatively causal associations for 6 CpGs with 4 cardiovascular disease risk factors (body mass index, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and type 2 diabetes mellitus; Bonferroni corrected MR P<4.5×10-4). For example, hypermethylation of cg11250194 (FADS2) was associated with lower triglyceride concentrations (MR, P=1.5×10-14).and hypermethylation of cg02079413 (SNORA54; NAP1L4) was associated with body mass index (corrected MR, P=1×10-6). CONCLUSIONS: Habitual diet quality was associated with differential peripheral leukocyte DNA methylation levels of 30 CpGs, most of which were also associated with multiple health outcomes, in European ancestry individuals. These findings demonstrate that integrative genomic analysis of dietary information may reveal molecular targets for disease prevention and treatment.

18.
Pediatr Obes ; 15(11): e12662, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parents' use of food as reward has been linked to children's dietary intake, but the association with children's eating behaviour and overweight risk is less clear. OBJECTIVES: To examine the temporal association of using food as reward with eating behaviour, body mass index (BMI) and weight status of children. METHODS: Participants were 3642 children of the population-based Generation R Study in the Netherlands (8.3% overweight/obese). Repeated assessments were collected at child ages 4 and 9 years, including measured anthropometrics and parent reports on feeding practises and eating behaviour. RESULTS: Linear regressions and cross-lagged models indicated that parents' use of food as reward at child age 4 years predicted Emotional Overeating and Picky Eating at age 9 years. Reversely, higher Emotional Overeating and Food Responsiveness scores were associated with more use of food as reward over time. Using food as reward was not associated with children's satiety response, BMI or overweight risk. CONCLUSIONS: A vicious cycle may appear in which children who display food approach behaviour are rewarded with food by their parents, which in turn might contribute to the development of unhealthy eating habits (emotional eating, fussiness). These findings warrant further research, to facilitate evidence-based recommendations for parents.

19.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIM: Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of dementia. To strengthen this evidence and establish whether vitamin D can indeed play a role in early prevention of neurodegeneration, knowledge on underlying pathways is crucial. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association of vitamin D status with brain tissue volumes, hippocampus volume, white matter integrity, and markers of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) in a dementia-free population. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, 2,716 participants free of dementia from the population-based Rotterdam Study underwent serum 25(OH)D concentration assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning between 2006 and 2009. Outcomes of interest included brain tissue volume (total, white matter, grey matter and hippocampus volume), white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD)), and markers of CSVD (white matter hyper intensity (WMH) volume, presence of lacunes and microbleeds). Associations between vitamin D status, both in categories and continuous, and these brain measurements were assessed using multivariable linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for lifestyle and other disease risk factors. RESULTS: We observed that vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L) was independently associated with smaller brain tissue volume, smaller white matter volume and smaller hippocampus volume as compared to a sufficient vitamin D status (≥50 nmol/L). Vitamin D per 10 nmol/L increment and an insufficient (30-50 nmol/L) as compared to sufficient vitamin D status were not associated with the brain measures of interest. Moreover, vitamin D status was not associated with grey matter volume, white matter integrity or CSVD markers. CONCLUSIONS: In this dementia-free population, vitamin D deficiency was associated with a smaller brain tissue volume and hippocampus volume. More research, in particular with a longitudinal design, is needed to further elucidate the role of vitamin D in neurodegeneration.

20.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for Dutch pregnant women, against three 24 h-recalls and blood concentrations of B-vitamins and fatty acids, using the method of triads. METHODS: We included 83 pregnant women from the general population of Rotterdam, the Netherlands, at a median gestational age of 15.6 weeks. Participants completed three non-consecutive 24 h-recalls, and subsequently filled out the 293-item FFQ. Participants provided blood samples from which we analyzed serum folate and vitamin B12, as well as red blood cell folate, linoleic acid, and total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. RESULTS: Estimated energy intake did not differ between the FFQ and 24 h-recalls. Deattenuated Pearson's correlation coefficients, between energy-adjusted nutrient intake estimates from the FFQ and the 24 h-recalls, ranged from 0.41 (fat) to 0.88 (fiber) for macronutrients, and were around 0.6 for most micronutrients, except for vitamin E (0.27). Using the triad method, we obtained validity coefficients of 0.86 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.36, 1.00) for serum folate, 0.86 (95% CI 0.18, 1.00) for red blood cell folate, and 1.00 (95% CI 0.42, 1.00) for vitamin B12. Validity coefficients for serum fatty acids ranged from 0.22 to 0.67. CONCLUSION: This FFQ is a reliable tool for estimating intake of energy, macronutrients, folate and vitamin B12 among women in mid-pregnancy.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA