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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1910915, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539074

RESUMO

Importance: Observational studies have shown associations of birth weight with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and glycemic traits, but it remains unclear whether these associations represent causal associations. Objective: To test the association of birth weight with T2D and glycemic traits using a mendelian randomization analysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This mendelian randomization study used a genetic risk score for birth weight that was constructed with 7 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The associations of this score with birth weight and T2D were tested in a mendelian randomization analysis using study-level data. The association of birth weight with T2D was tested using both study-level data (7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable) and summary-level data from the consortia (43 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable). Data from 180 056 participants from 49 studies were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: Type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits. Results: This mendelian randomization analysis included 49 studies with 41 155 patients with T2D and 80 008 control participants from study-level data and 34 840 patients with T2D and 114 981 control participants from summary-level data. Study-level data showed that a 1-SD decrease in birth weight due to the genetic risk score was associated with higher risk of T2D among all participants (odds ratio [OR], 2.10; 95% CI, 1.69-2.61; P = 4.03 × 10-5), among European participants (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.71; P = .04), and among East Asian participants (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.18-1.62; P = .04). Similar results were observed from summary-level analyses. In addition, each 1-SD lower birth weight was associated with 0.189 SD higher fasting glucose concentration (ß = 0.189; SE = 0.060; P = .002), but not with fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose, or hemoglobin A1c concentration. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a genetic predisposition to lower birth weight was associated with increased risk of T2D and higher fasting glucose concentration, suggesting genetic effects on retarded fetal growth and increased diabetes risk that either are independent of each other or operate through alterations of integrated biological mechanisms.

3.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(9): 853-861, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399939

RESUMO

Intake of individual antioxidants has been related to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. However, the overall diet may contain many antioxidants with additive or synergistic effects. Therefore, we aimed to determine associations between total dietary antioxidant capacity and risk of type 2 diabetes, prediabetes and insulin resistance. We estimated the dietary antioxidant capacity for 5796 participants of the Rotterdam Study using a ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) score. Of these participants, 4957 had normoglycaemia and 839 had prediabetes at baseline. We used covariate-adjusted proportional hazards models to estimate associations between FRAP and risk of type 2 diabetes, risk of type 2 diabetes among participants with prediabetes, and risk of prediabetes. We used linear regression models to determine the association between FRAP score and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). We observed 532 cases of incident type 2 diabetes, of which 259 among participants with prediabetes, and 794 cases of incident prediabetes during up to 15 years of follow-up. A higher FRAP score was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes among the total population (HR per SD FRAP 0.84, 95% CI 0.75; 0.95) and among participants with prediabetes (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.73; 0.99), but was not associated with risk of prediabetes. Dietary FRAP was also inversely associated with HOMA-IR (ß - 0.04, 95% CI - 0.06; - 0.03). Effect estimates were generally similar between sexes. The findings of this population-based study emphasize the putative beneficial effects of a diet rich in antioxidants on insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta , Resistência à Insulina , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
4.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e1900226, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432628

RESUMO

SCOPE: Insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The nod-like receptor pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a metabolic sensor activated by saturated fatty acids (SFA) initiating IL-1ß inflammation and IR. Interactions between SFA intake and NLRP3-related genetic variants may alter T2D risk factors. METHODS: Meta-analyses of six Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (n = 19 005) tested interactions between SFA and NLRP3-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and modulation of fasting insulin, fasting glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. RESULTS: SFA interacted with rs12143966, wherein each 1% increase in SFA intake increased insulin by 0.0063 IU mL-1 (SE ± 0.002, p = 0.001) per each major (G) allele copy. rs4925663, interacted with SFA (ß ± SE = -0.0058 ± 0.002, p = 0.004) to increase insulin by 0.0058 IU mL-1 , per additional copy of the major (C) allele. Both associations are close to the significance threshold (p < 0.0001). rs4925663 causes a missense mutation affecting NLRP3 expression. CONCLUSION: Two NLRP3-related SNPs showed potential interaction with SFA to modulate fasting insulin. Greater dietary SFA intake accentuates T2D risk, which, subject to functional validation, may be further elaborated depending on NLRP3-related genetic variants.

5.
Nat Med ; 25(9): 1364-1369, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451782

RESUMO

The exact etiology of dementia is still unclear, but both genetic and lifestyle factors are thought to be key drivers of this complex disease. The recognition of familial patterns of dementia has led to the discovery of genetic factors that have a role in the pathogenesis of dementia, including the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and a large and still-growing number of genetic variants1,2. Beyond genetic architecture, several modifiable risk factors have been implicated in the development of dementia3. Prevention trials of measures to halt or delay cognitive decline are increasingly recruiting older individuals who are genetically predisposed to dementia. However, it remains unclear whether targeted health and lifestyle interventions can attenuate or even offset increased genetic risk. Here, we leverage long-term data on both genetic and modifiable risk factors from 6,352 individuals aged 55 years and older in the population-based Rotterdam Study. In this study, we demonstrate that, in individuals at low and intermediate genetic risk, favorable modifiable-risk profiles are related to a lower risk of dementia compared to unfavorable profiles. In contrast, these protective associations were not found in those at high genetic risk.

6.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346255

RESUMO

Epigenetic mechanisms might play a role in the pathophysiology of hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and renal failure. We aimed to systematically review studies investigating the association between epigenetic marks (global, candidate-gene or genome-wide methylation of DNA, and histone modifications) and blood pressure or hypertension. Five bibliographic databases were searched until the 7th of December 2018. Of 2984 identified references, 26 articles based on 25 unique studies met our inclusion criteria, which involved a total of 28,382 participants. The five studies that assessed global DNA methylation generally found lower methylation levels with higher systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and/or presence of hypertension. Eighteen candidate-gene studies reported, in total, 16 differentially methylated genes, including renin-angiotensin-system-related genes (ACE promoter and AGTR1) and genes involved in sodium homeostasis and extracellular fluid volume maintenance system (NET promoter, SCNN1A, and ADD1). Between the three identified epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS), lower methylation levels of SULF1, EHMT2, and SKOR2 were found in hypertensive patients as compared with normotensive subjects, and lower methylation levels of PHGDH, SLC7A11, and TSPAN2 were associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In summary, the most convincing evidence has been reported from candidate-gene studies, which show reproducible epigenetic changes in the interconnected renin-angiotensin and inflammatory systems. Our study highlights gaps in the literature on the role of histone modifications in blood pressure and the need to conduct high-quality studies, in particular, hypothesis-generating studies that may help to elucidate new molecular mechanisms.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269777

RESUMO

Outdoor air pollution is associated with respiratory infections and allergies, yet the role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in pathogen containment and airway hyperresponsiveness relevant to effects of air pollutants on ILCs is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the available evidence on the effect of outdoor air pollutants on the lung type 1 (ILC1) and type 2 ILCs (ILC2) subsets. We searched five electronic databases (up to Dec 2018) for studies on the effect of carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), diesel exhaust particles (DEP), ozone (O3), and particulate matter (PM) on respiratory ILCs. Of 2209 identified citations, 22 full-text papers were assessed for eligibility, and 12 articles describing experimental studies performed in murine strains (9) and on human blood cells (3) were finally selected. Overall, these studies showed that exposure to PM, DEP, and high doses of O3 resulted in a reduction of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production and cytotoxicity of ILC1. These pollutants and carbon nanotubes stimulate lung ILC2s, produce high levels of interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13, and induce airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings highlight potential mechanisms by which human ILCs react to air pollution that increase the susceptibility to infections and allergies.

8.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076856

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Higher folate and vitamin-B12 have been linked to lower risk of overweight. However, whether this is a causal effect of these B-vitamins on obesity risk remains unclear and evidence in older individuals is scarce. This study aimed to assess the role of B-vitamin supplementation and levels on body composition in older individuals. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 2919 participants aged ≥ 65 years with elevated homocysteine levels. The intervention comprised a 2-year supplementation with a combination of folic acid (400 µg) and vitamin B12 (500 µg), or with placebo. Serum folate, vitamin-B12, active vitamin-B12 (HoloTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and anthropometrics were measured at baseline and after 2 years of follow-up. Dietary intake of folate and vitamin-B12 was measured at baseline in a subsample (n = 603) using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) were assessed with Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). RESULTS: Cross-sectional analyses showed that a 1 nmol/L higher serum folate was associated with a 0.021 kg/m2 lower BMI (95% CI - 0.039; - 0.004). Higher HoloTC (per pmol/L log-transformed) was associated with a 0.955 kg/m2 higher FMI (95% CI 0.262; 1.647), and higher MMA (per µgmol/L) was associated with a 1.108 kg/m2 lower FMI (95% CI - 1.899; - 0.316). However, random allocation of B-vitamins did not have a significant effect on changes in BMI, FMI or FFMI during 2 years of intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Although observational data suggested that folate and vitamin B12 status are associated with body composition, random allocation of a supplement with both B-vitamins combined versus placebo did not confirm an effect on BMI or body composition.

9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(7): 2045-2070, 2019 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009935

RESUMO

Differences in health status by socioeconomic position (SEP) tend to be more evident at older ages, suggesting the involvement of a biological mechanism responsive to the accumulation of deleterious exposures across the lifespan. DNA methylation (DNAm) has been proposed as a biomarker of biological aging that conserves memory of endogenous and exogenous stress during life.We examined the association of education level, as an indicator of SEP, and lifestyle-related variables with four biomarkers of age-dependent DNAm dysregulation: the total number of stochastic epigenetic mutations (SEMs) and three epigenetic clocks (Horvath, Hannum and Levine), in 18 cohorts spanning 12 countries.The four biological aging biomarkers were associated with education and different sets of risk factors independently, and the magnitude of the effects differed depending on the biomarker and the predictor. On average, the effect of low education on epigenetic aging was comparable with those of other lifestyle-related risk factors (obesity, alcohol intake), with the exception of smoking, which had a significantly stronger effect.Our study shows that low education is an independent predictor of accelerated biological (epigenetic) aging and that epigenetic clocks appear to be good candidates for disentangling the biological pathways underlying social inequalities in healthy aging and longevity.

10.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A balanced diet in childhood is important for growth and development. We aimed to examine associations of overall diet quality in both early and mid-childhood with trajectories of growth and body composition until age 10 years. METHODS: We included 3991 children from the Generation R Study, a population-based, prospective cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. At child's ages of 1 and 8 years, dietary intake was assessed using food-frequency questionnaires to calculate diet quality scores (0-10), which measure adherence to age-specific dietary guidelines. Height and weight were measured repeatedly between ages 1 and 10 years. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ages 6 and 10 years. We calculated sex- and age-specific SD-scores for body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), and body fat percentage (BF%). RESULTS: After adjustment for socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, results from linear mixed models showed that higher diet quality at 1 year was associated with higher height, weight, and BMI up to age 10 years. Using linear regression analyses, similar associations were observed for diet quality at 8 years. For diet quality at both time points, positive associations with BMI were fully driven by a higher FFMI (ß = 0.07 SDS, 95%CI: 0.05, 0.10 for diet quality at 8 years), and not FMI or BF%. Most of the observed associations were independent of diet quality at the other time point. CONCLUSION: We observed that better diet quality in both early and mid-childhood was associated with higher height, weight, and FFMI, but not with body fatness up to age 10 years. This was independent of diet quality at an earlier or later time point. Our findings suggest that dietary intake according to dietary guidelines may have a beneficial impact on growth and body composition throughout childhood.

11.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 49(6): 900-910, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency in early life might affect the developing lung and immune system, and subsequently influence the risk of asthma and allergy in later life. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in mid-gestation and at birth with lung function, asthma, inhalant allergic sensitization and inhalant allergy at school-age. METHODS: This study among 4951 children and their mothers was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Maternal venous blood samples in mid-gestation and umbilical cord blood samples at birth were used to determine 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. At age 10 years, lung function was measured by spirometry, current asthma and physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy by questionnaire, and inhalant allergic sensitization by skin prick tests. We used multivariable regression models to examine associations. RESULTS: Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in mid-gestation were associated with a higher forced vital capacity (FVC), but a lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second/FVC (FEV1 /FVC) and a lower forced expiratory flow after exhaling 75% of FVC (FEF75 ) (Z-score differences [95% CI] 0.02 [0.00, 0.03], -0.02 [-0.03, -0.01] and -0.01 [-0.03, -0.00], respectively, per 10 nmol/L 25-hydroxyvitamin D), but not with asthma. Furthermore, higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in mid-gestation were associated with an increased risk of inhalant allergy (Odds Ratio [95% CI] 1.07 [1.02, 1.12]), but not with inhalant allergic sensitization. After additional adjustment for child's 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations at the age of 6 years, only the associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in mid-gestation with FEV1 /FVC and FEF75 remained. We did not find consistent associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations at birth with respiratory or allergy outcomes. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our results suggest that maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in mid-gestation may influence lung development. The clinical implications of the observed associations remain unclear.

12.
J Nutr ; 149(4): 642-648, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As an adjuvant for medication, dietary changes focused on specific nutrients have been proposed to prevent or reduce attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, whether an overall healthy dietary pattern is associated with ADHD symptom severity during childhood remains unclear. Furthermore, it is not clear what the direction of this association is. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the association between dietary patterns and ADHD symptoms in school-aged children. In addition, we aimed to identify the temporal direction of this association-that is, whether dietary patterns predict ADHD symptoms or vice versa. METHODS: We analyzed data from 3680 children participating in the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort in Rotterdam, Netherlands. ADHD symptoms were assessed with parent-report questionnaires at ages 6 and 10 y using the Child Behavior Checklist. Dietary intake was assessed at the age of 8 y with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We computed a diet quality score reflecting adherence to dietary guidelines. We examined bidirectional associations of diet quality with ADHD symptom scores using multivariable linear regression analysis and cross-lagged modeling. RESULTS: Linear regressions showed that more ADHD symptoms at age 6 y were associated with a lower diet quality score at age 8 y (SD score = -0.08; 95% CI: -0.11, -0.05) but that diet quality at age 8 y was not associated with ADHD symptoms at age 10 y. Cross-lagged models confirmed a unidirectional relation from ADHD symptoms to diet quality but not vice versa. Associations did not differ by overweight status or between boys and girls. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that children with more ADHD symptoms may be at higher risk of an unhealthy diet but that overall diet quality does not affect ADHD risk.

13.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: High protein intake has been linked to increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. However, if this association differs by protein from specific food sources, and if a habitual high protein intake affects insulin resistance and prediabetes risk are largely unknown. We aimed to investigate associations between protein intake from different food sources with longitudinal insulin resistance, and risk of prediabetes and T2D. METHODS: Our analyses included 6822 participants aged ≥45 years without diabetes at baseline in three sub-cohorts of the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study. We measured protein intake at baseline using food-frequency questionnaires. Data on longitudinal homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and incidence of prediabetes and T2D were available from 1993 to 2014. RESULTS: During follow-up, we documented 931 prediabetes cases and 643 T2D cases. After adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors, higher total protein intake was associated with higher longitudinal HOMA-IR and with higher risk of prediabetes and T2D (per 5% increment in energy from protein at the expense of carbohydrate, for HOMA-IR: ß = 0.10, (95%CI 0.07, 0.12); for prediabetes: HR = 1.34 (1.24 1.44); for T2D: HR = 1.37 (1.26, 1.49)). These associations were mainly driven by total animal protein (for HOMA-IR: 0.10 (0.07, 0.12); for prediabetes: 1.35 (1.24, 1.45); for T2D: 1.37 (1.26; 1.49)). The harmful associations of total animal protein were contributed to by protein from meat, fish, and dairy (e.g. for HOMA-IR: protein from meat, 0.13 (0.10, 0.17); from fish, 0.08 (0.03, 0.13); from dairy, 0.04 (0.0003, 0.08)). After additional adjustment for longitudinal waist circumference, associations of total protein and total animal protein with longitudinal HOMA-IR and prediabetes risk were attenuated, but remained statistically significant. Total plant protein, as well as protein from legumes and nuts, from grains, from potatoes, or from fruits and vegetables, was not associated with any of the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of animal protein, from meat, dairy and fish food sources, is associated with higher longitudinal insulin resistance and risk of prediabetes and T2D, which may be partly mediated by obesity over time. Furthermore, plant protein from different sources is not related to insulin resistance, and risk of prediabetes and T2D. Our findings highlight the importance of specific protein food sources and that habitual high animal protein intake may already in early stages be harmful in the development of T2D.

14.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734846

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several studies have reported seasonal variation in intake of food groups and certain nutrients. However, whether this could lead to a seasonal pattern of diet quality has not been addressed. We aimed to describe the seasonality of diet quality, and to examine the contribution of the food groups included in the dietary guidelines to this seasonality. METHODS: Among 9701 middle-aged and elderly participants of the Rotterdam Study, a prospective population-based cohort, diet was assessed using food-frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Diet quality was measured as adherence to the Dutch dietary guidelines, and expressed in a diet quality score ranging from 0 to 14 points. The seasonality of diet quality and of the food group intake was examined using cosinor linear mixed models. Models were adjusted for sex, age, cohort, energy intake, physical activity, body mass index, comorbidities, and education. RESULTS: Diet quality had a seasonal pattern with a winter-peak (seasonal variation = 0.10 points, December-peak) especially among participants who were men, obese and of high socio-economic level. This pattern was mostly explained by the seasonal variation in the intake of legumes (seasonal variation = 3.52 g/day, December-peak), nuts (seasonal variation = 0.78 g/day, January-peak), sugar-containing beverages (seasonal variation = 12.96 milliliters/day, June-peak), and dairy (seasonal variation = 17.52 g/day, June-peak). CONCLUSIONS: Diet quality varies seasonally with heterogeneous seasonality of food groups counteractively contributing to the seasonal pattern in diet quality. This seasonality should be considered in future research on dietary behavior. Also, season-specific recommendations and policies are required to improve diet quality throughout the year.

15.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 29: 112-118, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A healthy diet is recommended for the prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD), but whereas patients with CAD adhere to a healthy diet is unclear. We aimed to assess the impact of a CAD event on dietary intake. METHODS: Prospective, population-based, observational study conducted between 2009 and 2017. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Three comparisons were performed: 1) between participants with history of CAD and gender- and age-matched controls; 2) before and after the occurrence of a CAD event, and 3) between participants with an incident CAD event and gender- and age-matched controls. RESULTS: In analysis 1), after multivariable adjustment, participants with history of CAD had a lower total energy intake than controls (adjusted mean ± standard error: 1833 ± 36 vs. 1940 ± 26 kcal/day, p = 0.022), while no difference was found for all other dietary markers. In analysis 2) (n = 87) total energy intake increased (1927 ± 593 vs. 2100 ± 700 kcal/day before and after the event, respectively, p = 0.029) and prevalence of low fat diet decreased (35.6% vs. 21.8%, p = 0.036), while no difference was found for all other dietary markers. In analysis 3), participants with incident CAD had higher vegetable protein intake (adjusted mean ± standard error 4.8 ± 0.1 vs. 4.5 ± 0.1% of total energy intake, p = 0.028), AHEI score (34 ± 1 vs. 31 ± 1, p = 0.032), and complied more frequently with vegetables guidelines [odds ratio and 95% confidence interval; 7.64 (1.06-55.2)] than controls, while no differences were found for all other dietary markers CONCLUSIONS: In Switzerland, secondary prevention of CAD by diet is seldom implemented.

16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(1): 48-62, 2019 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the aging population, the prevalence of age-related hearing loss will increase substantially. Prevention requires more knowledge on modifiable risk factors. Obesity and diet quality have been suggested to play a role in the etiology of age-related hearing loss. We aimed to investigate independent associations of body composition and diet quality with age-related hearing loss. METHODS: We performed cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses (follow-up: 4.4 years) in the population-based Rotterdam Study. At baseline (2006-2014), 2,906 participants underwent assessment of body composition, diet, and hearing. Of these 2,906 participants, 636 had hearing assessment at follow-up (2014-2016). Association of body composition and of diet quality with hearing loss were examined using multivariable linear regression models. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, higher body mass index and fat mass index were associated with increased hearing thresholds. These associations did not remain statistically significant at follow-up. We found no associations between overall diet quality and hearing thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that a higher body mass index, and in particular a higher fat mass index, is related to age-related hearing loss. However, whether maintaining a healthy body composition may actually reduce the effects of age-related hearing loss in the aging population requires further longitudinal population-based research.

17.
Epidemiology ; 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore whether adhering to a more plant-based diet, beyond strict vegan or vegetarian diets, may help prevent adiposity in a middle-aged and elderly population. METHODS: We included 9633 participants from the Rotterdam Study, a prospective cohort in the Netherlands. Dietary data were collected using food-frequency questionnaires at baseline of three sub-cohorts of the Rotterdam Study (1989-93, 2000-01, 2006-08). We created a plant-based diet index by giving plant-based foods positive scores and animal-based foods reverse scores. A higher score on the index reflected an overall more plant-based and less animal-based diet. Data on anthropometrics and body composition (using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) were collected every 3 to 5 years from 1989-2016. We used multivariable linear mixed models to analyze the associations. RESULTS: In the 9633 participants, baseline plant-based diet score ranged from 21.0 to 73.0 with a mean ± SD of 49.0 ± 7.0. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, higher adherence to a plant-based diet was associated with lower BMI, waist circumference, fat mass index, and body fat percentage across a median follow-up period of 7.1 years (per 10 points higher score, BMI: ß= -0.70 kg/m, (95% CI -0.81, -0.59); waist circumference: -2.0 cm (-2.3, -1.7); fat mass index: -0.66 kg/m (-0.80, -0.52); body fat percentage: -1.1 points (-1.3, -0.84)). CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based cohort of middle-aged and elderly participants, a higher adherence to a more plant-based, less animal-based diet was associated with less adiposity over time, irrespective of general healthfulness of the specific plant- and animal-based foods.

18.
Adv Nutr ; 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500869

RESUMO

Chrono-nutrition is an emerging research field in nutritional epidemiology that encompasses 3 dimensions of eating behavior: timing, frequency, and regularity. To date, few studies have investigated how an individual's circadian typology, i.e., one's chronotype, affects the association between chrono-nutrition and cardiometabolic health. This review sets the directions for future research by providing a narrative overview of recent epidemiologic research on chronotype, its determinants, and its association with dietary intake and cardiometabolic health. Limited research was found on the association between chronotype and dietary intake in infants, children, and older adults. Moreover, most of the evidence in adolescents and adults was restricted to cross-sectional surveys with few longitudinal cohorts simultaneously collecting data on chronotype and dietary intake. There was a gap in the research concerning the association between chronotype and the 3 dimensions of chrono-nutrition. Whether chronotype modifies the association between diet and cardiometabolic health outcomes remains to be elucidated. In conclusion, further research is required to understand the interplay between chronotype, chrono-nutrition, and cardiometabolic health outcomes.

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