Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 110
Filtrar
1.
Nat Med ; 25(9): 1408-1414, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477906

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells targeting CD19 demonstrate unparalleled responses in relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)1-5, but toxicity, including cytokine-release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity, limits broader application. Moreover, 40-60% of patients relapse owing to poor CAR T cell persistence or emergence of CD19- clones. Some factors, including the choice of single-chain spacer6 and extracellular7 and costimulatory domains8, have a profound effect on CAR T cell function and persistence. However, little is known about the impact of CAR binding affinity. There is evidence of a ceiling above which increased immunoreceptor affinity may adversely affect T cell responses9-11. We generated a novel CD19 CAR (CAT) with a lower affinity than FMC63, the high-affinity binder used in many clinical studies1-4. CAT CAR T cells showed increased proliferation and cytotoxicity in vitro and had enhanced proliferative and in vivo antitumor activity compared with FMC63 CAR T cells. In a clinical study (CARPALL, NCT02443831 ), 12/14 patients with relapsed/refractory pediatric B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with CAT CAR T cells achieved molecular remission. Persistence was demonstrated in 11 of 14 patients at last follow-up, with enhanced CAR T cell expansion compared with published data. Toxicity was low, with no severe CRS. One-year overall and event-free survival were 63% and 46%, respectively.

2.
Eur J Cancer ; 120: 75-85, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499383

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of dexamethasone in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia therapy contributes to short- and long-term toxicities. The UKALL 2011 randomised trial investigated whether a more intense dexamethasone dose (10 mg/m2/d x 14d, short vs 6 mg/m2/d x 28d, standard) would lead to a more rapid cytoreduction and reduced adverse effects associated with longer durations of steroids in induction. The impact of dose and duration on dexamethasone pharmacokinetics was investigated. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained on one of the first three and last three days of induction dexamethasone dosing at time points up to 8 h after oral administration. Plasma dexamethasone levels were quantified in 1084 plasma samples obtained from 174 children and a population pharmacokinetic model developed. RESULTS: Drug exposure varied significantly between patients, with a >12-fold variation in AUC0-12h values and a marked overlap in dexamethasone exposures between dose levels. Intuitively, AUC0-12h was significantly higher with short dosing (10 mg/m2/d), but cumulative exposure was significantly higher with standard dosing over 28 days, after a higher cumulative dose. Concomitant rasburicase administration was associated with a 60% higher dexamethasone clearance. Day 8 bone marrow response was comparable between dosing arms, but those with <5% blast count exhibited a greater mean dexamethasone exposure than those with >5%. No statistical differences were observed between arms in terms of steroid-related toxicity or minimal residual disease at the end of induction. CONCLUSION: The potential significance of dexamethasone AUC0-12h on early response and higher cumulative exposure on the standard arm suggest that duration of therapy and exposure may be more important factors than absolute dose from a clinical pharmacology perspective.

3.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(25): 2246-2256, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283407

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is characterized by KMT2A (MLL) gene rearrangements and coexpression of myeloid markers. The Interfant-06 study, comprising 18 national and international study groups, tested whether myeloid-style consolidation chemotherapy is superior to lymphoid style, the role of stem-cell transplantation (SCT), and which factors had independent prognostic value. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three risk groups were defined: low risk (LR): KMT2A germline; high risk (HR): KMT2A-rearranged and older than 6 months with WBC count 300 × 109/L or more or a poor prednisone response; and medium risk (MR): all other KMT2A-rearranged cases. Patients in the MR and HR groups were randomly assigned to receive the lymphoid course low-dose cytosine arabinoside [araC], 6-mercaptopurine, cyclophosphamide (IB) or experimental myeloid courses, namely araC, daunorubicin, etoposide (ADE) and mitoxantrone, araC, etoposide (MAE). RESULTS: A total of 651 infants were included, with 6-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival of 46.1% (SE, 2.1) and 58.2% (SE, 2.0). In West European/North American groups, 6-year EFS and overall survival were 49.4% (SE, 2.5) and 62.1% (SE, 2.4), which were 10% to 12% higher than in other countries. The 6-year probability of disease-free survival was comparable for the randomized arms (ADE+MAE 39.3% [SE 4.0; n = 169] v IB 36.8% [SE, 3.9; n = 161]; log-rank P = .47). The 6-year EFS rate of patients in the HR group was 20.9% (SE, 3.4) with the intention to undergo SCT; only 46% of them received SCT, because many had early events. KMT2A rearrangement was the strongest prognostic factor for EFS, followed by age, WBC count, and prednisone response. CONCLUSION: Early intensification with postinduction myeloid-type chemotherapy courses did not significantly improve outcome for infant ALL compared with the lymphoid-type course IB. Outcome for infant ALL in Interfant-06 did not improve compared with that in Interfant-99.

4.
Leukemia ; 33(8): 1881-1894, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816328

RESUMO

In more than 30% of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL), chromosome 21 sequence is overrepresented through aneuploidy or structural rearrangements, exemplified by intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 (iAMP21). Although frequent, the mechanisms by which these abnormalities promote B-ALL remain obscure. Intriguingly, we found copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) of 12q was recurrent in iAMP21-ALL, but never observed in B-ALL without some form of chromosome 21 gain. As a consequence of CN-LOH 12q, mutations or deletions of the adaptor protein, SH2B3, were converted to homozygosity. In patients without CN-LOH 12q, bi-allelic abnormalities of SH2B3 occurred, but only in iAMP21-ALL, giving an overall incidence of 18% in this sub-type. Review of published data confirmed a tight association between overrepresentation of chromosome 21 and both CN-LOH 12q and SH2B3 abnormalities in B-ALL. Despite relatively small patient numbers, preliminary analysis linked 12q abnormalities to poor outcome in iAMP21-ALL (p = 0.03). Homology modelling of a leukaemia-associated SH2 domain mutation and in vitro analysis of patient-derived xenograft cells implicated the JAK/STAT pathway as one likely target for SH2B3 tumour suppressor activity in iAMP21-ALL.

7.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(10): 770-779, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657737

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We determined the prognostic factors and utility of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation among children with newly diagnosed hypodiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated in contemporary clinical trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study collected data on 306 patients with hypodiploid ALL who were enrolled in the protocols of 16 cooperative study groups or institutions between 1997 and 2013. The clinical and biologic characteristics, early therapeutic responses as determined by minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment, treatment with or without MRD-stratified protocols, and allogeneic transplantation were analyzed for their impact on outcome. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 6.6 years, the 5-year event-free survival rate was 55.1% (95% CI, 49.3% to 61.5%), and the 5-year overall survival rate was 61.2% (95% CI, 55.5% to 67.4%) for the 272 evaluable patients. Negative MRD at the end of remission induction, high hypodiploidy with 44 chromosomes, and treatment in MRD-stratified protocols were associated with a favorable prognosis, with a 5-year event-free survival rate of 75% (95% CI, 66.0% to 85.0%), 74% (95% CI, 61.0% to 89.0%), and 62% (95% CI, 55.0% to 69.0%), respectively. After exclusion of patients with high hypodiploidy with 44 chromosomes and adjustment for waiting time to transplantation and for covariables in a Poisson model, disease-free survival did not differ significantly ( P = .16) between the 42 patients who underwent transplantation and the 186 patients who received chemotherapy only, with an estimated 5-year survival rate of 59% (95% CI, 46.5% to 75.0%) versus 51.5% (95% CI, 44.7% to 59.4%), respectively. Transplantation produced no significant impact on outcome compared with chemotherapy alone, especially among the subgroup of patients who achieved a negative MRD status upon completion of remission induction. CONCLUSION: MRD-stratified treatments improved the outcome for children with hypodiploid ALL. Allogeneic transplantation did not significantly improve outcome overall and, in particular, for patients who achieved MRD-negative status after induction.

8.
Br J Haematol ; 185(1): 89-92, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30637732

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been successfully used for the treatment of steroid-resistant graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD). However, the lack of early predictors of clinical responses impacts on the time at which to add further treatment and consequently the design of informative clinical trials. Here, we present the UK experience of one of the largest cohorts of GvHD patients undergoing MSC infusions so far reported. We show that clinical responses assessed as early as 1 week after MSC infusion predict patients' overall survival. In our cohort, cell dose, patients' age and type of organ involvement are crucial factors associated with clinical responses.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 419, 2019 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664635

RESUMO

The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of a member of the PRACTICAL Consortium, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, which was incorrectly given as Manuela Gago Dominguez. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article. Furthermore, in the original HTML version of this Article, the order of authors within the author list was incorrect. The PRACTICAL consortium was incorrectly listed after Richard S. Houlston and should have been listed after Nora Pashayan. This error has been corrected in the HTML version of the Article; the PDF version was correct at the time of publication.

10.
Blood Adv ; 3(2): 148-157, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651283

RESUMO

Genetic abnormalities provide vital diagnostic and prognostic information in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and are increasingly used to assign patients to risk groups. We recently proposed a novel classifier based on the copy-number alteration (CNA) profile of the 8 most commonly deleted genes in B-cell precursor ALL. This classifier defined 3 CNA subgroups in consecutive UK trials and was able to discriminate patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. In this study, we sought to validate the United Kingdom ALL (UKALL)-CNA classifier and reevaluate the interaction with cytogenetic risk groups using individual patient data from 3239 cases collected from 12 groups within the International BFM Study Group. The classifier was validated and defined 3 risk groups with distinct event-free survival (EFS) rates: good (88%), intermediate (76%), and poor (68%) (P < .001). There was no evidence of heterogeneity, even within trials that used minimal residual disease to guide therapy. By integrating CNA and cytogenetic data, we replicated our original key observation that patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics can be stratified into 2 prognostic subgroups. Group A had an EFS rate of 86% (similar to patients with good-risk cytogenetics), while group B patients had a significantly inferior rate (73%, P < .001). Finally, we revised the overall genetic classification by defining 4 risk groups with distinct EFS rates: very good (91%), good (81%), intermediate (73%), and poor (54%), P < .001. In conclusion, the UKALL-CNA classifier is a robust prognostic tool that can be deployed in different trial settings and used to refine established cytogenetic risk groups.

11.
Lancet Haematol ; 5(12): e641-e652, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The EsPhALL2004 randomised trial showed a 10% advantage in disease-free survival for short, discontinuous use of imatinib after induction compared with no use of imatinib in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia receiving Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster chemotherapy and haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Other contemporary studies showed an advantage from continuous protracted exposure to imatinib, challenging the indications to transplant. The EsPhALL2010 study was designed to assess whether imatinib given from day 15 of induction and continuously throughout chemotherapy led to a different outcome to that obtained in EsPhALL2004, despite decreasing the number of patients having HSCT. METHODS: This prospective, intergroup, open-label, single-arm clinical trial (EsPhALL2010) was done at 11 study groups across Europe, Chile, and Hong Kong. Patients aged 1-17 years with the translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11) who were recruited into national front-line trials for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia were eligible for this trial. Patients with abnormal renal or hepatic function or an active systemic infection were ineligible. Patients received imatinib 300 mg/m2 continuously from day 15 of induction during chemotherapy. Eligibility to HSCT depended on early morphological response and minimal residual disease. Imatinib was recommended throughout the first year after transplant. The co-primary endpoints were event-free survival and overall survival. All analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. The trial is registered with the European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT 2004-001647-30) and with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00287105) and is completed. FINDINGS: 158 patients were screened for eligibility, of whom 155 were enrolled between Jan 1, 2010, and Dec 31, 2014. 151 (97%) patients achieved first complete remission after induction and four after the consolidation phase, with 102 (66%) patients categorised as good risk and 53 (34%) as poor risk according to EsPhALL risk stratification criteria. 59 (38%) patients had HSCT during their first complete remission. 40 (26%) patients relapsed and 41 (26%) patients died during the study (25 [61%] during complete continuous remission, and 16 [39%] after relapse). The 5-year event-free survival was 57·0% (95% CI 48·5-64·6) and 5-year overall survival was 71·8% (63·5-78·5). 154 serious adverse events were reported in 80 (52%) of 155 patients. The most common toxicity was infection (61 [39%] patients, mostly bacterial); gastrointestinal disorders occurred in ten (6%) patients and osteonecrosis in eight (5%). Serious adverse events occurred mainly during high-risk blocks and delayed intensifications, including 14 fatal events (one in the consolidation phase, six in high-risk blocks, six in first delayed intensification, and one in second delayed intensification). INTERPRETATION: Although HSCT was done in a smaller proportion of patients in EsPhALL2010 than in EsPhALL2004, event-free and overall survival were similar between the two studies. Our data suggest that imatinib given early and continuously with intensive chemotherapy might increase toxicity. FUNDING: Projet Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique-Cancer and Novartis France; Bloodwise and Cancer Research UK; Ministry of Health, Czech Republic.

13.
Br J Haematol ; 181(4): 515-522, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687881

RESUMO

Outcomes for teenage and young adult (TYA) patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) who relapse on contemporary risk-adapted paediatric protocols are largely unknown and there is no consensus on optimal salvage strategies. We assessed the treatment and outcome of TYA patients (aged 16-24 years) recruited to the UKALL2003 trial, who relapsed following attainment of complete morphological remission. Forty-two of 223 patients (18·8%) relapsed, the majority (n = 26, 62%) on treatment. Thirty-eight (90%) patients received salvage treatment, with 22 (58%) achieving second remission (CR2) and 21 patients receiving an allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplant (alloHSCT). Post-relapse outcomes were poor with a 5-year overall survival (OS) of 23% (95% confidence interval; 11-37%). Outcomes for patients relapsing on active treatment were inferior to those relapsing after completing treatment (5-year OS 9% vs. 52%, log-rank P = 0·001). No patient with B cell ALL relapsing on treatment was alive at the end of the study period. TYA patients with ALL who relapse on the UK paediatric protocol, UKALL2003, are largely unsalvageable with conventional approaches aimed at achieving CR2 followed by alloHSCT. Future efforts should be aimed at identifying those patients who are destined to relapse and exploring novel treatment approaches for this high-risk group and for those who do relapse.

14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1340, 2018 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632299

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have advanced our understanding of susceptibility to B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL); however, much of the heritable risk remains unidentified. Here, we perform a GWAS and conduct a meta-analysis with two existing GWAS, totaling 2442 cases and 14,609 controls. We identify risk loci for BCP-ALL at 8q24.21 (rs28665337, P = 3.86 × 10-9, odds ratio (OR) = 1.34) and for ETV6-RUNX1 fusion-positive BCP-ALL at 2q22.3 (rs17481869, P = 3.20 × 10-8, OR = 2.14). Our findings provide further insights into genetic susceptibility to ALL and its biology.

15.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 53(9): 1165-1169, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29545594

RESUMO

Paediatric therapy-related acute myeloid leukaemia (t-AML) is rare and the outcome is poor. While allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is generally the accepted modality of treatment, data regarding salvage chemotherapy, remission induction, conditioning regimens, transplant-related mortality and outcome is scarce. Between 2000 and2016, 36 children with t-AML were treated in seven UK paediatric HSCT centres. The most common salvage protocol for remission induction was FLAG with or without idarubicin and 28 patients were in complete morphological remission prior to BMT. Only 12 patients survived (33%). Transplant-related mortality (TRM) was the leading cause of death.

19.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(1): 34-43, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29131699

RESUMO

Purpose Minimal residual disease (MRD) and genetic abnormalities are important risk factors for outcome in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Current risk algorithms dichotomize MRD data and do not assimilate genetics when assigning MRD risk, which reduces predictive accuracy. The aim of our study was to exploit the full power of MRD by examining it as a continuous variable and to integrate it with genetics. Patients and Methods We used a population-based cohort of 3,113 patients who were treated in UKALL2003, with a median follow-up of 7 years. MRD was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction analysis of Ig/TCR gene rearrangements, and patients were assigned to a genetic subtype on the basis of immunophenotype, cytogenetics, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. To examine response kinetics at the end of induction, we log-transformed the absolute MRD value and examined its distribution across subgroups. Results MRD was log normally distributed at the end of induction. MRD distributions of patients with distinct genetic subtypes were different ( P < .001). Patients with good-risk cytogenetics demonstrated the fastest disease clearance, whereas patients with high-risk genetics and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia responded more slowly. The risk of relapse was correlated with MRD kinetics, and each log reduction in disease level reduced the risk by 20% (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.83; P < .001). Although the risk of relapse was directly proportional to the MRD level within each genetic risk group, absolute relapse rate that was associated with a specific MRD value or category varied significantly by genetic subtype. Integration of genetic subtype-specific MRD values allowed more refined risk group stratification. Conclusion A single threshold for assigning patients to an MRD risk group does not reflect the response kinetics of the different genetic subtypes. Future risk algorithms should integrate genetics with MRD to accurately identify patients with the lowest and highest risk of relapse.

20.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program ; 2017(1): 251-258, 2017 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29222263

RESUMO

The improvement in overall survival in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) over the last 5 decades has been considerable, with around 90% now surviving long term. The risk of relapse has been reduced to such an extent that the risk of treatment-related mortality is now approaching that of mortality caused by relapse. Toxicities may also lead to the suboptimal delivery of chemotherapy (treatment delays, dose reductions, dose omissions), potentially increasing relapse risk, and short- and long-term morbidity, adding to the "burden of therapy" in an increasing number of survivors. Thus, the need to reduce toxicity in pediatric ALL is becoming increasingly important. This work focuses on the risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical features, and emergency management of the life-threatening complications of ALL at presentation and during subsequent chemotherapy, including leucostasis, tumor lysis syndrome, infection, methotrexate encephalopathy, thrombosis, and pancreatitis. Potential strategies to abrogate these toxicities in the future are also discussed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Encefalopatias/induzido quimicamente , Encefalopatias/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Infecção/induzido quimicamente , Leucostasia/induzido quimicamente , Leucostasia/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pancreatite/induzido quimicamente , Pancreatite/prevenção & controle , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/induzido quimicamente , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Lise Tumoral/prevenção & controle
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA