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2.
Crit Care Med ; 48(4): 459-465, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hyperferritinemia is frequently seen in critically ill patients. A rather rare though life-threatening condition related to severely elevated ferritin is hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. We analyze ferritin levels to differentiate hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis from other causes of hyperferritinemia in a mixed cohort of critically ill patients. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Adult surgical, anesthesiologic, and medical ICUs of a university hospital. PATIENTS: Critical care patients (≥ 18 yr old) admitted to any of the adult ICUs at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin between January 2006 and August 2018 with at least one ferritin value and hyperferritinemia (≥ 500 µg/L). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were categorized into hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, sepsis, septic shock, and other diagnoses. These were further categorized into 17 subgroups. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis diagnosis was based on Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis-2004 criteria and the HScore. Of 2,623 patients with hyperferritinemia, 40 were considered to have hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (1.52%). Maximum ferritin levels were highest in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients compared with all other disease groups (each p < 0.001). Sepsis and septic shock patients had higher maximum ferritin levels than patients with other diagnoses (each p < 0.001). A maximum ferritin value of 9,083 µg/L was at 92.5% sensitivity and 91.9% specificity for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (area under the curve, 0.963; 95% CI, 0.949-0.978). Of all subgroups with other diagnoses, maximum ferritin levels were highest in patients with varicella-zoster virus, hepatitis, or malaria (median, 1,935, 1,928, and 1,587 µg/L, respectively). Maximum ferritin levels were associated with increased in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 1.518 per log µg/L [95% CI, 1.384-1.665 per log µg/L]; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study of patients with ferritin available in a mixed ICU cohort. Ferritin levels in patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, sepsis, septic shock, and other conditions were distinctly different, with the highest ferritin levels observed in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients. Maximum ferritin of 9,083 µg/L showed high sensitivity and specificity and, therefore, may contribute to improved diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in ICU. The inclusion of ferritin into the sepsis laboratory panel is warranted.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e032695, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666276

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in adults is characterised by toxic immune activation and a sepsis-like syndrome, leading to high numbers of undiagnosed cases and mortality rates of up to 68%. Early diagnosis and specific immune suppressive treatment are mandatory to avoid fatal outcome, but the diagnostic criteria (HLH-2004) are adopted from paediatric HLH and have not been validated in adults. Experimental studies suggest biomarkers to sufficiently diagnose HLH. However, biomarkers for the diagnosis of adult HLH have not yet been investigated. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The HEMICU (Diagnostic biomarkers for adult haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in critically ill patients) study aims to estimate the incidence rate of adult HLH among suspected adult patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Screening for HLH will be performed in 16 ICUs of Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. The inclusion criteria are bicytopaenia, hyperferritinaemia (≥500 µg/L), fever or when HLH is suspected by the clinician. Over a period of 2 years, we expect inclusion of about 100 patients with suspected HLH. HLH will be diagnosed if at least five of the HLH-2004 criteria are fulfilled, together with an expert review; all other included patients will serve as controls. Second, a panel of potential biomarker candidates will be explored. DNA, plasma and serum will be stored in a biobank. The primary endpoint of the study is the incidence rate of adult HLH among suspected adult patients during ICU stay. Out of a variety of measured biomarkers, this study furthermore aims to find highly potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of adult HLH in ICU. The results of this study will contribute to improved recognition and patient outcome of adult HLH in clinical routine. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The institutional ethics committee approved this study on 1 August 2018 (Ethics Committee of Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, EA4/006/18). The results of the study will be disseminated in an international peer-reviewed journal and presented at international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03510650.

4.
Shock ; 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), an uncontrolled overactivation of the immune system, is well characterized in pediatric patients, yet, much less is known about this life-threatening condition in adult patients. As HLH is often complicated by organ failure, patients will require admission to the intensive care unit for organ support therapy. However, recognition of HLH patients in the ICU is challenged by the clinical overlap with sepsis. Here, we analyze HLH patients to better understand its clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: For the purpose of this retrospective observational study, we searched for suspected and diagnosed adult HLH of all patients admitted to at least one adult surgical, anesthesiological or medical ICU between January 2006 and August 2018 at the university hospital Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. All cases were reviewed by two HLH experts, who confirmed or declined the diagnosis. RESULTS: Of 6340 ICU patients with ferritin measurement, 40 suffered from HLH (0.63%). Of these, in-hospital mortality was 60.0% over all cases, which was highest in malignancy-associated HLH (71.4%). Infections were identified as most common triggers (42.5%). A variety of 19 different treatment strategies were applied. Non-survivors showed higher ferritin at diagnosis compared to survivors (p = 0.021), which was also seen in multivariable analyses. A minimum ferritin of 4083 µg/L after diagnosis was most predictive for 30-day mortality (AUC 0.888, 95% CI 0.771-1.000; sensitivity 93.8%, specificity 78.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Mortality in adult HLH patients in the ICU is high, particularly in malignancy-associated HLH. Infections are the most frequent HLH triggers in critically ill patients. At present, there is no standardized treatment for HLH in adult patients available. Assessment of ferritin is valuable for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment monitoring. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered with www.ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02854943) on August 1, 2016.

5.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 85(11): 1201-1210, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia frequently occurs during major surgery and is associated with adverse postoperative outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the influence of intraoperative hyperglycemia on incidences of postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). METHODS: Eighty-seven patients aged ≥65 years undergoing elective surgery were included in this prospective observational subproject of the BioCog study. Blood glucose (BG) levels were measured every 20 minutes intraoperatively. Hyperglycemia was defined as BG levels ≥150 mg·dL-1. Patients were assessed for POD twice daily until postoperative day 7. The occurrence of POCD was determined three months after surgery. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations between hyperglycemia and POD as well as POCD. Secondary endpoints comprised duration of hyperglycemia, maximum glucose level (Glucosemax) and differences between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. RESULTS: POD occurred in 41 (47.1%), POCD in five (15.2%) patients. In two separate multivariable logistic regression models, hyperglycemia was significantly associated with POD (OR 3.86 [CI 95% 1.13, 39.49], P=0.044) but not POCD (3.59 [NaN, NaN], P=0.157). Relative duration of hyperglycemia was higher in POD patients compared to patients without POD (20 [0; 71] % versus 0 [0; 55] %, P=0.075), whereas the maximum glucose levels during surgery were similar between the two groups. Considering only non-diabetic patients, relative duration of hyperglycemia (P=0.003) and Glucosemax (P=0.015) were significantly higher in patients with POD. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative hyperglycemia was independently associated with POD but not POCD. Relative duration of hyperglycemia appeared thereby to also play a role. Especially hyperglycemic non-diabetic patients might be at high risk for POD.

6.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More and more people in Germany reach increasingly higher ages. The risk of victimization is unclear because the lack of reliable numbers impedes assessment of the current relevance of violent death in old age. OBJECTIVE: To close that gap this article presents epidemiological data obtained from autopsy reports, for the most frequent circumstances of violent death in old age and discusses the characteristics and means of prevention. MATERIAL: All autopsy files of the Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences at the Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin from 2005 to 2016 were analyzed with respect to age, circumstances of death and motive. A total of 11,381 cases were included. RESULTS: Of all autopsied persons, 51.8% were aged 60 years or older. The homicide and suicide percentages of all cases were lower within the 60+ years age group in comparison to the younger group. Financial gain was the main motive in the case of 25.6% of people killed aged 60 years and over. Frequent suicide motives were diseases, particularly depression for women and malignant tumors as well as partnership issues for men. Being overburdened with taking care of the partner was a problem for men in particular. Dyadic death, i.e. the entirety of joint suicides and homicide-suicides, gained in importance within the 60+ years age group. CONCLUSION: Fatal violence against older persons is presumably underestimated. The classification of dyadic death turned out to be impractical. Therefore, a replacement by erotic-aggressive, symbiotic and parasitic death is suggested. Suicide with subsequent suicide is described for the first time and dubbed suicide-suicide. Prevention by social inclusion of old people is essential.

7.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 63(10): 1282-1289, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-operative delirium (POD) and post-operative neurocognitive disorder (NCD) are frequently seen in the elderly. Development of biomarkers for pre-operative risk prediction is of major relevance. As inflammation present before surgery might predispose to POD and post-operative NCD development, we aim to determine associations between pre-operative C-reactive protein (CRP) and the incidence of POD and post-operative NCD. METHODS: In this observational study, we analyzed 314 patients enrolled in the SuDoCo trial, who had a pre-operative CRP measurement the day before surgery. Primary outcomes were POD assessed according DSM-4 from day 1 until day 7 after surgery and post-operative NCD assessed 3 months after surgery. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, randomization, body mass index, MMSE, ASA status, infection/autoimmune disease/malignoma and types of surgery to determine associations between CRP with POD and post-operative NCD, respectively. RESULTS: Pre-operative CRP was independently associated with POD [OR 1.158 (95% CI 1.040, 1.291); P = .008]. Patients with CRP values ≥5 mg/dL had a 4.8-fold increased POD risk [OR 4.771 (95% CI 1.765, 12.899; P = .002)] compared to patients with lower CRP values. However, no association was seen between pre-operative CRP and post-operative NCD [OR 0.552 (95% CI 0.193, 1.581); P = .269]. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-operative CRP levels were independently associated with POD but not post-operative NCD after three months. Moreover, higher pre-operative CRP levels showed higher risk for POD. This strengthens the role of inflammation in the development of POD. Assessment of CRP before surgery might allow risk stratification of POD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered with ISRCTN Register 36437985 on 02 March 2009.

8.
Int J Med Sci ; 16(5): 665-674, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217734

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDː Dysglycemia is associated with adverse outcome including increased morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. Acute insulin resistance due to the surgical stress response is seen as a major cause of so-called stress hyperglycemia. However, understanding of factors determining blood glucose (BG) during surgery is limited. Therefore, we investigated risk factors contributing to intraoperative dysglycemia. METHODSː In this subgroup investigation of the BIOCOG study, we analyzed 87 patients of ≥ 65 years with tight intraoperative BG measurement every 20 min during elective surgery. Dysglycemia was defined as at least one intraoperative BG measurement outside the recommended target range of 80-150 mg/dL. Additionally, all postoperative BG measurements in the ICU were obtained. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status, diabetes, type and duration of surgery, minimum Hemoglobin (Hb) and mean intraoperative norepinephrine use was performed to identify risk factors of intraoperative dysglycemia. RESULTSː 46 (52.9%) out of 87 patients developed intraoperative dysglycemia. 31.8% of all intraoperative BG measurements were detected outside the target range. Diabetes [OR 9.263 (95% CI 2.492, 34.433); p=0.001] and duration of surgery [OR 1.005 (1.000, 1.010); p=0.036] were independently associated with the development of intraoperative dysglycemia. Patients who experienced intraoperative dysglycemia had significantly elevated postoperative mean (p<0.001) and maximum BG levels (p=0.001). Length of ICU (p=0.007) as well as hospital stay (p=0.012) were longer in patients with dysglycemia. CONCLUSIONSː Diabetes and duration of surgery were confirmed as independent risk factors for intraoperative dysglycemia, which was associated with adverse outcome. These patients, therefore, might require intensified glycemic control. Increased awareness and management of intraoperative dysglycemia is warranted.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/cirurgia , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Complicações do Diabetes/patologia , Complicações do Diabetes/cirurgia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Hiperglicemia/cirurgia , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/patologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/cirurgia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
9.
Ann Intensive Care ; 8(1): 42, 2018 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29589209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in critically ill patients are associated with increased mortality and poor outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictive value of NRBCs in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: This observational study was conducted at an ARDS referral center and included patients from 2007 to 2014. Daily NRBC counts were assessed and the predictive validity of NRBCs on mortality was statistically evaluated. A cutoff for prediction of mortality based on NRBCs was evaluated using ROC analysis and specified according to Youden's method. Multivariate nonparametric analysis for longitudinal data was applied to prove for differences between groups over the whole time course. Independent predictors of mortality were identified with multiple logistic and Cox' regression analyses. Kaplan-Meier estimations visualized the survival; the corresponding curves were tested for differences with the log-rank test. RESULTS: A total of 404 critically ill ARDS patients were analyzed. NRBCs were found in 75.5% of the patients, which was associated with longer length of ICU stay [22 (11; 39) vs. 14 (7; 26) days; p < 0.05] and higher mortality rates (50.8 vs. 27.3%; p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis with mortality as response showed NRBC positivity per se to be an independent risk factor for mortality in ARDS with a doubled risk for ICU death (OR 2.03; 95% CI 1.16-3.55; p < 0.05). Also, NRBC value at ICU admission was found to be an independent risk factor for mortality (OR 3.25; 95% CI 1.09-9.73, p = 0.035). A cutoff level of 220 NRBC/µl was associated with a more than tripled risk of ICU death (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.93-5.35; p < 0.0001). ARDS patients below this threshold level had a significant survival advantage (median survival 85 days vs. 29 days; log rank p < 0.001). Presence of a severe ARDS was identified as independent risk factor for the occurrence of NRBCs > 220/µl (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.1-2.97; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: NRBCs may predict mortality in ARDS with high prognostic power. The presence of NRBCs in the blood might be regarded as a marker of disease severity indicating a higher risk of ICU death.

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