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1.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(10)2019 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614934

RESUMO

Toxicity of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has been a topic of multiple studies and was shown to depend on a variety of characteristics of rGO and biological objects of interest. In this paper, we demonstrate that when studying the same dispersions of rGO and fluorescent Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, the outcome of nanotoxicity experiments also depends on the type of culture medium. We show that rGO inhibits the growth of bacteria in a nutrition medium but shows little effect on the behavior of E. coli in a physiological saline solution. The observed effects of rGO on E. coli in different media could be at least partially rationalized through the adsorption of bacteria and nutrients on the dispersed rGO sheets, which is likely mediated via hydrogen bonding. We also found that the interaction between rGO and E. coli is medium-dependent, and in physiological saline solutions they form stable flocculate structures that were not observed in nutrition media. Furthermore, the aggregation of rGO and E. coli in saline media was observed regardless of whether the bacteria were alive or dead. Filtration of the aggregate suspensions led to nearly complete removal of bacteria from filtered liquids, which highlights the potential of rGO for the filtration and separation of biological contaminants, regardless of whether they include live or dead microorganisms.

2.
Nano Lett ; 19(5): 3194-3198, 2019 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943040

RESUMO

We introduce a concept of programmable ferroelectric devices composed of two-dimensional (2D) and ferroelectric (FE) materials. It enables precise modulation of the in-plane conductivity of a 2D channel material through nanoengineering FE domains with out-of-plane polarization. The functionality of these new devices has been demonstrated using field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated with monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) channels on the Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 substrates. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), we show that local switching of FE polarization by a conductive probe can be used to tune the conductivity of the MoS2 channel. Specifically, patterning of the nanoscale domains with downward polarization creates conductive paths in a resistive MoS2 channel so that the conductivity of an FET is determined by the number and length of the paths connecting source and drain electrodes. In addition to the device programmability, we demonstrate the device ON/OFF cyclic endurance by successive writing and erasing of conductive paths in a MoS2 channel. These findings may inspire the development of advanced energy-efficient programmable synaptic devices based on a combination of 2D and FE materials.

3.
ACS Nano ; 12(12): 12713-12720, 2018 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499656

RESUMO

Quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) materials enjoy growing interest due to their unusual physical properties and promise for miniature electronic devices. However, the mechanical exfoliation of quasi-1D materials into thin flakes and nanoribbons received considerably less attention from researchers than the exfoliation of conventional layered crystals. In this study, we investigated the micromechanical exfoliation of representative quasi-1D crystals, TiS3 whiskers, and demonstrate that they typically split into narrow nanoribbons with very smooth, straight edges and clear signatures of 1D TiS3 chains. Theoretical calculations show that the energies required for breaking weak interactions between the two-dimensional (2D) layers and between 1D chains within the layers are comparable and, in turn, are considerably lower than those required for breaking the covalent bonds within the chains. We also emulated macroscopic exfoliation experiments on the nanoscale by applying a local shear force to TiS3 crystals in different crystallographic directions using a tip of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe. In the AFM experiments, it was possible to slide the 2D TiS3 layers relative to each other as well as to remove selected 1D chains from the layers. We systematically studied the exfoliated TiS3 crystals by Raman spectroscopy and identified the Raman peaks whose spectral positions were most dependent on the crystals' thickness. These results could be used to distinguish between TiS3 crystals with thickness ranging from one to about seven monolayers. The conclusions established in this study for the exfoliated TiS3 crystals can be extended to a variety of transition metal trichalcogenide materials as well as other quasi-1D crystals. The possibility of exfoliation of TiS3 into narrow (few-nm wide) crystals with smooth edges could be important for the future realization of miniature device channels with reduced edge scattering of charge carriers.

4.
Nanotechnology ; 29(50): 505707, 2018 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311602

RESUMO

We report on the chemical vapor deposition synthesis of MoO2 nanoplatelets by sublimation of MoO3 and its reduction in a hydrogen atmosphere at 750 °C. When grown on Si/SiO2 substrates, the platelets primarily assume a rhomboidal shape and have thicknesses ranging from several to tens of nm. The morphology of MoO2 crystals was found to depend on the chemical nature of substrates. MoO2 platelets on Si/SiO2 were characterized by a number of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, and the electrical measurements revealed the metallic nature of their conductivity averaging at 2400 ± 1000 S cm-1. Raman spectroscopy of MoO2 platelets on graphene indicates their strong hole injection property. Small thickness, planar morphology, high chemical stability and metallic conductivity of ultrathin MoO2 platelets make them potentially interesting for integration different other two-dimensional materials in a variety of electronic structures and devices.

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