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1.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp201919060583, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is among the strongest known genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported variable alterations in subcortical brain structures in 22q11DS. To better characterize subcortical alterations in 22q11DS, including modulating effects of clinical and genetic heterogeneity, the authors studied a large multicenter neuroimaging cohort from the ENIGMA 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Working Group. METHODS: Subcortical structures were measured using harmonized protocols for gross volume and subcortical shape morphometry in 533 individuals with 22q11DS and 330 matched healthy control subjects (age range, 6-56 years; 49% female). RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the 22q11DS group showed lower intracranial volume (ICV) and thalamus, putamen, hippocampus, and amygdala volumes and greater lateral ventricle, caudate, and accumbens volumes (Cohen's d values, -0.90 to 0.93). Shape analysis revealed complex differences in the 22q11DS group across all structures. The larger A-D deletion was associated with more extensive shape alterations compared with the smaller A-B deletion. Participants with 22q11DS with psychosis showed lower ICV and hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus volumes (Cohen's d values, -0.91 to 0.53) compared with participants with 22q11DS without psychosis. Shape analysis revealed lower thickness and surface area across subregions of these structures. Compared with subcortical findings from other neuropsychiatric disorders studied by the ENIGMA consortium, significant convergence was observed between participants with 22q11DS with psychosis and participants with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest neuroimaging study of 22q11DS to date, the authors found widespread alterations to subcortical brain structures, which were affected by deletion size and psychotic illness. Findings indicate significant overlap between 22q11DS-associated psychosis, idiopathic schizophrenia, and other severe neuropsychiatric illnesses.

2.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015465

RESUMO

Schizophrenia occurs in about one in four individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). The aim of this International Brain and Behavior 22q11.2DS Consortium (IBBC) study was to identify genetic factors that contribute to schizophrenia, in addition to the ~20-fold increased risk conveyed by the 22q11.2 deletion. Using whole-genome sequencing data from 519 unrelated individuals with 22q11.2DS, we conducted genome-wide comparisons of common and rare variants between those with schizophrenia and those with no psychotic disorder at age ≥25 years. Available microarray data enabled direct comparison of polygenic risk for schizophrenia between 22q11.2DS and independent population samples with no 22q11.2 deletion, with and without schizophrenia (total n = 35,182). Polygenic risk for schizophrenia within 22q11.2DS was significantly greater for those with schizophrenia (padj = 6.73 × 10-6). Novel reciprocal case-control comparisons between the 22q11.2DS and population-based cohorts showed that polygenic risk score was significantly greater in individuals with psychotic illness, regardless of the presence of the 22q11.2 deletion. Within the 22q11.2DS cohort, results of gene-set analyses showed some support for rare variants affecting synaptic genes. No common or rare variants within the 22q11.2 deletion region were significantly associated with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that in addition to the deletion conferring a greatly increased risk to schizophrenia, the risk is higher when the 22q11.2 deletion and common polygenic risk factors that contribute to schizophrenia in the general population are both present.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(1): 26-40, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870554

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) results from non-allelic homologous recombination between low-copy repeats termed LCR22. About 60%-70% of individuals with the typical 3 megabase (Mb) deletion from LCR22A-D have congenital heart disease, mostly of the conotruncal type (CTD), whereas others have normal cardiac anatomy. In this study, we tested whether variants in the hemizygous LCR22A-D region are associated with risk for CTDs on the basis of the sequence of the 22q11.2 region from 1,053 22q11.2DS individuals. We found a significant association (FDR p < 0.05) of the CTD subset with 62 common variants in a single linkage disequilibrium (LD) block in a 350 kb interval harboring CRKL. A total of 45 of the 62 variants were associated with increased risk for CTDs (odds ratio [OR) ranges: 1.64-4.75). Associations of four variants were replicated in a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies of CTDs in affected individuals without 22q11.2DS. One of the replicated variants, rs178252, is located in an open chromatin region and resides in the double-elite enhancer, GH22J020947, that is predicted to regulate CRKL (CRK-like proto-oncogene, cytoplasmic adaptor) expression. Approximately 23% of patients with nested LCR22C-D deletions have CTDs, and inactivation of Crkl in mice causes CTDs, thus implicating this gene as a modifier. Rs178252 and rs6004160 are expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) of CRKL. Furthermore, set-based tests identified an enhancer that is predicted to target CRKL and is significantly associated with CTD risk (GH22J020946, sequence kernal association test (SKAT) p = 7.21 × 10-5) in the 22q11.2DS cohort. These findings suggest that variance in CTD penetrance in the 22q11.2DS population can be explained in part by variants affecting CRKL expression.

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(22): 3724-3733, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884517

RESUMO

The majority (99%) of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have a deletion that is caused by non-allelic homologous recombination between two of four low copy repeat clusters on chromosome 22q11.2 (LCR22s). However, in a small subset of patients, atypical deletions are observed with at least one deletion breakpoint within unique sequence between the LCR22s. The position of the chromosome breakpoints and the mechanisms driving those atypical deletions remain poorly studied. Our large-scale, whole genome sequencing study of >1500 subjects with 22q11.2DS identified six unrelated individuals with atypical deletions of different types. Using a combination of whole genome sequencing data and fiber-fluorescence in situ hybridization, we mapped the rearranged alleles in these subjects. In four of them, the distal breakpoints mapped within one of the LCR22s and we found that the deletions likely occurred by replication-based mechanisms. Interestingly, in two of them, an inversion probably preceded inter-chromosomal 'allelic' homologous recombination between differently oriented LCR22-D alleles. Inversion associated allelic homologous recombination (AHR) may well be a common mechanism driving (atypical) deletions on 22q11.2.

5.
NPJ Genom Med ; 4: 26, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602316

RESUMO

Copy number variations (CNVs) are implicated across many neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and contribute to their shared genetic etiology. Multiple studies have attempted to identify shared etiology among NDDs, but this is the first genome-wide CNV analysis across autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia (SCZ), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) at once. Using microarray (Affymetrix CytoScan HD), we genotyped 2,691 subjects diagnosed with an NDD (204 SCZ, 1,838 ASD, 427 ADHD and 222 OCD) and 1,769 family members, mainly parents. We identified rare CNVs, defined as those found in <0.1% of 10,851 population control samples. We found clinically relevant CNVs (broadly defined) in 284 (10.5%) of total subjects, including 22 (10.8%) among subjects with SCZ, 209 (11.4%) with ASD, 40 (9.4%) with ADHD, and 13 (5.6%) with OCD. Among all NDD subjects, we identified 17 (0.63%) with aneuploidies and 115 (4.3%) with known genomic disorder variants. We searched further for genes impacted by different CNVs in multiple disorders. Examples of NDD-associated genes linked across more than one disorder (listed in order of occurrence frequency) are NRXN1, SEH1L, LDLRAD4, GNAL, GNG13, MKRN1, DCTN2, KNDC1, PCMTD2, KIF5A, SYNM, and long non-coding RNAs: AK127244 and PTCHD1-AS. We demonstrated that CNVs impacting the same genes could potentially contribute to the etiology of multiple NDDs. The CNVs identified will serve as a useful resource for both research and diagnostic laboratories for prioritization of variants.

6.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 6(11): 951-960, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395526

RESUMO

22q11.2 deletion syndrome is characterised by a well defined microdeletion that is associated with a high risk of neuropsychiatric disorders, including intellectual disability, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, anxiety disorders, seizures and epilepsy, and early-onset Parkinson's disease. Preclinical and clinical data reveal substantial variability of the neuropsychiatric phenotype despite the shared underlying deletion in this genetic model. Factors that might explain this variability include genetic background effects, additional rare pathogenic variants, and potential regulatory functions of some genes in the 22q11.2 deletion region. These factors might also be relevant to the pathophysiology of these neuropsychiatric disorders in the general population. We review studies that might provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the expression of neuropsychiatric disorders in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and potential implications for these common disorders in the general (non-deleted) population. The recurrent hemizygous 22q11.2 deletion, associated with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, has attracted attention as a genetic model for common neuropsychiatric disorders because of its association with substantially increased risk of such disorders.1 Studying such a model has many advantages. First, 22q11.2 deletion has been genetically well characterised.2 Second, most genes present in the region typically deleted at the 22q11.2 locus are expressed in the brain.3-5 Third, genetic diagnosis might be made early in life, long before recognisable neuropsychiatric disorders have emerged. Thus, this genetic condition offers a unique opportunity for early intervention, and monitoring individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome throughout life could provide important information on factors contributing to disease risk and protection. Despite the commonly deleted region being shared by about 90% of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, neuropsychiatric outcomes are highly variable between individuals and across the lifespan. A clear link remains to be established between genotype and phenotype.3,5 In this Review, we summarise preclinical and clinical studies investigating biological mechanisms in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, with a focus on those that might provide insight into mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and in the general population.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Deleção 22q11/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Neurobiologia , Humanos
7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358905

RESUMO

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS)-a neurodevelopmental condition caused by a hemizygous deletion on chromosome 22-is associated with an elevated risk of psychosis and other developmental brain disorders. Prior single-site diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) studies have reported altered white matter (WM) microstructure in 22q11DS, but small samples and variable methods have led to contradictory results. Here we present the largest study ever conducted of dMRI-derived measures of WM microstructure in 22q11DS (334 22q11.2 deletion carriers and 260 healthy age- and sex-matched controls; age range 6-52 years). Using harmonization protocols developed by the ENIGMA-DTI working group, we identified widespread reductions in mean, axial and radial diffusivities in 22q11DS, most pronounced in regions with major cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic fibers: the corona radiata, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior thalamic radiations, and sagittal stratum (Cohen's d's ranging from -0.9 to -1.3). Only the posterior limb of the internal capsule (IC), comprised primarily of corticofugal fibers, showed higher axial diffusivity in 22q11DS. 22q11DS patients showed higher mean fractional anisotropy (FA) in callosal and projection fibers (IC and corona radiata) relative to controls, but lower FA than controls in regions with predominantly association fibers. Psychotic illness in 22q11DS was associated with more substantial diffusivity reductions in multiple regions. Overall, these findings indicate large effects of the 22q11.2 deletion on WM microstructure, especially in major cortico-cortical connections. Taken together with findings from animal models, this pattern of abnormalities may reflect disrupted neurogenesis of projection neurons in outer cortical layers.

8.
Med Hypotheses ; 127: 57-62, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088649

RESUMO

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), defined as a lateral deviation of the spine of at least ten degrees, is a classic enigma in orthopaedics and affects 1-4% of the general population. Despite (over) a century of intensive research, the etiology is still largely unknown. One of the major problems in all existing AIS research is the fact that most patients come to medical attention after onset of the curve. Therefore, it is impossible to know whether current investigated parameters are causative, or an effect of the scoliosis. Moreover, up until now there is no known animal model that captures the core features of AIS. In order to identify causal pathways leading to AIS we propose another approach, which has been of great value in other medical disciplines: To use a subset of the population, with a higher risk for a certain disease as a "model" for the general population. Such a "model" may allow the identification of causative mechanisms that might be applicable to the general population. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome and occurs in ∼1:3000-6000 children and 1:1000 pregnancies. Nearly half of the population of patients with 22q11.2DS develop a scoliosis that in most cases resembles AIS as far as age at onset and curve pattern. We postulate that within 22q11.2DS certain causal pathways leading to scoliosis can be identified and that these are applicable to the general population.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Deleção 22q11/genética , Escoliose/genética , Síndrome da Deleção 22q11/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Deleção 22q11/fisiopatologia , Idade de Início , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Pelve/fisiologia , Rotação , Escoliose/diagnóstico , Escoliose/fisiopatologia , Coluna Vertebral , Estresse Mecânico
9.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 106: 85-94, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic disorder associated with neurodevelopmental, anxiety and mood disorders, as well as an increased risk for developing psychosis. Cortisol levels and stress reactivity reflect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity, and are believed to be altered in individuals that often experience daily-life stress, depression, and psychotic symptoms. However, it is unknown whether individuals with 22q11DS display an altered stress reactivity. METHODS: We included 27 adults with 22q11DS (mean age: 34.1 years, 67% female) and 24 age and sex-matched healthy controls (HC; mean age: 39.9 years, 71% female) into an experience sampling study. Throughout 6 consecutive days, we measured participants' subjective stress related to current activity and at the same time collected salivary cortisol samples. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze cortisol reactivity to activity-related stress. RESULTS: Diurnal cortisol levels were significantly lower in the 22q11DS group compared to HCs (B=-1.03, p < 0.001). 22q11DS adults displayed significantly attenuated cortisol reactivity to activity-related stress compared to HCs (B = -0.04, p = 0.026). Post-hoc exploratory analysis revealed that these results were independent from 22q11DS psychiatric diagnosis or medication use. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that adults with 22q11DS have lower cortisol levels and attenuated cortisol response to daily stress, possibly resulting from an increased sensitization of the HPA-axis. This suggests that alterations in HPA-axis functioning, previously reported in several psychiatric disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychotic disorder, and mood disorder, also appear to be present in adults with 22q11DS.

10.
J Neurodev Disord ; 11(1): 3, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultra-rare genetic variants, including non-recurrent copy number variations (CNVs) affecting important dosage-sensitive genes, are important contributors to the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Pairing family-based whole-genome sequencing (WGS) with detailed phenotype data can enable novel gene associations in NDDs. METHODS: We performed WGS of six members from a three-generation family, where three individuals each had a spectrum of features suggestive of a NDD. CNVs and sequence-level variants were identified and further investigated in disease and control databases. RESULTS: We identified a novel 252-kb deletion at 15q21 that overlaps the synaptic gene DMXL2 and the gene GLDN. The microdeletion segregated in NDD-affected individuals. Additional rare inherited and de novo sequence-level variants were found that may also be involved, including a missense change in GRIK5. Multiple CNVs and loss-of-function sequence variants affecting DMXL2 were discovered in additional unrelated individuals with a range of NDDs. CONCLUSIONS: Disruption of DMXL2 may predispose to NDDs including autism spectrum disorder. The robust interpretation of private variants requires a multifaceted approach that incorporates multigenerational pedigrees and genome-wide and population-scale data.

11.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-7, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), one of the most common recurrent copy number variant disorders, is associated with dopaminergic abnormalities and increased risk for psychotic disorders.AimsGiven the elevated prevalence of substance use and dopaminergic abnormalities in non-deleted patients with psychosis, we investigated the prevalence of substance use in 22q11DS, compared with that in non-deleted patients with psychosis and matched healthy controls. METHOD: This cross-sectional study involved 434 patients with 22q11DS, 265 non-deleted patients with psychosis and 134 healthy controls. Psychiatric diagnosis, full-scale IQ and COMT Val158Met genotype were determined in the 22q11DS group. Substance use data were collected according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. RESULTS: The prevalence of total substance use (36.9%) and substance use disorders (1.2%), and weekly amounts of alcohol and nicotine use, in patients with 22q11DS was significantly lower than in non-deleted patients with psychosis or controls. Compared with patients with 22q11DS, healthy controls were 20 times more likely to use substances in general (P < 0.001); results were also significant for alcohol and nicotine use separately. Within the 22q11DS group, there was no relationship between the prevalence of substance use and psychosis or COMT genotype. Male patients with 22q11DS were more likely to use substances than female patients with 22q11DS. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that patients with 22q11DS are at decreased risk for substance use and substance use disorders despite the increased risk of psychotic disorders. Further research into neurobiological and environmental factors involved in substance use in 22q11DS is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved.Declaration of interestNone.

12.
Schizophr Res ; 204: 320-325, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093352

RESUMO

Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) are at substantially heightened risk for psychosis. Thus, prevention and early intervention strategies that target the antecedents of psychosis in this high-risk group are a clinical priority. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children with 22q11.2DS, particularly the inattentive subtype. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that ADHD inattention symptoms predict later psychotic symptoms and/or psychotic disorder in those with 22q11.2DS. 250 children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS without psychotic symptoms at baseline took part in a longitudinal study. Assessments were performed using well-validated structured diagnostic instruments at two time points (T1 (mean age = 11.2, SD = 3.1) and T2 (mean age = 14.3, SD = 3.6)). Inattention symptoms at T1 were associated with development of psychotic symptoms at T2 (OR:1.2, p = 0.01) but weak associations were found with development of psychotic disorder (OR:1.2, p = 0.15). ADHD diagnosis at T1 was strongly associated with development of psychotic symptoms at T2 (OR:4.5, p < 0.001) and psychotic disorder (OR:5.9, p = 0.02). Our findings that inattention symptoms and the diagnosis of ADHD are associated with subsequent psychotic outcomes in 22q11.2DS have important clinical implications. Future studies examining the effects of stimulant and other ADHD treatments on individuals with 22q11.2DS are warranted.

13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 24(5): 757-771, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29302076

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is highly heritable, yet its underlying pathophysiology remains largely unknown. Among the most well-replicated findings in neurobiological studies of schizophrenia are deficits in myelination and white matter integrity; however, direct etiological genetic and cellular evidence has thus far been lacking. Here, we implement a family-based approach for genetic discovery in schizophrenia combined with functional analysis using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We observed familial segregation of two rare missense mutations in Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) (c.391G > A [p.A131T], MAF 7.79 × 10-5 and c.2702T > G [p.V901G], MAF 2.51 × 10-3). The CSPG4A131T mutation was absent from the Swedish Schizophrenia Exome Sequencing Study (2536 cases, 2543 controls), while the CSPG4V901G mutation was nominally enriched in cases (11 cases vs. 3 controls, P = 0.026, OR 3.77, 95% CI 1.05-13.52). CSPG4/NG2 is a hallmark protein of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). iPSC-derived OPCs from CSPG4A131T mutation carriers exhibited abnormal post-translational processing (P = 0.029), subcellular localization of mutant NG2 (P = 0.007), as well as aberrant cellular morphology (P = 3.0 × 10-8), viability (P = 8.9 × 10-7), and myelination potential (P = 0.038). Moreover, transfection of healthy non-carrier sibling OPCs confirmed a pathogenic effect on cell survival of both the CSPG4A131T (P = 0.006) and CSPG4V901G (P = 3.4 × 10-4) mutations. Finally, in vivo diffusion tensor imaging of CSPG4A131T mutation carriers demonstrated a reduction of brain white matter integrity compared to unaffected sibling and matched general population controls (P = 2.2 × 10-5). Together, our findings provide a convergence of genetic and functional evidence to implicate OPC dysfunction as a candidate pathophysiological mechanism of familial schizophrenia.

14.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 97: 10-33, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244163

RESUMO

The human social brain is complex. Current knowledge fails to define the neurobiological processes underlying social behaviour involving the (patho-) physiological mechanisms that link system-level phenomena to the multiple hierarchies of brain function. Unfortunately, such a high complexity may also be associated with a high susceptibility to several pathogenic interventions. Consistently, social deficits sometimes represent the first signs of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia (SCZ), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) which leads to a progressive social dysfunction. In the present review we summarize present knowledge linking neurobiological substrates sustaining social functioning, social dysfunction and social withdrawal in major psychiatric disorders. Interestingly, AD, SCZ, and MDD affect the social brain in similar ways. Thus, social dysfunction and its most evident clinical expression (i.e., social withdrawal) may represent an innovative transdiagnostic domain, with the potential of being an independent entity in terms of biological roots, with the perspective of targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Isolamento Social , Percepção Social , Afeto , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Teoria da Mente
15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2172-2181, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289625

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is caused by non-allelic homologous recombination events during meiosis between low copy repeats (LCR22) termed A, B, C, and D. Most patients have a typical LCR22A-D (AD) deletion of 3 million base pairs (Mb). In this report, we evaluated IQ scores in 1,478 subjects with 22q11.2DS. The mean of full scale IQ, verbal IQ, and performance IQ scores in our cohort were 72.41 (standard deviation-SD of 13.72), 75.91(SD of 14.46), and 73.01(SD of 13.71), respectively. To investigate whether IQ scores are associated with deletion size, we examined individuals with the 3 Mb, AD (n = 1,353) and nested 1.5 Mb, AB (n = 74) deletions, since they comprised the largest subgroups. We found that full scale IQ was decreased by 6.25 points (p = .002), verbal IQ was decreased by 8.17 points (p = .0002) and performance IQ was decreased by 4.03 points (p = .028) in subjects with the AD versus AB deletion. Thus, individuals with the smaller, 1.5 Mb AB deletion have modestly higher IQ scores than those with the larger, 3 Mb AD deletion. Overall, the deletion of genes in the AB region largely explains the observed low IQ in the 22q11.2DS population. However, our results also indicate that haploinsufficiency of genes in the LCR22B-D region (BD) exert an additional negative impact on IQ. Furthermore, we did not find evidence of a confounding effect of severe congenital heart disease on IQ scores in our cohort.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22 , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2182-2191, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194907

RESUMO

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of current insights into the neurodevelopmental and psychiatric manifestations of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) in children and adolescents. The pediatric neuropsychiatric expression of 22q11DS is characterized by high variability, both interindividual and intraindividual (different expressions over the lifespan). Besides varying levels of intellectual disability, the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit disorders, anxiety disorders, and psychotic disorders in young individuals with 22q11DS is significantly higher than in the general population, or in individuals with idiopathic intellectual disability. Possible explanations for this observed phenotypic variability will be discussed, including genetic pleiotropy, gene-environment interactions, the age-dependency of phenotypes, but also the impact of assessment and ascertainment bias as well as the limitations of our current diagnostic classification system. The implications inferred by these observations aforementioned bear direct relevance to both scientists and clinicians. Observations regarding the neuropsychiatric manifestations in individuals with 22q11DS exemplify the need for a dimensional approach to neuropsychiatric assessment, in addition to our current categorical diagnostic classification system. The potential usefulness of 22q11DS as a genetic model to study the early phases of schizophrenia as well as the phenomenon of neuropsychiatric pleiotropy observed in many CNV's will be delineated. From a clinical perspective, the importance of regular neuropsychiatric evaluations with attention to symptoms not always captured in diagnostic categories and of maintaining equilibrium between individual difficulties and competencies and environmental demands will be discussed.


Assuntos
Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Criança , Cognição , Síndrome de DiGeorge/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
17.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895892

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion (22q11DS) is a common chromosomal microdeletion and a potent risk factor for psychotic illness. Prior studies reported widespread cortical changes in 22q11DS, but were generally underpowered to characterize neuroanatomic abnormalities associated with psychosis in 22q11DS, and/or neuroanatomic effects of variability in deletion size. To address these issues, we developed the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis) 22q11.2 Working Group, representing the largest analysis of brain structural alterations in 22q11DS to date. The imaging data were collected from 10 centers worldwide, including 474 subjects with 22q11DS (age = 18.2 ± 8.6; 46.9% female) and 315 typically developing, matched controls (age = 18.0 ± 9.2; 45.9% female). Compared to controls, 22q11DS individuals showed thicker cortical gray matter overall (left/right hemispheres: Cohen's d = 0.61/0.65), but focal thickness reduction in temporal and cingulate cortex. Cortical surface area (SA), however, showed pervasive reductions in 22q11DS (left/right hemispheres: d = -1.01/-1.02). 22q11DS cases vs. controls were classified with 93.8% accuracy based on these neuroanatomic patterns. Comparison of 22q11DS-psychosis to idiopathic schizophrenia (ENIGMA-Schizophrenia Working Group) revealed significant convergence of affected brain regions, particularly in fronto-temporal cortex. Finally, cortical SA was significantly greater in 22q11DS cases with smaller 1.5 Mb deletions, relative to those with typical 3 Mb deletions. We found a robust neuroanatomic signature of 22q11DS, and the first evidence that deletion size impacts brain structure. Psychotic illness in this highly penetrant deletion was associated with similar neuroanatomic abnormalities to idiopathic schizophrenia. These consistent cross-site findings highlight the homogeneity of this single genetic etiology, and support the suitability of 22q11DS as a biological model of schizophrenia.

18.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 5(7): 591-604, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29773478

RESUMO

Available treatment methods have shown little effect on the burden associated with mental health disorders. We review promising universal, selective, and indicated preventive mental health strategies that might reduce the incidence of mental health disorders, or shift expected trajectories to less debilitating outcomes. Some of these interventions also seem to be cost-effective. In the transition to mental illness, the cumulative lifetime effect of multiple small effect size risk factors progressively increases vulnerability to mental health disorders. This process might inform different levels and stages of tailored interventions to lessen risk, or increase protective factors and resilience, especially during sensitive developmental periods. Gaps between knowledge, policy, and practice need to be bridged. Future steps should emphasise mental health promotion, and improvement of early detection and interventions in clinical settings, schools, and the community, with essential support from society and policy makers.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Prevenção Primária/economia , Fatores de Risco
19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(15): 2755-2761, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767709

RESUMO

The co-occurrence of a copy number variant (CNV) and a functional variant on the other allele may be a relevant genetic mechanism in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that the cumulative burden of such double hits-in particular those composed of a deletion and a coding single-nucleotide variation (SNV)-is increased in patients with schizophrenia. We combined CNV data with coding variants data in 795 patients with schizophrenia and 474 controls. To limit false CNV-detection, only CNVs called by two algorithms were included. CNV-affected genes were subsequently examined for coding SNVs, which we termed "CNV-SNVs." Correcting for total queried sequence, we assessed the CNV-SNV-burden and the combined predicted deleterious effect. We estimated P-values by permutation of the phenotype. We detected 105 CNV-SNVs; 67 in duplicated and 38 in deleted genic sequence. Although the difference in CNV-SNVs rates was not significant, the combined deleteriousness inferred by CNV-SNVs in deleted sequence was almost 4-fold higher in cases compared with controls (nominal P = 0.009). This effect may be driven by a higher number of CNV-SNVs and/or by a higher degree of predicted deleteriousness of CNV-SNVs. No such effect was observed for duplications. We provide early evidence that deletions co-occurring with a functional variant may be relevant, albeit of modest impact, for the genetic etiology of schizophrenia. Large-scale consortium studies are required to validate our findings. Sequence-based analyses would provide the best resolution for detection of CNVs as well as coding variants genome-wide.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Mutação Puntual , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Deleção de Sequência
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2146-2159, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777584

RESUMO

Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are at elevated risk of developing treatable psychiatric and neurological disorders, including anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, seizures, and movement disorders, often beginning in adolescence or early to mid-adulthood. Here, we provide an overview of neuropsychiatric features associated with 22q11.2DS in adulthood. Results of a new case series of 13 individuals with 22q11.2DS and catatonic features together with 5 previously reported cases support a potential association of this serious psychomotor phenotype with the 22q11.2 deletion. As in the general population, catatonic features in 22q11.2DS occurred in individuals with schizophrenia, other psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric disorders, and neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease. We place the results in the context of an updated review of catatonia in other genetic conditions. The complex neuropsychiatric expression and risk profile of 22q11.2DS highlights the need to consider co-morbid factors and provide care tailored to the individual patient. The results reinforce the need for periodic monitoring for the emergence of psychiatric and neurological manifestations including catatonic features. Pending further research, enhanced recognition and informed anticipatory care promise to facilitate the early diagnosis that allows for timely implementation and optimization of effective treatments.


Assuntos
Catatonia/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Síndrome de DiGeorge/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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